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Phenochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting tumor, most of which grow at the adrenal gland. About 109p Of pheochromocytomas are detected at the extra-adrenal chromaffine tissues and are called paraganglioma. The main symptoms of pheochromacytoma include hypertension, headache, palpitation, and sweating. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation, and vomiting are found in 20∼40% of patients with pheochromocytoma, but these are usually overlooked because of the severe, prominant cardiovascular symptoms. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction without hypertension in pheochromocytoma is very rarely found. It is caused by the decreased motility of the intestine and the over-contraction of the intestinal sphincter, which are caused by the unbalanced activation of α-and β-adrenal receptors. It can be hypothesized that catecholamine receptors in the cardiovascular system are down-regulated or desensitized, but those in the intestine remain intact. We report herein a case of pheochromocytoma in which intestinal pseudo-obstruction was the main presenting clinical manifestation. Symptoms of intestinal pseudo-obstruction were completely relieved by administration of phenoxybenzamine, an α-receptor blocker, and excisional surgery.
In this study, two different types of complementary electrochromic devices using amorphous WO₃ films as a working electrode, V₂O_5 film and NiO film as counter electrodes respectively were investigated. For the devices using amorphous and crystalline V₂O_5 films of 100∼150nm thickness with ITO/WO₃/LiClO₄-PC/V₂O_5 /ITO structure, an optical modulation of 50∼60% were obtained at a potential range of 1 2V. It has been shown that transmittance and reflectance of light could be electrically controlled by low applied voltage. For the devices with ITO/WO₃/LiClO₄-PC/NiO/ITO structure in which NiO film was deposited by a RF reactive sputtering, the optical modulation in visible light region (λ=550nm) and in near infrared light region (λ.1=850nm) were 25% and 30%, respectively.
두부를 제조한 후 생산되는 부산물인 두부비지가 TMR용 원료로 이용 가능한지를 구명하고자 TMR내에 두부비지를 0, 5, 10, 20 및 100% 첨가한 후 저장방법 (개봉과 밀봉상태)과 저장기간 (0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15일)에 따른 물리적이거나 화학적인 변화를 조사하였으며, 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 개방상태로 저장한 경우, 두부비지 100%는 저장 1일째 발효가 시작되었고, 6일째는 완전액상으로 변하였고 부패되었으며, 다른 처리구는 저장 3일째 발효시작, 10일째 완전부패 및 덩어리가 형성되었다. 반면 밀봉시료의 경우는 모든 처리구에서 저장 10일째 약간 발효 냄새를 풍겼고, 15일째에는 두부비지 100%에서 변색이 조금 일어났을뿐 전체적으로 보아 시료의 상태가 양호하였다. 2. 개봉시료 경우는 전체적으로 저장 1일째 내부 온도가 가장 높았으며 (P<.01), 이후 감소하였다. 그러나 밀봉시료 경우에는 저장기간이 경과함에 따라 내부온도가 감소하였고, 처리간에 차이가 없었다. 3. 개봉시료의 경우는 대부분의 처리구에서 저장시간이 지남에 따라 불규칙하게 증가한 반면, 밀봉시료의 경우에는 매우 일정하게 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 4. 개봉시료의 경우 저장기간이 경과됨에 따라 암모니아 농도가 증가하였는데, 두부비지 100%, 20%, 10% 순으로 높았으며, 밀봉시료의 경우에도 저장기간의 경과에 따라 약간씩 증가하였으나 처리간에는 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 5. 개봉시료에서 영양소 함량이 저장기간이나 처리구에 따라 변화가 있었던 것으로 나타났으며 밀봉시료 경우에는 이러한 영양소 함량의 변화가 나타나지 않았다. This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of using bean curd dregs (BCD) as a total mixed ration (TMR) ingredient for ruminant animals, which is the by-product from bean curd manufacturing. Bean curd dregs were supplemented to TMR at the level of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 100%, and stored for 15 days in opened or closed condition. At 0, 1, 3, 6, 10 and 15 days after bean curd dregs supplementation, TMR were sampled for physical and chemical analysis. 1. In open condition, decomposition started at day 1, and complete liquidification was occured at day the group of 100% BCD. In other groups, decomposition began at day 3 and coagulation was formed at day 10. But in closed condition, slight decomposition started from day 10 in all groups, and decolorization appeared only in 100% BCD with no significant changes in other groups. 2. In open condition, TMR temperature was at plateau, and then decreased with day passed. But in closed condition, TMR temperature was consistently decreased with storage period passed, but there was no significant difference among treatment groups. 3. In open condition, pH value was irregularly increased in all groups. But in closed condition, pH was consistently decreased with storage period passed in all groups. 4. Ammonia concentration was dramatically increased in open condition, but elevated slightly in closed condition. 5. In all groups, nutrient contents of TMRs were changed in open condition, but not in closed condition.
The ordered phase was tried to disappear in 6.5% Si steel to reduce the power loss and enhance the economic interests. They were prepared by the conventional casting or spray forming method, and they were investigated using the transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The variation in the methods of preparing the specimen did not result in any difference in suppressing the ordered B2 phase in the Fe-Si binary system. It was almost impossible to suppress this ordered phase keeping the silicon level as high as 6.5% even after the heat treatment at 1000℃ for 24 hr or after hot rolling. It was necessary to change the silicon level and control the cooling rate to prevent the ordering reaction, especially, in cooling after heat treatments. The silicon level of 5.8% was obtained as a maximum desirable value.
Background: Topical inhaled steroids, budesonide (Bu) and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is now established in the management of chronic: asthma. These have high topical anti-inflammatory activity but low systemic activity. This study was performed to determine the effects of two inhaled corticosteroids, Bu and BDP, on the adrenocortical supression in thirty patients, eighteen chronic obstructive pumonary diseases and twelve bronchial asthma (aged 33-76 years). Methods: The adrenocortical function was assessed by measurement of plasma cortisol concentration at 8 o' clock in morning and free cortisol in 24-hour urine collection at interval, No steroid was taken during the pretreatment period of 10 days, thereafter each subject inhaled Bu or BDP aerosol, in daily doses of 800 or 1,600 micrograms for 12 days. The dose was delieved by metered dose inhaler (MDI) or diskhaler. No steroid was taken during the final 6 days of the study. Results: The plasma cortisol and 24-hour urinary free cortisol were decreased during the treatment period in patients inhaled Bu in daily doses of 800 and 1,600 micrograms. In contrast, plasma cortisol was decreased on the 12th day of treatment period in patients inhaled RDP, in daily doses of 800 micrograms (P less than 0.05). The plasma cortisol and 24-hour urinary free cortisol were decreased (P less than 0.05) on the 9 and 12 th day of treatment period in patients inhaled BDP in daily doses of 1,600 micrograms. Conclusion: These results suggested that suppression of the endogenous cortisol secretion occurs at inhaled budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate is less suppressed on the adrenocortical function than budesonide in dose dependent fashion during the early periods,
The purpose of this study is to analyze death injuries and operation troubles of urban transit. No difference was shown in death rates between Line 1 of Pusan urban transit and Line 5, 7, and 8 of Seoul metropolitan transit. And relief time by another train did not depend upon the number of crews. We concluded that thorough inspection and preventive maintenance of trains and facilities are necessary for safe and timely service of urban transit.
본 실험은 조사료의 종류 (볏짚, 알팔파 건초, 옥수수 사일리지)가 한국재래산양의 반추위내 발효성상 및 미생물 군집에 미치는 영향을 구명하기 위하여 반추위에 cannula가 장착된 3두의 재래산양을 이용하여, 3 × 3 latin square법으로 수행하였다. 사료는 체중의 1.8%, 수준으로 1일 2회로 나누어 급여하였고, 농후사료와 조사료는 30:70의 비율로 급여하였다. 본 연구에서 얻어진 실험결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. pH 변화는 옥수수 사일리지를 급여하고 4시간 경과 후에 측정한 위액의 pH가 가장 낮게 나타났으며, 볏짚과 알팔파 급여구에서의 pH는 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 2. 암모니아 농도는 알팔파 건초 급여구에서 사료급여 시간과 관계없이 고르게 높은 수치를 나타냈으며, 볏짚 급여구에서 가장 낮게 측정됐다. 3. 총 휘발성지방산의 농도는 알팔파 건초 급여구에서 가장 높은 수치를 나타내었고 볏짚 급여구에서 가장 낮은 수치를 나타내었다. Acetate/propionate의 비율은 옥수수 사일리지 급여구에서 변화가 가장 작았으며, 사료 급여 후 4시간대의 비율이 사료의 종류와 관계없이 가장 낮았다. 4. 섬유소 분해효소인 CMCase와 xylanase의 활력은 볏짚을 급여한 구에서 다소 높은 것으로 나타났다. 5. 총 박테리아의 숫자는 조사료의 종류와 급여시간에 관계없이 일정한 경향을 보였으나 옥수수 사일리지 급여 후 4시간대에 큰 증가를 보였다. 섬유소 분해 박테리아는 볏짚 급여구에서만 8시간 후까지 계속해서 증가하였다. 곰팡이의 경우 옥수수 사일리지를 급여한 구에서 그 수가 증가하였고, 프로토조아의 경우에는 알팔파 건초 급여구에서 가장 높은 수치를 나타내었다. 6. 반추위에 서식하는 박테리아는 조사료의 종류에 관계없이 Streptococcus bocvis가 우점하는 것으로 나타났고, 곰팡이는 Piromyces communis, Neocallimastix frontalis 및 Orpinomyces joyonii 등 3종이 분리되었으며, 조사료의 종류에 관계없이 Neocallimastix frontalis가 우점하는 것으로 나타났다. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forage sources(rice straw, alfalfa hay, and corn silage) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and the changes of microbial population in ruminants. Three ruminally cannulated Korean native goats which weighed 35㎏ in average were allocation 3 × 3 latin square design. Goats were fed the diet of 1.8% of body weight (as dry basis) and the ratio of forage to concentrate was 70 : 30. At 0, 4, and 8 hour time after feeding, rumen fluid was collected to estimate the fermentation products, microbial number and predominant microbes. Ruminal pH of goats fed corn silage was the lowest at 4 hour after feeding, but that was not affected by forage sources. Ammonia concentration was the highest in the group of goat fed alfalfa hay regardless of time after feeding and was the lowest in the group of goat fed rice straw. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was the highest in the goat fed alfalfa hay except at 0 hour time after feeding. And the ratio of acetate/propionate was the highest in the group of goat fed alfalfa hay before feeding, but the highest in the group of goat fed rice straw at 8 hour time after feeding. CMCase and xylanase activity was higher in the group of goat fed rice straw than other groups. While forage sources did not affect the total bacteria and fungi number, but cellulolytic bacteria number was increased continuously after 8 hour postfeeding. Total protozoa number was the highest in the group of goat fed alfalfa hay. Among bacteria isolated from the rumen fluid, Streptococcus bovis was the most dominant regardless of forage sources. Regardless of forage sources, Neocallimastix frontalis was the most dominant fungi in the rumen of goat.
본 시험은 반추위 발효성상과 methane 생성에 조농비율과 조사료원의 영향을 측정하기 위하여 발효조 실험과 호흡챔버 실험을 실시한 바 얻어진 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 실험 1, 즉 발효조 실험에서는 조사료원으로 볏짚 또는 건초를 사용하였고 조농비율을 1:3, 5:5와 3:7로 실시하였다. 반추위 pH와 총휘발성지방산 함량은 볏짚과 건초구 공히 농후사료의 비율이 증가할수록 낮게 나타났으며, acetic과 propionic acid의 비율인 A/P비는 볏짚구에서는 조사료의 양과 비례하여 증가하였으나 건초구에서는 조농비율에 따른 차이를 보이지 않았다. 한편, 반추위내 암모니아 농도는 볏짚구에서 농후사료의 양과 비례하여 증가하였으나(P<0.05), 건초구에서는 차이를 보이지 않았다. Methane 발생량은 볏짚구와 건초구 모두 농후사료의 양이 증가할수록 높게 나타났으며(P<0.05), 볏짚구에 비례하여 건초구에서 높게 나타났다(P<0.05). 2. 실험 2(호흡챔버실험)에서는 조사료원을 실험 1과 같이 볏짚과 건초를 사용하였으나 조농비율을 7:3과 3:7로 하여 실시하였다. 총 휘발성지방산 함량과 A/P비는 볏짚구와 건초구 모두 농후사료의 양이 증가할수록 높게 나타났다. Methane 발생량은 농후사료의 양과 비례하여 증가하였고(P<0.05), 조사료원에 따른 차이는 보이지 않았다. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of roughage to concentrate ratio and roughage source on ruminal characteristics and methane production. In experiment 1 (fermenter experiment), roughage sources used were rice straw and grass hay, and roughage to concentrate ratio were 7:3, 5:5 and 3:7. pH was declined (P<0.05) by increasing concentrates ratio regardless of roughage types. Increasing the percentage of concentrates tended to increase (P<0.1) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and this change was remarkble at 5 hr. or fermentation time, especially. But there were no difference between roughage types in total VFA. Acetic to propionic acid ratio (A/P) was decreased proportional to concentrates percentage in rice straw, but not in grass hay. Ammonia concentration tended to increase with concentrates ratio in rice straw increased, and to increase with hay percentage increased in grass hay treatment (P<0.05). Methane production was increased (P<0.05) with concentrates ratio increased in both roughage types and tended to be high in grass hay compared with rice straw at 5 and 7 hr. fermentation times. In experiment 2 (respiratory chamber experiment), roughage sources used were rice straw and grass hay, and roughage to concentrate ratio were 7:3 and 3:7. Increasing the percentage of concentrates resulted in higher total VFA yield regardless of roughage types. A/P ratio was decreased proportional to concentrates percentage in both roughage types. Methane production was increased (P<0.05) with concentrates ratio increased in both roughage types and tended to be high (P<0.1) in grass hay compared with rice straw at 5 and 7 hr fermentation time. Conclusively methane production was increased with a rise of concentrate percentage and tended to be higher (P<0.1) in grass hay than rice straw in both experiments.
Type-C retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type-l(HTLV-1), has been shown to be associated etiologically with adult T-cell leukemia, which is an endemic disease in southwestern parts of Japan. We examined the seroepidemiological characteristics of antibody to adult T-cell leukemia virus associated antigen (anti-ATLA-antibody) by the indirect immunofluorescent assay and ELISA from the healthy individuals and various diseased patients in the Republic of Korea, a country adjacent to Japan in which HTLV-1 is endemic. The results were as follows. 24 out of 9,603 individuals(0.25%) were seropiositive. The positve rate was 0.17% in males and 0.36% in females, the sex difference was female predominent relatively. HTLV-1 carriers were found 16 individuals in Seoul, 5 in Kyonggi area, 1 in Chungnam and Jonbuk, respectively, but found only 1 individual in Busan city and Jaejoo area close to southwestern parts of Japan. Positive rate to anti-ATLA-antibody seemed to be high in older age, especially at the 50s(0. 4Yo). In conclusion the prevalence rate of anti-ATLA- antibody seemed to be very low in the Republic of Korea adjacent to Japan in which HTLV-1 is endemic and no patient with adult T-cell leukemia has been found as yet. Also we noted that the Republic of Korea is not an endemic area to HTLV-1.