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조선후기 문중활동은 이른바 향촌사회사의 측면에서 위선활동의 일환으로 분석되고 있다. 이 글에서는 기존의 연구 성과를 바탕으로 일찍이 에릭홉스봄이 제기한 전통의 발견이라는 문제의식을 조선시대에 시범적으로 적용해 보고자 한다. 그는 정치적, 사회적 주도권(Hegemony)의 영향으로 인해 변화된 역사적 현상에 주목한 바 있다. 시범 분석을 위한 사례로 오천정씨문중의 시조 묘단 설치를 둘러싼 움직임을 추적했다. 정습명(鄭襲明)을 시조로 하는 오천정씨는 17세기에는 오천서원(烏川書院)을 중심으로 한 향사, 18세기에는 시조 묘단의 설치를 통해 가문의 전통을 확립했다. 전통의 발견은 성리학적 질서 확립과 연결된 정치적 영향의 결과로 ‘충(忠)'의 실제를 강조하거나 사회적으로 관향지(貫鄕地)를 영일(迎日)에서 ‘오천(烏川)'으로 제한하는 차별화를 통해 성취되었다. 오천정씨 가문이‘충'과‘오천'이라는 정치적이고 사회적인 전통을 발견할 수 있었던 것은 정습명에서 정몽주(鄭夢周)로 이어지는 가계의 연결성이 배경으로 작용했기 때문이었다. One of the research topics related to the local community movement during the late Choson period that can be further explored is the clans'activities in their respective country districts in Korea. These activities have been analysed as methods through which exercises were developed to alleviate the social hierarchy that had developed among the different clans. However, when it comes to hegemony and tradition, this research frame may also be applicable to Hobsbawm's structure. His key concepts related to tradition and invention cope with how to figure out hegemony and power relations and contain both political and social aspects. For this reason, the case of Korea has been examined to employ the invention of tradition in the case of the Ohchǒn-Jung clan . The founder of the Ohchǒn-Jung clan was Jung Seup-Myung (鄭襲明); his clan worked to carry out the clan's unique priority compared with that of the other Jung clans which were founded by others. They established the Ohchǒn Sǒwon (烏川書院) with the founder's spirit tablet and periodically held memorial services during the 17th century. Furthermore, they also built the founder's ancestral shrine, as the burial sight was not clearly identified. This event took place at the next centenary. The Ohchǒn-Jung clan invented their tradition with a heavy emphasis on loyalty; Ohchǒn (烏川) was the place of their origin. Loyalty was one of the core concepts of the neo-Confucianism that became the national institutional policy, and Ohchǒn was a social differentiation campaign that distinguished this clan from the other Jung clans. These traditional concepts are also associated with Jung Mong-Ju (鄭夢周), as he was regarded as the author of many of the tenets of neo-Confucianism; he was also the descendant of Jung Seup-Myung, who lived in Ohchǒn. In conclusion, the Ohchǒn-Jung clan invented their tradition and implemented their system of political and social hegemony as a reflection of these events and concepts.
This paper aims to compare and contrast the ideas of C.G. Jung, a Western psychologist with Dasuk Ryu Youngmo who known as the spiritual man of Korea. In contrast to Freud, who had neglected unconsciousness as a repository of sexual desires, Jung found unconsciousness as an important research area by discovering the creativity and possibility of unconsciousness. For this reason, Jung, unlike other psychologists, has not only been much easier to compare with people with religiosity, but also the contents that can be revealed through comparison can be much richer. Therefore, by comparing two thinkers in the East and the West, I would like to find common points of their ideas and to reveal their ideas more deeply. The composition of this paper is as follows. First, keeping in mind the common sense of unconsciousness and nothingness(無), I want to compare Jung "s unconsciousness with Dasuk"s nothingness(無) and void(虛空). They saw the unconsciousness and nothingness(無) as the basic foundation for forming human beings. Second, the questions about the center of nothingness(無) and unconsciousness, which can be seen as the innermost nucleus of human being as "Selbst" and "Ölna", respectively, were raised. Jung"s "Selbst" is the center of consciousness and unconsciousness, and Dasuk"s Ölna is an immanent self(selbst) given by God. Jung and Dasuk insisted that we should go back to these two centers of humanity. Third, we reviewed Jung and Dasuk"s Christology, paying attention to the fact that one of Jung"s prototypes was Christ. Their Christology has a lot in common in that it emphasizes the possibility of human beings distinct from orthodox Christianity. Finally, We compared ‘the individualization' and ‘the Bataltagi(바탈타기)' perceived by two people as the process of self–actualization. Given the life they have lived in, the two process are likely to be recognized as important goals for them. Through the comparative analysis of the above two people, I tried to show that the two people made their way towards their goal of self-life, and that they lived for the completion of their own life and tried to inform others about it.
This study has been carried out to investigate Pyu-Juk ( 肺積 ), Pyu-Ong ( 肺癰 ), Pyu-Ju ( 肺疽 ), Pyu-Am ( 肺癌 ) by referring to 56 literatures. The results were obtained as follows; 1. The treatllent-method of Pyu-Juk ( 肺積 ) are Ik Ki ( 益氣 ), SuI Yem Wha ( 洩陰火 ), So Juk ( 消積 ), Wha Juk ( 化積 ), Son Juk ( 損積 ), Ma Juk ( 摩積 ) Jo Chil Gi ( 調七氣 ), and herbs are Sik Bun Tang ( 息賁湯 ), Sik Bun Hwan ( 息賁丸 ), O Juk Hwan ( 五積丸 ), Ban ha Tang ( 半夏湯 ), Gil Gyung Tang ( 桔梗湯 ), Dae Chil Gi Tang ( 大七氣湯 ), Chil Gi Hwan ( 七氣湯 ) , Ga Gam Sik BlDl Hwan ( 加減息賁丸 ), Bil Rang San ( 檳郞散 ). 2. The treatment-method of Pyu-Ong ( 肺癰 ) Yang pyu ( 養肺 ), Yang Hyul ( 養血 ), Yang Gi ( 陽氣 ), Chung Geam Youn Pye ( 淸金潤肺 ), Hal Dam Bae Nong ( 豁痰排膿 ), Saeng Gi ( 生肌 ), herbs are Gil Gyung Tang ( 桔梗湯 ), Jung Ryuk Dae Jo Sa Pyu Tang ( ??大棗瀉肺湯 ), Chung Geom Wy Gyung Tang ( 千金 葦莖湯 ) Hwang Gi tang ( 黃嗜湯 ), Hyun Sam Chung Pyu Eum ( 玄蔘淸肺飮 ), Sip Mi Hwan ( 十味丸 ), Gil Gyung Baek San ( 桔梗白散 ), So Hong Eum ( 消膿飮 ), Sam Gi Bo Pyu Tang ( 蔘嗜補肺湯 ), sam Chul Gun Bi Tang ( 蔘朮健脾湯 ), Chung Pyu Gil Gyung Tang ( 淸肺桔梗湯 ), Yu Sung Hwan ( 如聖丸 ). 3. The treatment-method of Pyu-Ju ( 肺疽 ) are Be Bi ( 補脾 ), Bo Pyu ( 補肺 ), herbs are Hwang Gi Gum Jung Tang( 黃嗜補裨湯 ), lnSamBoPyuSan (人蔘補肺散) 4. The treatment-method of Pyu-Am ( 肺癌 ) are Bal Han ( 發汗 ), Chung Yul Hae Dok ( 淸熱解毒 ), Gang Hwa Do Dam ( 降火導痰 ), Hwa Rak Hwa a ( 和絡化瘀 ) Ik Pyu ( 益肺 ), Gun Bi ( 健脾 ), Ja Eum Yun Pyu ( 滋陰潤肺 ), Gi Hu Yang Bo ( 氣虛兩補 ), herbs are Gyul Yua Hae Dok Tang ( 莖熱解毒湯 ), Gang Hwa Jae ( 降火劑 ), Chil Yul Do Dam Tang ( 治熱導痰湯 ), Chong Ho Byul Gap Tang ( 靑蒿鱉甲湯 ), Ga gam Gil Gyung Tang ( 加減桔梗湯 ), Sang Mak San ( 生脈散), Yuk Mi Ji Hwang Tang ( 六味地黃湯 ), Baek Hap Go Geum Tang ( 百合固金湯 ), Dae Be Won Jun ( 大補元煎 ), Ga Mi Jae Che Bo Pyu Tang ( 加味載體補肺湯 ).
Jung,,Ji,Yun,Lee,,Chul,Won,Park,,Sang,Mi,Jegal,,Kyung,Hwan,Kim,,Jae,Kwang,Park,,Chung,A.,Cho,,Il,Je,Jung,,Dae,Hwa,An,,Won,G.,Ku,,Sae,Kwang,Zhao,,Rongjie,Kim,,Sang,Chan Hindawi 2017 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medic Vol.2017 No.-
<P>The<I> Buddleja officinalis </I>Maxim. flower is used in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine to treat inflammation, vascular diseases, headache, and stroke, as well as enhance liver function. This research investigated the effects of<I> B. officinalis</I> Maxim. flower extract (BFE) on hepatotoxicity. The cytoprotective effects and mechanism of BFE against severe mitochondrial dysfunction and H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production in hepatotoxicity induced by coadministration of arachidonic acid (AA) and iron were observed in the HepG2 cell line. In addition, we performed blood biochemical, histopathological, and histomorphometric analyses of mice with carbon tetrachloride- (CCl<SUB>4</SUB>-) induced acute liver damage. BFE inhibited the AA + iron-mediated hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells. Moreover, it inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> production, and glutathione depletion mediated by AA + iron in the same cells. Meanwhile, the cytoprotective effects of BFE against oxidative stress were associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In particular, based on the histopathological observations, BFE (30 and 100 mg/kg) showed clear hepatoprotective effects against CCl<SUB>4</SUB>-induced acute hepatic damage. Furthermore, it inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in hepatocytes. These results provide evidence that BFE has beneficial hepatoprotective effects against hepatic damage via the activation of AMPK pathway. Accordingly, BFE may have therapeutic potential for diverse liver disorders. </P>
Jung,,Lae-Young,Lee,,Sang-Rok,Jung,,Jin-Mu,Kim,,Yi-Shik,Lee,,Sun-Hwa,Rhee,,Kyoung-Suk,Chae,,Jei-Keon,Lee,,Dong-Hwan,Kim,,Dal-Sik,Kim,,Won-Ho,Ko,,Jae-Ki The Korean Society of Cardiology 2016 Korean Circulation Journal Vol.46 No.2
<P><B>Background and Objectives</B></P><P>Wall shear stress contributes to atherosclerosis progression and plaque rupture. There are limited studies for statin as a major contributing factor on whole blood viscosity (WBV) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study investigates the effect of statin on WBV in ACS patients.</P><P><B>Subjects and Methods</B></P><P>We prospectively enrolled 189 consecutive patients (mean age, 61.3±10.9 years; 132 males; ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, n=52; non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, n=84; unstable angina n=53). Patients were divided into two groups (group I: previous use of statins for at least 3 months, n=51; group II: statin-naïve patients, n=138). Blood viscosities at shear rates of 1 s-1 (diastolic blood viscosity; DBV) and 300 s-1 (systolic blood viscosity; SBV) were measured at baseline and one month after statin treatment. Rosuvastatin was administered to patients after enrollment (mean daily dose, 16.2±4.9 mg).</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>Baseline WBV was significantly higher in group II ([SBV: group I vs group II, 40.8±5.9 mP vs. 44.2±7.4 mP, p=0.003], [DBV: 262.2±67.8 mP vs. 296.9±76.0 mP, p=0.002]). WBV in group II was significantly lower one month after statin treatment ([SBV: 42.0±4.7 mP, p=0.012, DBV: 281.4±52.6 mP, p=0.044]). However, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not associated with WBV in both baseline (SBV: R<SUB>2</SUB>=0.074, p=0.326; DBV: R<SUB>2</SUB>=0.073, p=0.337) and after one month follow up (SBV: R<SUB>2</SUB>=0.104, p=0.265; DBV: R<SUB>2</SUB>=0.112, p=0.232).</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>Previous statin medication is an important determinant in lowering WBV in patients with ACS. However, one month of rosuvastatin decreased WBV in statin-naïve ACS patients.</P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>The aim of the study was to examine the clinical characteristics and prognosis according to severity of thrombocytopenia and response to treatment for thrombocytopenia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).</P><P>We retrospectively evaluated 230 SLE patients with thrombocytopenia, and reviewed their clinical data and laboratory findings. Thrombocytopenia was defined as platelet counts under 100,000/mm<SUP>3</SUP>, and patients were divided into 3 thrombocytopenia groups according to severity: mild (platelet counts >50,000/mm<SUP>3</SUP>), moderate (>20,000/mm<SUP>3</SUP>, ≤50,000/mm<SUP>3</SUP>), and severe (≤20,000/mm<SUP>3</SUP>). Clinical characteristics, treatments, and prognoses were compared among the groups. Furthermore, complete remission of thrombocytopenia was defined as platelet counts >100,000/mm<SUP>3</SUP> after treatment.</P><P>There was no significant difference in clinical or laboratory findings among the groups according to severity of thrombocytopenia. However, hemorrhagic complications were more frequent in severe thrombocytopenia (<I>P</I> < 0.001) and mortality was also higher (<I>P</I> = 0.001). Complete remission was achieved in 85.2% of patients. The clinical characteristics and modality of treatment did not differ between the patients with and without complete remission. Mortality in patients with complete remission (1.5%) was significantly lower than in those without complete remission (29.4%, <I>P</I> < 0.001). Survival was significantly higher in patients with complete remission from thrombocytopenia (odds ratio = 0.049, 95% confidence interval: 0.013–0.191, <I>P</I> < 0.001).</P><P>The severity of thrombocytopenia in SLE patients can be a useful independent prognostic factor to predict survival. Moreover, complete remission of thrombocytopenia after treatment is an important prognostic factor. The severity of thrombocytopenia and response to treatment should be closely monitored to predict prognosis in SLE patients.</P>
Thai /haj/ is a multi-function word that has diverse functions according to syntactic distribution. Accordingly, the usage of /haj/ is difficult for foreign learners to learn.When Thai /haj/ functions as double object verb or auxiliary verb, it corresponds to Korean ‘주다.' In this research, a comparative analysis was conducted on how Thai /haj/ corresponds to Korean ‘주다.' The results of the analysis are as follows. When Thai /haj/ functions as the double object verb, the order of the words appears as subject + double object verb + direct object + indirect object, and the preposition can come before the indirect object. When Korean ‘주다' is used as the double object verb, the order of the words appears as subject + indirect object + direct object + double object verb, and the inversion of sentence elements is relatively unrestricted. In the case of the Korean language, the case particle suitable to sentence elements should be used. When Thai /haj/ functions as the auxiliary verb, it appears in the position similar to that of some prepositions, so it sometimes is analyzed as the preposition, but this research examined the syntactic characteristics of /haj/ sentence structure and clarified that it functions as the auxiliary verb representing the meaning of benefit or service. Korean ‘주다' that corresponds to this has the formof being connected to themain verb by ‘아/어.' In the Thai language, the noun phrase that comes after /haj/ becomes the beneficiary, and in the Korean language, the direct object or the indirect object becomes the beneficiary. When the noun clause other than the noun phrase appears after the auxiliary verb /haj/ while having the sentence structure similar to Thai /haj/ auxiliary verb sentence structure, /haj/ functions as the conjunction leading the adverbial clause and it corresponds to Korean adverbial element ‘게.' Through this research, considerable similarities and differences in the sentence structure of Thai /haj/ andKorean ‘주다,' were able to be clarified. The results of this research are expected to be of considerable help to both Korean learners studying the Thai language and Thai learners studying the Korean language.
<P>A series of benzamide-containing stilbene derivatives was synthesized through the incorporation of short basic side-chains in the B-ring hydroxy position of resveratrol. Their antiplasmodial activity was evaluated <I>in vitro</I> against the chloroquine resistant <I>Plasmodium falciparum</I> D10 strain, showing IC<SUB>50</SUB> values between 1.5 and 80 <I>&mgr;</I><SMALL>M</SMALL>, while their cytotoxicity was assessed using an human myeloid leukemia (U-937) cell line. With a selectivity ratio of >51.02, the most selective of these derivatives, 29, also had the most lowest cytotoxic activity of the series.</P>
In the weak decay of a hypernucleus 5 He, the decay mode ∧p → nnπ+ is considered for the production of aπ+ through the reaction 5 He → 4H + n + πdecay interaction, we adopt the NNπ- and the NNππ-interactions, which are based on the chiral perturbation theory. The NNππ-interaction is found to contribute ~2.5 times more to the production rate than the Yukawa NNπ-interaction does. In the weak decay of a hypernucleus 5 He, the decay mode ∧p → nnπ+ is considered for the production of aπ+ through the reaction 5 He → 4H + n + πdecay interaction, we adopt the NNπ- and the NNππ-interactions, which are based on the chiral perturbation theory. The NNππ-interaction is found to contribute ~2.5 times more to the production rate than the Yukawa NNπ-interaction does.