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Afferent loop syndrome is an uncommon complication of a gastrectomy and Billroth Ⅱ reconstruction. It may cause symtoms at any time from the first postoperative day to many years after the gastrectomy. Afferent loop syndrome is characterized by abdominal pain, vomiting and elevation of serum amylase. Thus, it is difficult to differentiate afferent loop syndrome from other cause of acute pancreatitis. However, the history of gastrectomy can be an important clue for diagnosing afferent loop syndrome. We experienced one case of chronic afferent loop syndrome with acute pancreatitis. After appropriate management, the abdominal pain disappeared and serum amylase level decreased. We report this case with a review of relevant literatures.
Background and Objectives : The immunomodulatory drug thalidomide can inhibit angiogenesis and induce apoptosis in experimental models. It can also induce marked and durable response in newly diagnosed myeloma patients. Thalidomide has been used at doses ranging from 200 to 800 mg with significant toxicity. No data are available on the impact of low-dose thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone as initial therapy for myeloma patients. Design and Methods : To address this issue, newly diagnosed myeloma patients were treated with 50 mg/day thalidomide continuously and cyclophosphamide 150 mg/m², days 1-4 and dexamethasone 20 mg/m², days 1-5 and day 15-19, every month. Between October 2005 and October 2006, 14 patients (median age 54.5 years) were treated with low-dose thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. Results : After a minimum of two cycles of treatment, 5 patients (55.5%) showed a partial remission. After four cycles of treatment, 10 patients (83.3%) showed a partial remission (n=6) and complete remission (n=4). After a median follow-up of 15.4 months, 1 year overall survival rate was 82.0%. Thalidomide was well tolerated without serious toxic effects. Conclusions : The combination of low-dose thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone demonstrates favorable response rate and 1 year overall survival rate in newly diagnosed myeloma. Severe toxicities were not seen with this combination.
Objectives : This study was designed to find possible effect of pregnancy and parturition on spatial memory, especially in relation to levels of estrogen during the third trimester and postpartal period in rats. Methods : 25 female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into pregnant group (N= 14) and control group (N= 11). Changes in spatial memory during 6 weeks including third trimester and postpartal period were measured using Morris water maze. Time to reach the platform in the maze was indicator of spatial memory. Serum estrogen level was measured on 1 week before delivery, postpartal day 1, and day 14. Results : Both groups showed gradual improvement in performance by trial days and weeks, but no significant difference was found between the two groups. However in the third trimester, pregnant group showed a trend of less achievement on 3 days of learning than control group. Serum estrogen levels did not differ significantly between groups over the 6 weeks of period. However there was positive correlation between serum estrogen level on postpartum day 1 and time to reach platform on postpartum week 2, and negative correlation between estrogen level on postpartum day 14 and latency to the platform on postpartum week 5. Conclusion : These results imply that changes in the serum estrogen level may have dual effects on the spatial learning in peripartal period. It is suggested that decline in cognitive function might occur either by failure of rapid decrease of estrogen, immediately after parturition, or retarded restoration of estrogen in later postpartal period.
The problem of deteriorated highway concrete slab is very serious all over the world. Before making any decision on repair work, reliable non-destructive evaluation is necessary. One of the dependable methods is to evaluate the in-situ stiffness of the slab by means of obtaining the natural frequency. By comparing the in-situ stiffness with the one obtained at the design stage, the degree of damage can be estimated rather accurately. In this paper, the numerical modeling of vibration analysis to three span continuous reinforced concrete bridge with elastic intermediate support is presented.
AC PDP(plasma display panel)는 40인치 이상의 대화면 디스플레이 장치로서, AC PDP내 투명 유전층은 방전플라즈마중의 양이온 충격에 의해서 금속전극이 스파터되는 것을 보호하고, 유전층 표면에 벽전하를 형성하여 대화면 구동에 필요한 메모리기능을 부가하므로 방전 cell구조에서 필수적인 부분이다. 이러한 유전층은 우수한 절연내력을 가져야할 뿐 아니라 가시광을 투과시키기 위한 높은 투과율이 요구된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 여러 조건들 하에서 유전층의 절연내력과 투과율에 관하여 논하였다. 그 결과 15μm 두께를 가지고 570℃에서 소성을 행한 유전층의 경우 최소 29V/μm의 절연 내력을 가졌고, 80%정도의 투과율을 나타내었다. 그러므로 AC PDP에서 적정유전층의 두께는 최고인 가전압에 대해서 약 80V 정도의 마진을 가지는 15μm정도가 적당하다고 생각된다. AC PDP(plasma display panel) is large display panel over 40 inch. The transparent dielectric layers in AC PDP are essential to the discharge cell structure, because they protect metal electrodes from sputtering by positive ion bombarding in discharge plasma and form a sheath of wall charges which are essential to memory function necessary to drive large panel. This layer should have high dielectric strength, and also be transparent because visiable light must pass through this layer. Therefore in this paper, we discussed the dielectric strength and transmittance coefficient of the dielectric layer under various conditions. As a result, on the 15μm thickness, the minimum dielectric strength was 29V/μm and the transmittance coefficient was about 80% after 570℃ firing process. It is considered that the resonable dielectric thickness in AC PDP is 15μm because it has about 80V margin on the maximum applied voltage.
When reduced glutathione(GSH) was incubated at neutral pH and at 37°, its concentration decreased slowly with formation of oxidized glutathione(GSSG). Autooxidation of GSH was accelerated by Cu^(2+) and Hg^(2+), but not by other common mono-, di-, and tri-valent cations. Transthyretin was found to stimulate autooxidation of GSH in the presence or absence of Cu^(2+) and Hg^(2+). EDTA inhibited perfectly the autooxidation of GSH regardless of the presence of transthyretin. The stimulating activity of transthyretin was maximal at pH 7.0, declining progressively with increase or decrease of pH from 7.0. Sulfhydryl-blocking agents such as p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid and Nethylmaleimide markedly inhibited the stimulating activity of transthyretin. Transthyretin stimulated autooxidation of other sulfhydryl compounds such as clithiothreitol and cysteine. However, it did not show a significant effect on autooxidation of sulfhydryl group of egg albumin and eye lens proteins. And transthyretin did not cause any oxidative change to thyroxine(T₄), 3, 5, 3Ltri iodo thyronine(T₃) and 3, 3: 5~triiodothpnine(rT₃) bound to it in the presence of GSH and Cu^(2+). The above results suggest that transthyretin may play a role in regulation of oxidized status of sulfhydryl groups in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid
콘크리트는 본질적으로 인장강고와 휨강도가 약하며 취성적 성질을 나타내는 결점을 가지고 있으므로 이를 보강할 목적으로 콘크리트에 섬유를 혼입한 섬유보강 콘크리트가 크게 각광받고 있다. 특히 폴리프로필렌 섬유보강은 모르타르 및 콘크리트가 건조나 동해에 의해 수축될 때 구속에 의해 발생되는 인장응력 및 균열을 제어하고 인성의 증가와 충격, 마모, 피로에 대한 저항성, 내구성을 증대시키는 장점을 가지는 것으로 보고 되고 있다. 1축으로 구속된 건조수축의 구속으로 인한 조강형 콘크리트의 잔류응력을 선형모델을 이용하여 예측할 수 있었고 조강형 콘크리트에 섬유보강으로 인한 건조수축 제어효과는 일반큰코리트에 비해 효과가 매우 큰 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 폴리크로필렌 섬유의 혼입으로 인해 콘크리트의 균열제어가 가능하며, 균열 폭이 큰 균열보다는 많은 미세 균열을 유도하는 것을 알 수 있었다. 섬유보강 조강형 큰크리트의 동결융해저항특성은 거의 동해의 손상을 받지 않으며 좋은 내구성을 유지하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 불규칙하게 배향된 섬유가 공극수의 이동을 효과적으로 제어함으로써 메트릭스 내의 팽창압으로 인한 파괴를 최대한 줄였기 때문이라고 보여진다. 표면손상과 박리저항에 매우 우수하며 저항성을 증진시키는 효과가 뛰어남을 확인할 수 있었다. 따라서, 내구적 측면의 유지, 보수에 있어서도 섬유보강은 그 효과가 큰 것으로 나타났다. To improve the brittle nature of concrete, discrete fibers can be adapted in concrete. Since polypropylene fiber has many advantages in many points on its chemical stability and good durability, its usages have been increased gradually. It has been reported than polypropylene fibers can not only control restrained tensional stresses and cracks, but also increase toughness, resistance to impact, corrosion, fatigue, and durability. Although the polypropylene fiber reinforced concretes with ordinary cement have been studied so much, those with very early strength concretes have not studied at all. Therefore, it is necessary to initiate and conduct the researches for the polypropylene fiber reinforced very early strength concretes which has enough workability and durability. This study of polypropylene fiber reinforced very early strength concrete focused on the investigation each material's effect into strength development with analysis of restrained shrinkage properties with one-dimensional concrete members. The results showed that more optimized mixture combinations could be selected in very early strength concrete by incorporating polypropylene fibers, keeping in same strength levels at urgent repair works. The formation of needle-shape ettringite helps the early strength development, specially at flexural and this enables the repaired concrete structures or pavements to be opened to traffic after 3 hours of concrete placement. A residual stress of early strength concrete caused by one-dimensional restrained drying shrinkage was predicted from linear model. the control of shrinkage crack by fiber reinforcement at early strength concrete was better than that of ordinary portland cement concrete because of bridging effect of fiber at early age and resulting of more hair cracks rather than fewer wider cracks. As a results, this dissertation clearly validated the fiber reinforcement on the strength development and durability of polypropylene fiber reinforced very early strength concrete, and characteristic of restrained shrinkage. The proposed optimized concrete mixtures might be satisfactory applied at the repair works in fields, because of its durability and crack control capacity against freeze-thaw and contraction at early age, respectively.
1. 금호강물에 대한 상대독성과 수온, 전기전도도의 경우 달서천 내부, 금호강과 달서천의 합류점 하부, 합류점 상부 순으로 값의 크기를 보였고 pH의 경우 역순을 보이므로 달서천이 금호강과 달서천 합류점 하부에 영향을 주는 것으로 사료된다. 2. 금호강 하천수에 대한 Microtox 독성값과 온도, pH, 전기전도도의 상관성은 없었으므로 기존의 일반적인 몇 가지 수질 인자로는 독성변화 및 수준을 판단할 수 없다고 사료된다. 3. 36시간 연속 모니터링을 통해 짧은 시간에도 독성값이 달라지는 것으로 보아 수질의 독성 수준이나 오염 수준을 판단하기 위해서는 연속적인 독성 조사 및 분석이 필요하다고 사료된다. 4. 하천수에 대한 연속 모니터링만으로는 하천 생태 위해도를 평가하기는 어렵다. 따라서, 하천 퇴적물에 대한 특성을 병행하여 조사 분석하는 것이 유해화학물질에 의한 하천 오염을 평가하는 방법이 된다고 사료된다. The main point source of pollution of the Keumho river in Taegu, Korea, stems from waste from the areas of industrial complexes. Although it is widely accepted that pollutants in waste water negatively effects general water quality, it is difficult to evaluate the effluent effect because of varying conditions in ambient water and inconclusive knowledge of causative pollutants. To analyze the water in relation to the industrial effluent in the area, pH, temperature, conductivity, and Microtox toxicity of various river samples were measured. Water samples were collected every 2 hours for 36 hours from Keumho river and Dalseo stream. Data from continuous monitoring for 36 hours showed that effluent in Keumho river originated from Dalseo stream, which is near adjacent to industrial complexes. Change in toxicity and other factors tested during the 36 hours indicated that continuous monitoring was necessary for a satisfactory effluent toxicity test. Furthermore, in addition to water quality monitoring, it was concluded that sediment toxicity also needed to evaluate effluent effects.
This study was conducted by the purpose of exploring the factors affecting job satisfaction of who are increasing recently through examining the relationship between personality traits and job satisfaction of irregular female tele marketers. To pursue this goal, survey was conducted and the subjects were 425 tele marketers who are employed by l company in Korea. As a result of ANOVA analysis, Sociability of Inbound Group and Challenging of outbound Group showed significant diffterences. Also, ANOVA analysis according to their job performance revealed that High performance Group showed significant diffterences compared to Average or Low performance Group. Results by Structural Equation Analysis of personality trait and job satisfaction in entire group indicated that high Stability and Challenging were related to low job satisfaction while high prudence and Sociability were related to high job satisfaction, It is expected that this result will contribute to the systematic and effective human resources management of tele marketers afterwards such as selection, training, organization management. However, this study has its limits to single company case and thus it is necessary to expand the subjects of survey in the future study.