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2014년 이상의 편지가 발굴되었다는 소식이 여러 언론을 가득 메웠다. 이 보도 이후 그 편지는 이상의 편지로 자리매김하게 되었다. 그런데 이 편지는 2001년 이미 이현욱의 편지로 소개되었던 것이다. 동일한 편지가 먼저는 이현욱의 편지로, 나중에는 이상의 편지로 소개된 것이다. 육필 편지가 적힌 편지지는 1940년에 문을 연 ‘梧文出版社'의 원고지이다. 그리고 편지봉투에 1940년 12월 26일자 소인이 찍혀있다. 그러므로 1937년에 죽은 이상이 이 편지를 쓸 수는 없다. 그리고 서명, 필체 및 문체의 측면에서 이상과 거리가 있다. 하지만 그 편지는 이현욱이 최정희에게 보낸 또 다른 육필 편지와 서명, 필체 및 문체의 측면에서 같으며, 1940년 당시 발표된 이현욱의 「편지」, 「일기」, 「결별」등과 문체의 측면에서 차이가 없다. 또한 육필 편지의 내용은 이현욱의 당시 상황과 그대로 일치한다. 궁극적으로 이 육필 편지는 이현욱의 편지로 보는 것이 적절하다. 이 편지에서 이현욱은 최정희에 대한 애증관계를 가감 없이 표현하였으며, 자신의 글쓰기가 최정희의 권유로 시작되었다는 점, 그리고 최정희와 결별할 수밖에 없는 상황을 그대로 전해주고 있다. 이 편지는 이현욱, 곧 지하련 연구에 좋은 자료가 될 것이다. The news about discovering Lee Sang's letter filled many newspapers in 2014. After this report, the letter has been established as Lee Sang's letter. However, this letter has already been introduced as Lee Hyeon-uk's letter in 2001. The same letter has been first introduced as Lee Hyeon-uk's and later as Lee Sang's. The letter paper of handwritten manuscript is the manuscript paper of 'Oh-Mun Publisher' which opened in 1940. And It's envelope has a postmark dated December 26, 1940. Therefore, no longer can this letter be written by Lee Sang who died in 1937. And it is far from Lee Sang in terms of signatures, handwriting and style. However, this letter is the same as Lee Hyeon-uk's another letter to Choi Jeong-hee in terms of signature, handwriting and style. And it is the same style of Lee Hyeon-uk's works such as “Letter”, “Diary” and “Separation”. Also, the content of the letter is identical to Lee Hyeon-uk's situation. Ultimately, it is reasonable to see the letter as Lee Hyeon-uk's. In this letter, Lee Hyeon-uk expressed love and hate relationship with Choi Jeong-hee. This letter shows the fact that Lee Hyeon-uk began writing due to Choi Jeong-hee's recommendation and she has no choice but break up just like the novel “Separation”. This letter will be a good material to research Lee Hyeon-uk, that is to say Ji Ha-ryeon
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance direc-tion in hip joint stabilization exercise on change in lateral abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults. Twenty-six healthy adults were ran-domly allocated to either a hip stabilization exercise by hip straight re-sistance group (n=12) or a hip diagonal resistance group (n=14). The outcome measures included contraction thickness ratio in transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique, and TrA lat-eral slide were assessed during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver by b-mode ultrasound. The researcher measured the abdominal muscle thickness of each participant before the therapist began the interven-tion and at the moment intervention was applied. There was a signifi-cant difference in lateral abdominal muscle thickness between the straight resistance exercise of hip joint group and the diagonal resis-tance exercise of hip joint group. Significant differences were found between the two groups in the percentage of change of muscle thick-ness of the TrA (P=0.018) and in the thickness ratio of the TrA (P=0.018). Stability exercise accompanied by diagonal resistance on the hip joint that was applied in this study can induce automatic contraction of the IO and TrA, which provides stability to the lumbar spine.
Satellite orbits are usually estimated by employing a filter system model whose state variables are the position and the velocity defined on the earth-fixed inertial (ECI) rectangular coordinate system. However, this filter formulation causes estimation errors due to nonlinearity of the measurement if the two-line element (TLE) data in which satellite's information is provided by orbital parameters. In this paper, we propose a filtering method by adopting orbital parameters as state variables to use TLE data directly. Here, we introduce Kozai's equations of orbital motion including gravitation perturbation terms for the propagation model so that more precise orbit determination can be possible. The performance of the proposed filter is verified via numerical simulations.
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of respiratory muscle training posture on respiratory muscle activation in stroke patients and presented appropriate posture for the respiratory muscle training. Methods: Thirty-six stroke patients were assigned to either a neutral training posture (n = 13), habitual training posture (n = 12), or side bending training posture (n = 11) group. Respiratory muscle training was conducted using an inspiratory muscle trainer. Each group was asked to adopt either a neutral, habitual, or side-bending posture during respiratory muscle training, which was performed for 30 minutes per day, 10 sets, 3 times per week, for a total of 6 weeks. After each session, external intercostal muscles and sternocleidomastoid muscle activity were measured via surface electromyography. Results: The paretic or non-paretic side intercostal muscle differed significantly in the three groups, and the non-paretic side intercostal muscle was significantly decreased in the neutral training group. The non-paretic side sternocleidomastoid muscle differed significantly in the three groups, and the nonparetic side sternocleidomastoid muscle was significantly increased in the habitual training group. Conclusion: A neutral posture, where appropriate spine and trunk alignment is maintained, is a more effective posture for respiratory muscle training for improving respiratory function in stroke patients.
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Objectives: This study sought to evaluate trabecular changes in the mandible using fractal analysis and to explain the transient osteopenia related to rapid orthodontic tooth movement after orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs were taken of 26 patients who underwent bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. Radiographs taken before the surgery and 1 month after surgery were overlapped, and 40×40 pixel square regions of interest were selected near the mandibular canines and 1st molars. After the image processing procedure, the fractal dimension was calculated using the box-counting method. Results: Fractal dimension after orthognathic surgery decreased in a statistically significant manner (P<0.05). The change in fractal dimension on the canine side had greater statistical significance as compared to that seen on the 1st molar side. Conclusion: This study found that bone density decreases after orthognathic surgery due to transient osteopenia related to the regional acceleratory phenomenon. This result can provide a guide to evaluating orthodontic tooth movement after orthognathic surgery.
Apharyngostrigea ibis (Trematoda: Strigeidae) were obtained from the small intestine of two black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and three grey herons (Ardea cinerea jouyi) between July 2006 and September 2018 in Daejeon metropolitan city and Kangwon province, Republic of Korea. The body is covered with a relatively thick cuticle, devoid of spines, and bipartite. The body measures at 2.3-3.33 × 0.86-1.20 mm, and the fore-body is ventrally concave. The oral sucker leads into a short esophagus that is devoid of a muscular pharynx. The worm was studied with a scanning electron microscope for the first time resulting in the detection of a pair of lappets located at the bilateral portion of the oral sucker. This is the first record of A. ibis in the Republic of Korea.
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a clinical syndrome consists of the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and a status of hypercoagulability. Intravascular thrombosis can arise in vessels of any size in any organ. APS may be divided into several categories. Primary APS occurs in patients without clinical evidence of another disease, whereas secondary APS occurs in association with autoimmune disease, infection, cancer and the use of drugs or hemodialysis. A 52-year-old male was admitted due to pneumonia and multiple hepatosplenic abscesses. He had been treated with proper antibiotics, but he presented ascites and sudden variceal bleeding because of portal vein thrombosis. The bleeding was controlled by endoscopic variceal ligation. Acute portal vein thrombosis was successfully managed by low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and hepatosplenic abscesses were completely resolved by antibiotics. Most previous reports showed a high prevalence of arterial thrombosis, while portal vein thrombosis in APS has been less commonly reported and these cases were not combined infections, unlike the present case. Our case is unique because anaerobe induced intra-abdominal abscess complicated overt APS that IgG aPL was detected and sustained after treatment and produced portal vein thrombosis and complicated variceal bleeding and massive ascites. We report a case of secondary APS related with systemic bacterial infection that complicated gastric fundal variceal bleeding and ascites as a consequence of acute portal vein thrombosis.
Extraction conditions for extraction yield (Y1), total phenolic content (TPC, Y2), and inhibition rate in human gastric carcinoma cells (Y3) were optimized using response surface methodology for fermented Rhus verniciflua stokes (FRV). Optimal extraction conditions for effective use of FRV as a biofunctional material in food and pharmaceutical industries were investigated. Independent variables were extraction temperature (X1=25-105oC), extraction time (X2=4-20 h), and the solvent to solid ratio (X3=10-30 mL/g). A second order polynomial model satisfactorily fitted experimental data with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.9613, 0.9851, and 0.8038, respectively, for Y1, Y2, and Y3. Optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of 2.37%, a total phenol content (TPC) value of 113.75 mg of tannic acid equivalents (TAE)/g, and an inhibition rate of 72.61% were derived at X1=89.95oC, X2=9.25 h, and X3=25 mL/g.
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between prostate volume and lower urinary symptom (LUTS) in subjects undergoing health checkup and to know the usefulness of TRUS in health screening. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 883 men aged ≥20 years who underwent TRUS for health screening. All participants had filled in the international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and were tested for prostate-specific antigen; prostate volume, central gland volume, and transitional zone index were measured using TRUS. We analyzed the differences in the IPSS by prostate volume and differences in prostate volume by severity of LUTS and correlation between prostate volume and each component of IPSS. Results: There were differences in the total IPSS, storage score, and voiding score between the subjects with prostate volumes of ≥30 mL or not (p=0.027, p=0.037, and p=0.029, respectively). However, the differences were found only for urgency and weak stream. The volume of the severe symptom group was bigger than those of the mild and moderate symptom groups (p=0.002 and p=0.014). The correlation between prostate volume and IPSS was significant only for the between the central volume and nocturia (r=0.112, p<0.01). Conclusions: The relationship between prostate volume and urinary symptoms showed significant but low correlation and found only in some components. For the accurate diagnosis, it would be more useful to accompany various voiding-related surveys in addition to TRUS during health screening.