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The influence of room temperature flat rolling on microstructure, mechanical properties, and shape change in twinninginducedplasticity (TWIP) steel wire has been investigated to understand the deformation behaviors of flat rolled wire inTWIP steel and to apply TWIP steels to flat rolled wire products. Numerical simulation, hardness test, and EBSD techniqueswere used to analyze the distribution of strain, mechanical properties, and microstructure of flat rolled TWIP steel wire. Theshape of flat rolled TWIP steel wire was also evaluated and compared with plain carbon steels having low strain hardeningrate. A very different behavior of hardness, strain, twinning, and KAM value was observed with area of flat rolled wire dueto the different stress state and strain with area of wire. The center area had the maximum twin density, KAM value, effectivestrain, and hardness; whereas free surface area had the minimum values. The hardness inhomogeneity factor (HIF) along thehorizontal direction was much higher in comparison with that of the vertical direction. The maximum HIF value occurredat the specific reduction in height, i.e., 27%. This means HIF value gradually increased and then decreased with reduction inheight, which is inconsistent with the results of plain carbon steel and Cu wire. The lateral spread and width of contact areaof flat rolled TWIP steel wire were lower than those of plain carbon steels, indicating that material properties such as strainhardening exponent are crucial parameters that influence the shape of flat rolled wire products.
Sohn, Joong-Sun. 1999. The Development of the Passive and Impersonal in Romance Passive-to-Impersonal or Impersonal-to-Passive?. Linguistics 7-2, 303-314. The main purpose of this paper is to criticize the hypotheses that the so-called reflexive-impersonal has been developed via reanalysis of the reflexive- passive, and show that actually the reflexive-passive has developed later than the reflexive-impersonal. Apparently, the former is attested earlier that the latter in the literature. However, the apparent chronological precedence of the passive can be attributed to some linguists' definition of certain reflexive-marked clauses as passive, and to the fact that the impersonal requires more radical morphosyntactic changes than the passive, and thus a longer period of time. (Yeungnam University)
Sohn, Joong-Sun. 2000. Passivity and Impersonality of the Romance Reflexive clause. Linguistics 8-1, 333-352, Romance reflexive clauses with agentive verbs are examined for their passivity and impersonality. This is done in terms of ability to occur with agent-licensing expressions and the word order. Generally, Romance reflexive clauses with agentive verbs are considered impersonal. The subject-initial clause may render a passive reading to a certain extent. However, it is still best accepted with indefinite, i.e., impersonal, agent implied. The passivity test performed in this work is expected to shed light on the definition of the reflexive-passive/impersonal, and further, on the functional evolution of the Romance reflexive.
이 글은 한국에서 중국고대토지제도에 대해 연구한 성과를 리뷰한 것이다. 睡虎地秦墓竹簡이 출토하기 전에 국내에는 민성기와 김엽 두 교수의 연구가 주목된다. 수호지지간이 출토한 1975년 이래로 이성규와 최창대·윤재석이 土地授田制(國有制) 논쟁을 벌였다. 그 후 2001년 張家山漢墓竹簡의 석문이 출간되면서 박건주·임병덕·임중혁·김진우 등의 글이 발표되어 수전제의 유무, 매매와 상속 등에 관한 논쟁이 보다 본격화되었다. This article aims to review the research on ancient Chinese land systems, which was conducted in Korea. Before the excavation of the Shuihudiqinjian(睡虎地秦簡), the research of two domestic professors`(Min, seong-ki and Kim, yub) is noteworthy. Since the year of 1975 when the Shuihudiqinjian was excavated, there has been controversies among the writings of Lee-sungkyu, Choi-changdae, and Yoon-jaeseok. Thereafter, in 2001 when the Zhangjiashanhanjian(張家山漢簡) was published, the writings of the following scholars were presented: Park-keonjoo, Lim, beong-duk, Im, joong-hyuk, Kim, jin-woo, among others. They had discussions on the presence or absence of the state land system, land transaction, and its inheritance.
Background: Most febrile neutropenic patients are treated in an aggressive manner. However, identification of low-risk patients may enable clinicians to administer risk-based treatment. The object of this study is to certify the factors associated with increased risk at the time of visiting the emergency department. Methods: This is a retrospective study. We reviewed the medical records of 101 febrile neutropenic patients who had visited the emergency department of Seoul National University Hospital from January 1998 to August 1999. We assumed 22 risk prediction factors that could be assessed at admission to the emergency department and 5 factors that could be assessed during treatment course. To find independent risk-prediction factors, we analyzed these factors respectively by using multiple regression analysis. Results: Tachycardia(aOR=136.5), altered mentality(aOR=28.8), decreased renal function(aOR=20.1), and significant comorbidity(aOR=17,2) are the independent factors associated with higher mortality. Altered mentality(aOR=31.6) and decreased renal function(CCr < 75㎖/min, aOR=5.4) are those associated with a higher incidence of septic shock. Independent factors associated with persistent(more than 3 days) fever are the early(within 10 days) onset of fever after last chemotherapy(aOR=8.8) and the existence of new pulmonary infiltrates on a simple chest X-ray(aOR=4.3). Conclusion: The stability of vital signs, the change of mentality, the renal function, the existence of significant comorbidity, the existence of new pulmonary infiltrates, and the rate of neutropenia are clinically useful risk-prediction factors in febrile neutropenia at the time of visiting the emergency department.
The stress analysis concerned with axisymmetrically loaded axisymmetrical structures, such as pressure vessels, rockets, cooling towers, roof domes and storage tanks, has been researched with a lot of difficulties. The elements of revolution using the finite element method enable these problems to be analyzed with a high degree of confidence. This research focuses on the efficient conduct of the thin axisymmetric shells subject to axisymmetrical load which was idealized by a series of conical frustum-shaped elements that was suggested by Grafton and Strome and later extended by Percy. In this study, this research mentioned above is extended to the conical shell whose end is fixed to simplify the methodology of the analysis of any kinds of axisymmetrically loaded axisymmetrical shell structures. To demonstrate the validity and simplicity, the results of the proposed method were compared with the numerical solution SAP90 and got agreeable results.
This study investigates the effect of mixing method on the antiwashout underwater concrete containing Fly Ash. On the experimental condition, the unit weight of used materials was fixed and a new the mixing method different from the traditional method in its prolonged mixing time and the order of material inputs was used. In this experiment, the mixing time was prolonged to 10 minutes, and the order of material input was changed to make the admixture homogeneous. That method of mixing improved the fluidty, the unit weight and compressive strength of fresh concrete.
목 적 : 치과의사를 대상으로 누적외상성 장애의 증상유병률 및 양상을 조사하고 그 관련요인을 규명하여, 다양한 직종별 데이터 베이스 구축에 기초자료 제공 및 직종별 비교를 통한 누적왁상성 장애의 예방대책수립에 도움이 되고자 시행하였다.방 법 대구광역시에서 진료행위를 하고 있는 치과의사 512명을 대상으로 인구학적 요인과, 진료관련특성, 사회심리적요인, 자각증상에 대해 설문 조Al하였다. 사회심리적 특성으로는 직무요구도(5항목), 정신신체적 긴장도(5항목), 직무불만족도를 측정하였으며(Karasek, 1994), A형 행동양상도 함께 측정 하였다.자각증상에 대한 조사는 송동빈 등(1997)에 의해 개발된 자각증상 설문지를 이용하였으며 목, 어깨, 팔 및 팔꿈치, 손목, 손가락, 등에 통증이나 쑤심, 저림등의 불편한 증상과 관련된 변수들을 조사하였다.조사된 결과는 N10SH의 근골격계장애에 대한 감시를 위 한 기준을 적용하여 분석하였다.결 과 : N10SH 감시기준에 의한 누적외상성 장애 증상호소율이 63.3 %로 높게 나타났으며, 그 증상호소부위는 어깨, 목, 허리, 손과 손목, 무릎, 발과 발목의 순이였다. 진료위치는 9시에서 10시 방향에서의 접근이 가장 많았으며 이들 중 어깨 부위의 증상호소율이 가장 높았다.근무경력은 5년에서 10년 사이가 가장 많았으며 이들도 목과 어깨부위의 증상호소율이 가장 높았다.대상자들이 주로 보는 환자에 따른 증상 호소율은 치주치료를 주로 하는 경우 증상호소율이 가장 높았으며, 연령별로는 30~◎세에서 증상호소율이 70 %로가장 높았다. 성별로는 여성에서 증상호소율이 높았으며, 미흔인 대상자에서 증상호소율이 높게 나타났다. 일일 진료환자수에 따른 증상호소율은 21명 이상을 진료하게 되는 군에서 70 %로 가장 높았다.로지스틱 회귀분석을 한 결과 정신신체적긴장도와직무요구도가 높을수록 누적외상성 장애의 증상호소가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 A형 행동양상을 보일수록증상호소가 높았으며, 쳐근 3개월 동안에 진료위치를 변경한 경우도 증상호소가 높은 것으로 조사되었다.결 론 : 조사한 일반적, 직업적 특성, 진료판련특성 및 사회심리학적 특성을 독립변수로 하여 다변량로지스틱 회귀분석 결과 여성에서 누적 외상장애증상발현위험이 남성에 비해 높은 것으로 조사되었으며,정신신체적 긴장이 높을수록, A형 행동양상 일수록누적외상성 장애증상 발현위험이 높았다. 위의 결과로 볼 때 치과의사의 경우 숙련되고 섬세한 근골격계운동을 지속적으로 반복해야 한다는 특성파 불안정한자세를 장시간 취해야 한다는 작업적 특성으로 인한근골격계 장애의 발생은 물론이고 환자 만족도에도신경을 써야하는 등의 정신적 스트레스도 누적외상성장애를 일으킬 수 있는 위험요인이라 할 수 있겠다. Objective : To investigate the symptom prevalence and aspects of symptoms for cumulative trauma disorders in dentists and elucidate their associated factors. Methods : A questionnaire-based investigation on demographic factors, work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and symptoms of 512 dentists practicing in Daegu metropolitan city was conducted. Subsets of psychosocial characteristics, including job demand(5 items), psychosomatic strain(5 items), job insecurity, and type A behavior were also assessed. For the evaluation of symptoms early developed questionnaire by Song (1997) was used to investigate the parameters related to pains in the neck, shoulder, arm and elbow, wrist, finger, back or discomforts, such as pricking and numbing. Results : The symptom prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, calculated based on NIOSH criteria, was high at 63.3%; the most frequent site of complaint was the shoulder, followed by neck, back, hand and wrist, knee, foot and ankle. The most common approach position was direction of 9 to 10 o'clock. Most subjects had 5-10 years of work experience and those with such years of experience also complained most frequently of symptoms in the neck and shoulder areas. As to rate of symptom complaint according to the type of dental procedure, the highest rate was associated to periodontic treatment. According to age, those between the age of 30-40 had the highest symptom prevalence rate at 70 %. According to sex, women had the higher symptom prevalence rate. Unmarried subjects also had higher symptom prevalence rate. The results of logistic analysis showed that the higher the psychosomatic strain and job demand, the higher the symptom prevalence rate of cumulative trauma disorders. Moreover, the higher the score of type A behavior, the higher the symptom prevalence rate, and even those who changed the location of their practice for the last three months also showed high symptom prevalence rate. Conclusions : The results of multiple logistic regression analysis, which incorporated demographic, work-related and psychosocial characteristics as independent variables, showed that women were at a higher risk than men in developing cumulative trauma disorders; and that the higher the psychosomatic strain and more frequent type A behavior, the higher the risk of developing cumulative trauma disorders. The above results seem to suggest that not only continual, repeated fine and skillful musculoskeletal movements and lengthy hours in an uncomfortable position but also the psychological stress related to patient satisfaction, can lead to cumulative trauma disorders.
This study is from March 1st, of 1988 to September 31, 1988. The subjects of study consists of students in general who are in attendance at university and all samples are selected at random. The total number of subjects counts to 187(sports man : 56, College students : 131) and the researcher measures and analyses the subjects' physique, physical strength, the test of dominance eye, the functional tests of hand, foot, body and eye. The results as follows : 1. Physical growth and development Mean values of body height are 177.19±5.01㎝ for sports man and 173.3±0.46㎝ for college student and superior to standard value of Korean. Mean values of body weight are 69.6.±6.17㎏ for sports man and 66.1±1.68㎏ for college student, and the mean values of chest girth are 91.86±4.83㎝ and 94.1±1.53㎝. Mean values of sitting height are 93.0±4.28㎝ and 93.3±1.05㎝. 2. Physical fitness Mean values of grin strength are 41.6±4.3 for right side and 44.0±6.0 for left side in sports man and 44.2±1.4 for right and 46.3±1.7 for left in college student. Mean values of arm strength are 29.7±3.9 for right and 31.8±2.9 for left in sports man 25.±1.4 or right and 28.7±1.9 for left in college student. Mean values of leg strength are 38.4±5.8 for right and 43.8±6.1 for left in sports man and 43.5±1.8 for right and 44.2±1.1 for left in college student. 3. Functional rate of foot, trunk, eye and hand As considered according to its functions, the rates of right foot, left foot, both of feet in both of the sports man and college student, total rates are each of 83.3%, 16.7%, 2.4% for sports man and 53.7%, 39.0%, 2.6% for college student. The rates of right side, left side, both of sides in both of the sports man and college student, the total rates are each of 53.3%, 37.4%, 6.7% for sports man and 39.1%, 46.1%, 5.1% for college student. The rates of right eye, left eye, both of eyes in both of the sports man and college student, the total rates are each of 53.6%, 31.7%, 4.1% for sports man and 53.3%, 20.8%, 22.7% for college student. The rates of right hand, left hand, both of hands in both of the sports man and college student, the total rates are each of 67.5%, 21.8%, 5.2% for sports man and 84.5%, 10.4%, 2.2% for college student, respectively. 4. Tests of dominance eye As considered according to tests of dominance eye, the results of right eye, left eye in both sports man and college student, results are each of 62.5%, 37.5% for sports man and 70.2%, 29.8% for college students, 67.9%, 32.1% for the total of sports man and college student, respectively.