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송준길은 ‘존중화 양이적'(尊中華 攘夷狄)이라는 춘추사상을 바탕으로 조정에서 ‘존명배청'(尊明排淸)과 ‘복수설치'(復讐雪恥) 운동을 추진했다. 그러나 송준길이 조정에 나가 재임하는 기간 동안 조선은 국내적으로는 수년간 지속된 대기근과 국외적으로는 복명(復明) 세력 몰락과 청의 대약 진이라는 악조건 속에 처했다. 이에 현실적으로 송준길이 추진한 현실 정책은 ‘내수외양'(內修外攘)으로 요약된다. 송준길은 군사적 북벌 준비에 앞서 백성구제를 우선시 했다. 당시 수년간 계속되었던 대기근으로 인해 송준길은 ‘내치 근본', ‘안민 우선'을 기본 정책으로 삼아, 북벌을 위한 군사력 증강 보다는 국내의 민생 구제, 군심(君心) 수양 등에 치중하지 않을 수 없었다. 송준길의 ‘복수설치' 의리 실천은 ‘내수외양'에 입각하여, 시행 정책은 ‘양민(養民)을 먼저하고 치병(治兵)을 뒤로 한다'는 것이었다. 또한 내수 방침은 ‘양민'과 함께 ‘격군심'(格君心)이 핵심이었다. 송준길은 군주의 덕성 함양과 심성 수양이 곧 치국ㆍ평천하의 근본이라고 주장했다. 송준길은 안민(安民)이 우선이고 외양(外攘)은 그 다음 일이며, ‘내치(內治)는 외양(外攘)의 근본'이고, ‘치병(治兵)은 안민이 우선'이라고 했다. 또한 송준 길은 복명(復明) 세력이 몰락해가는 가운데에서도 남경에 잔존하고 있던 남명(南明) 정부에 사신을 파견하여 신하국으로서 충의를 다해야 한다고 건의하여, 춘추사상과 사업을 지속적으로 행하기 위해 외교 정책의 대의 명분을 바르게 해야 한다고 주장했다. Song Joon Kil(宋浚吉, 1606-1672) intended to establish the subjectivity of people as a "Great Justice". He declared that at that time "Great Justice" was meant to respect ‘Ming(明)`` and reject ‘Ching``(淸). He understood ‘Ching`` as a country which destroyed the human community and reasoned that if we put Ching``s uncivilized behavior out of our mind in favor of the pursuit of present existence and merits, a temporary peace may be got but eternal peace and stability would not be achieved. ‘Ming`` doesn``t refer only to the name of a country, but a country with the capacity to perform ‘humanity and justice`` with a human culture. On the other hand, he considered ‘Ching`` to signify the uncivilised country that destroyed or repressed the humanity and peaceful order of the world. He thought the international order can only be maintained under the organization respectful and protective of humanity. He believed a country should act to unify the whole world guaranteeing life and stability. He possessed this cultivated spirit which acted to protect the civilised world from the perils of an uncivilised world. But because of the great famine for a lot of years and the international state(Ming was regressing, and Ching was continuing to make rapid strides) was timely unsuitable to revenge and to wash the shame off. So Song propeled to stabilize the government and to strengthen the national ethics. Song focused on administering the domestic affairs. To him a high priority was a internal affairs, and a low priority was a external affairs[military aggression]. Song considered ‘providing for the welfare of the people'(安民) before ‘pushing ahead with military aggression'(外攘). And a high priority was ``restoring the people``(養民), a low priority was ‘the military affairs``(治兵). Song regarded ``domestic affairs``(內治) as a fundamental affairs. He putted ‘to nurse people'(養民) and ‘to straighten King``s mind'(格君心) first, than ``to buildup military``. His foreign policy was ``respecting Ming`` and ``rejecting Ching``. Song was bothered about defining Chosun dynasty´s moral obligations to the southern Ming government(1644~46) at Nanjing at that time.
김명식은 일제강점기 제주 최초의 언론인이었으며, 조선에 사회주의 이론을 대중적으로 소개한 중요한 초기 이론가 가운데 한명이었다. 그는 조직운동가와 사회비평가로서 당대를 떠들썩하게 만들었던 숱한 필화와 논전의 주인공이었다. 김명식은 1915-1918년 일본 도쿄 와세다대학 전문부 정치경제과에 다녔다. 유년 시절 제주에서 방성칠란과 이재수란을 경험한 김명식의 일본 유학은 일제 강점기 조선 사회의 사상적 흐름을 주도한 인사들과 교류하고, 조직활동에 발을 딛는 계기가 됐다. 일본 유학시기 추송 장덕준을 만난 것은 그의 인생에 커다란 영향을 끼쳤다. 장덕준을 통해 그는 일본에 있는 조선인 노동자들에 대한 현실을 자각했다. 그의 일본 유학 시절 조직활동은 주로 조선유학생학우회, 조선기독교청년회, 신아동맹당을 중심으로 이뤄졌다. 조선유학생학우회 간사부장과 회장을, 조선기독교청년회 간부를 맡아 활동하는가 하면 초기 사회주의 계열의 비밀결사인 신아동맹당에 참여해 자금모금 활동을 벌이는 등 활발한 활동을 벌였다. 『학지광』에 기고한 그의 글들은 그의 사회인식과 조선의 현실에 대한 분석을 토대로 쓰여졌다. 그는 유학생들에게 조선의 사회현실에 뛰어들어 그들과 같이 호흡할 것을 요구했다. 그는 과학만능주의, 법률만능주의, 황금만능주의의 ``3대 신사조``를 거론하며, 날카로운 비판을 가하고, 도덕의 향상과 경제의 진보를 촉구했다. 그의 유학생활의 사회인식과 활동은 『동아일보』를 비롯한 여러 언론매체를 통해 평생동안 활발한 문필활동을 벌이고, 조직활동을 하는 토대가 됐다. Kim Myeong-Sik was the first journalist of Jeju islanders during the Japanese colonial rule, and one of the important theorists to introduce the socialism theory to Joseon Society. As the organizer and social critics, he was on the main stage among the fierce and serious paper wars. He entered the department of Political and Economics, Waseda University in Tokyo, Japan in 1915. During his childhood, He had been experienced the Ban Seong Chil Uprising and Lee Jae Soo Uprising. His studying in Japan gave him opportunities to meet the Koreans who led the ideological stream in Joseon Society and to put into the organizational activities. His meeting with Chusong Jang Deok-Joon was greatly influenced to his life. He realized the reality of the Korean laborers who had worked in Japan by Jang Deok-Joon. By these social recognition and the analyses of Joseon society, his papers on Joseon Students Friendship Association`s organ, Hakjikwang, have still appropriate until now. He urged graduates in Japan to jump into the realities of Joseon society and have same paces to Koreans, and learn from them. He had already remarked three new thinking trends of the scientism, legalism and mammonism in the early 20th century. He bitterly criticized these trends and demanded the improvement of morality and economy. He also engaged in the organizational activities. He became the secretary general and the chair person of Joseon Students Friendship Association in Japan[Joseon Yoohaksaeng Hakoohwe], and official of Joseon Youth Christian Association[Joseon Gidok Cheongnyeonhwe]. He joined the New Asia Alliance Group[SinaDongmaengdang] which was a secret organization of early socialism and collected the funds. He also joined the East Asia Alliance Meeting[DongaDomaengHwe]. By the experience of his studying in Japan, he could actively able to write a lot of articles and papers in Dongailbo Newspaper and other journals and joined the organizational activities. This year is 120th anniversaries of his birth. It is regrettable that his collection of the papers is not published yet.
Carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) should be inspected in fabrication process in order to enhance quality by prevent defects such as delamination and void. Generally, ultrasonic technique is widely used to evaluate FRP. In conventional ultrasonic technique, transducer should be contacted on FRP. However, conventional contacting method could not be applied in fabrication process and novel non-contact evaluating technique was required. Technique using air-coupled transducer can make non-contacting ultrasonic technique available in evaluation of FRP. Therefore, in this study, generation technique of laser-based ultrasound using Nd:YAG pulse laser(532㎚, 32mJ) system and reception technique using air-coupled transducer are applied for the non-destructive and non-contact evaluation of delamination in CFRP. Wave propagating through artificial delamination region was received using pitch-catch arrangement. Signal characteristics due to defects were analyzed to find a factor for detecting defects. PZT sensor was used to get a trend of waveform and fundamental database. The high frequency component of 1.1 ㎒ of laser-generated guided wave received with piezoelectric sensor disappeared after propagating through delamination region. However, it could not be received this high frequency guided wave by using air-coupled transducer and linear slit array. In a frequency spectrum of laser-generated guided wave received by air-coulped transducer, the first peak of frequency spectrum under 100㎑ received in the defect region showed higher than in the sound region. The peak of frequency spectrum represented approvable parameter to detect delamination in CFRP. By using this feature, line scanning data was acquired in fully non-contacting pitch-catch method and was proved as useful technique for detecting delamination in CFRP.
The objective of this research is to develop non-contact and real time inspection technique based on laser generated ultrasound to evaluate delamination in CFRP composite fabricated from recently developed 3-dimensional fiber placement system. In this study, a hybrid laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic system is presented. Fiberized Nd:YAG pulse laser with line array slit is used to generate ultrasonic guided wave in unidirectional CFRP specimen with artificial delamination. In order to investigate the reception ability of ultrasonic guided wave propagated through the area of delamination air-coupled transducer is used as reception of guided wave. The characteristic of time domain waveform and frequency spectrum of guided wave received from air-coupled transducer based on non-contact scheme is discussed. By scanning over the surface beneath which a delamination lies, it is possible to achieve 2-dimensional image and measure the size of delamination.
Joon,Soo,Hahm,Joon,Yong,Park,Yun,Ju,Cho,Chang,Soo,Eun,Yong,Wook,Lee,Ho,Soon,Choi,Byoeng,Chul,Yoon,Min,Ho,Lee,Choon,Suhk,Kee,Kyung,Nam,Park,Heon,Kil,Lim,Sung,Joon,Kwon 대한내과학회 2000 The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine Vol.15 No.1
Objectives: Gastric resection may predispose gallstone formation. However, the mechanism has not been clearly understood. To evaluate the relationship between gastric resection and gallstone formation, we compared gallbladder(GB) motility in gastrectomized
The syntheses of novel heterocyclic base modified pyrimidine nucleosides are described. 5, 6-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-1-$(\beta$-D-ribofuranosyl)2(1H)-pyridinone 7 was synthesized by condensation of silylated 5, 6-dimethyl4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-2(1H)-pyridione 7 was synthesized by condensation of silylated 5, 6-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-2(1H)-pyridinone with $\beta$-D-ribofuranose-1-acetate-2, 3, 5-tribenzoate in dichloroethane in the presence of Lewis acid followed by debenzoylation. The 2, 2'-anhydro-5, 6-dimethyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-1-$\beta$-D-arabinofuranosyl-4-pyridinone 8 was obtained from the reaction of the free ribonucleoside 7 and diphenyl carbonate in DMF. None of these compounds showed any significant antiviral ad antitumor activities in vitro tests.
Strawberry, Fragaria ananassa Duchesne, is one of the important horticultural crops cultivated in greenhouses. Tetranychus urticae is one of major strawberry pests, and Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis have been used as biological control agents for control of T. urticae. The interactions between T. urticae and N. californicus and between T. urticae and P. persimilis were investigated to compare their control efficiency for T. urticae on a spatially-structured strawberry leaf disc area at different temperatures and on different treatments. The experimental arena was an array of leaf discs (3 cm diameter) placed upside down on a water-saturated cotton pad in an aluminum pan (17.4 x 21.5 cm). Twenty leaf discs (4 x 5) were placed adjacent each other for allowing dispersal of T. urticae and its predatory mites. The temperature conditions were 20, 25, and 30°C and there were six different treatments. The overall population densities of T. urticae were influenced by temperature (20, 25, and 30°C) in N. californicus treatment. In the same temperature condition, P.persimilis was more effective than N. californicus to control T. uritcae. Two predator systems were better than one predator systems to suppress the population density of T. urticae at 25°C. Some results of this study could be used to understand the spatial association of T. urticae and its predatory mites in greenhouse crops and fields.
The study was conducted to explore whether environmental differences, in this case the physical characteristics of abaxial leaf surfaces of strawberry cultivars ('Maehyang' and 'Sulhyang' cultivars), affect the functional response of adult female N. californicus preying on immature stages (egg, larva and nymph) of T. urticae. We also evaluated the functional response of N. californicus to eggs of T. urticae at different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35℃). We conducted a logistic regression of the proportion of prey consumed as a function of initial prey density to identify functional response types, and used nonlinear squares regression and the random predator equation to estimate attack rates and handling times. The functional response of adult female N. californicus to T. urticae was not influenced by non-glandular trichomes and epicuticular waxes on the abaxial leaf but was affected by temperature. Overall, the functional response of adult female N. californicus exhibited a type 2 functional response to T.urticae. The handling time of N. californicus was highest (1.9970) against T. urticae nymphs. The attack rate did not change much at 15-30℃, but the handling time decreased linearly with increasing temperature. At 35℃, the attack rate was highest (0.1876) and the handling time was lowest (0.9296). The results of this study may be used to evaluate the potential of N. californicus to suppress T. urticae and to estimate parameters for relevant prey-predator models.