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      • KCI등재

        돈암서원의 강학 활동

        김문준 ( Kim Moon Joon ) 한국철학사연구회 2018 한국 철학논집 Vol.0 No.58

        한국 서원의 교육 내용과 방식은 주자가 제시한 교육 내용 및 방식과 대부분 유사하지만, 학파에 따라 다소 다른 방식으로 운영되었다. 돈암서원의 초기 원장으로 재임한 이들은 모두 김장생의 문인이었던 김집·송준길·송시열 등이다. 돈암서원은 같은 노론계 서원이었던 화양서원·석실서원이 기호 지역의 중심 서원으로 성장하면서 서원의 위상과 강학 활동도 약화되었을 것이라고 추정된다. 돈암서원 설립 초기의 학규는 전하지 않는다. 돈암서원의 운영 방식은 돈암서원 운영 전반에 관하여 17세기 후반 원장으로 재임하던 송준길에게 문의한 윤증의 서신을 통해 짐작할 수 있다. 이 서신을 통해 볼 때, 돈암서원의 학규는 이이의 <은병정사학규>와 유사하였다고 추정된다. 18세기 이후 돈암서원의 역대 원장은 노론의 낙론계 학자들로서 권상하 계열보다 김창협 계열의 원장이 많았다. 돈암서원 원장은 화양서원, 석실서원의 원장이 겸임하거나 전후로 재임했을 가능성이 많다. 돈암서원에서 행한 강학 활동은 서원 설립 초기에는 김장생-송시열의 교학체계에 따라 소학→가례→심경→근사록 등 성리서를 우선하고 다음에 사서·오경을 가르쳤다. 점차 노론계 낙론 서원인 석실서원 출신의 학자들이 원장으로 부임하면서 소학→사서→오경을 먼저 가르치고 다음에 성리서를 가르치는 이이의 교학체계를 시행하였으리라 추정된다. 이러한 강학 순서는 김창협 계열의 학자들이 설립하고 운영했던 석실서원의 강학 내용과 순서이다. 돈암서원의 입학 자격은 신분은 중시하지 않았으며, 학문과 인품을 중시했다. 서원에서 과거 공부는 허용되지 않았다. 원생들은 서원에서 거재(居齋)하면서 강학에 참여하는 것이 원칙이었으나, 점차 서원의 재정이나 운영이 어려워지면서 자기 집에 거가(居家)하면서 삭망에 행하는 강회에 참여하는 형태로 변화되었다. The contents and method of education of all Korean scholars are similar to the contents and method of education provided by Zhu Xi(朱熹), but they operated in a somewhat different way according to schools. Those who served as the first directors of Donam Seowon were Kim Gip(金集, 1574~1656), Song Joon-gil(宋浚吉, 1606~1672) and Song Si-yeol(宋時烈, 1607~1689), who were the writers of Kim Jang-saeng(金長生, 1548∼1631). Donam Seowon is supposed to have weakened the status of scholarship and the activities of lectures as HwaYang Seowon and Seoksil Seowon, which principals were all the Noron(老論) scholars, grew to be the center of education institution of the Noron. Donam Seowon have not preserved the school regulations. But the way of operating system of Donam Seowon can be guessed through the letter of Song Joon-gil, who was the headmaster of the late 17th century on the whole operation of Donam Seowon. From this letter, it is assumed that the school of Donam Seowon is similar to the ‘Unbyoung-Jungsa regulations’ written by Lee Yi(李珥). The headmasters of Donam Seowon was the Noron scholars. And scholars of the Kim Chang-hyeop(金昌協, 1651~1708) school became headmasters more than the scholars of Kwon Sang-ha(權尙夏, 1641~1721) school. Headmasters of the Donam Seowon had served as the headmasters of HwaYang Seowon and Seoksil Seowon also. In the early days of the establishment of the Donam Seowon, the lecture activities conducted in Donam Seowon were preceded by the textbooks of Kim Jang-saeng/Song Si-yeol's teaching curriculum and neo-confucian books[i.e Sohak(小學)→Family Ritual(家禮)→Simkyong(心經)→Keunsarok(近思錄). It is assumed that the scholars of Seoksil Seowon, who was a Noron Nak-ron(洛論) scholars, gradually adopted Lee Yi's teaching curriculum[i.e, Sohak(小學)→Sasoe(四書)→Okyoung(五經)]. This lecture contents and procedure was contents and procedure of the Seoksil Seowon, established and operated by the scholars of the Kim Chang-hyeop school. Entrance qualification of Donam Seowon's did not place importance on the social status, but on scholarship and personality. The examination for a high-ranking government official was not allowed. Although the principle, students had to participate in the lecture and study(講學), they were living in Seowon, while the financial and operating of the Seowon became increasingly difficult, the students were changed to participate in the conference(講會) held twice a month while studying at their homes.

      • KCI등재

        Microstructure, Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Al–5 wt.%Mg Alloy Manufactured by Twin Roll Strip Casting

        Joon‑Young Heo,Min‑Seok Baek,Kwang‑Jun Euh,Kee‑Ahn Lee 대한금속·재료학회 2018 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.24 No.5

        This study investigated the microstructure, tensile and fatigue properties of Al–5 wt.%Mg alloy manufactured by twin rollstrip casting. Strips cast as a fabricated (F) specimen and a specimen heat treated (O) at 400 °C/5 h were produced andcompared. In the F specimen, microstructural observation discovered clustered precipitates in the center area, while in theO specimen precipitates were relatively more evenly distributed. Al, Al 6 (Mn, Fe), Mg 2 Al 3 and Mg 2 Si phases were observed. However, most of the Mg 2 Al 3 phase in the heat-treated O specimen was dissolved. A room temperature tensile test measuredyield strength of 177.7 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 286.1 MPa and elongation of 11.1% in the F specimen and167.7 MPa (YS), 301.5 MPa (UTS) and 24.6% (EL) in the O specimen. A high cycle fatigue test measured a fatigue limit of145 MPa in the F specimen and 165 MPa in the O specimen, and the O specimen achieved greater fatigue properties in allfatigue stress conditions. The tensile and fatigue fracture surfaces of the above-mentioned specimens were observed, and thisstudy attempted to investigate the tensile and fatigue deformation behavior of strip cast Al–5 wt.%Mg based on the fi ndings.

      • Brain, Language and Consciousness : Coming of Hieroglyphic age

        Song, Joon-Mahn 이화여자대학교 교과교육연구소 2001 East west education Vol.18 No.-

        The brain study revealed there are two types of mental mechanisms, the left and right hemispheric consciousness. Recent research showed the cultural selection of brain organization through language use, namely the right hemisphere processing of the visuo-spatial informations and the left, the linguistic informations. And the two distinct conscniousnesses spring from the hemispheric sides. The visuo-spatial character of Eastern language, the hieroglyphic(象形) Chinese, hinges upon the right hemispheric consciousness. The current computerized visual media demand a new coherent theory of the present culture. The hieroglyphic Chinese, still alive and well, being used more than 4,000 years, could shed some light as an alternative to the metaphysical one as Derrida declares. 象形時代到來.

      • 人間行動特性의 探索을 위한 Q-技法的 分析

        Kim Joon Kweon(金俊權) 공주대학교 교육연구소 1995 교육연구 Vol.11 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Q-technique advanced by W. Stephenson to characterize a set of philosophical, psychological, statistical, and psychometric ideas oriented to research on the individual. It calculates the correlation coefficient among persons. Q-technique is a powerful approach to testing theory, intensive study of the individual, turning up new ideas, and to test the effect of independent variables on complex dependent variable. Also it is pertinent in the study of public opinion and attitude, personality, values, communication, and self-involving domains(Brown, 1980 ; Kerlinger, 1987). In recent years, the relation between formation of intimate and self-disclosure, mental health and self-disclosure has increasingly become the focus of psychological study. Many researchers strive to discover how human interrelationships are formed, maintained and dissolved. Communication is an important factor in relationship behavior, and a crucial modality of communication in relationships is self-disclosure. Successful psychotherapy depends on the patient’s willingness to reveal personal information about himself. Every male adjustment person is a person who has not made himself known to another human being(Jourard, 1971). I have observed that self-disclosure is an essential variable in mental health and formation of intimate human relationship. This study had two main purposes : (a) to test validity of self-disclosing instrument(developed by soon-ill kim & Joon-Kweon kim, 1994). (b) to investigate the self-disclosure structure in college students. 35 subjects, the college students were selected at random and they were asked to sort the Q sort deck - 48 cards each containing one of the Q-sort items printed on it on the Q sort board - a mat board containing a printed scale with 11 sequares and showing the number of Q-sort cards necessary for the different rating positions on the scale. To test validity of the 48 statements the result of Q-sort of each subjects were analyzed as follows : ① means of each respondent’s score obtained from the 12 classified categories ② correlations between 12 classified categories, and between 35 respondents using Pearson’s product moment. ③ principal component factor analysis ④ Varimax rotation of results in the factor analysis ⑤ factor scores. They were computed with the help SAS V. 6.03. Analysis of category means showed the intrastructure of individual subject, the coeffcients of inter correlation of subjects found clusters, and factor analysis showed factor structure. The result of factor analysis extracted 5 factors. In order to identify the character of each factor, factor scores were calculated. The characteristic traits of each factor were as follows : Factor Ⅰ : The subjects of this factor disclose deeply their emotional information to their family members but academic informations disclose their friends and strangers. They seldom reveal their deep mind to their friends and strangers. They are very discriminative but positive. So they can be named “The Discriminative Positivist”. Factor Ⅱ : The students of this pattern communicate positively their learning information to their family members, friends and strangers. They are interested in their learning, leaning scores, hometask, and subject-matters. They reveal a little their emotional matters to others. So they can be called “The Leaning Oriented Person”. Factor Ⅲ : The persons of this type interact deeply and broadly their whole mind (ie learning and emotional matter) to anyone whom they meet. They are positive in their self-disclosing. “The Positivist” could be named to them. Factor Ⅳ : The students classified into this group often disclose their emotional and learning matters to their family members and friends, but they seldom talk to strangers about his information. “The Stranger Evasive Person” is the suitable name. Factor Ⅴ : Basic tendency toward self-disclosure of these students is to disclose rarely about his pers

      • KCI등재

        소유-지배 괴리도가 경영진단의견서 공시에 미치는 영향

        채수준(Chae, Soo-Joon),이아영(Lee, A-Young) 한국경영교육학회 2020 경영교육연구 Vol.35 No.4

        [연구목적] 본 연구는 소유지배괴리도가 공시품질에 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지 분석하고자 하였다. 소유지배괴리도는 공정거래위원회가 ‘대규모기업집단 정보공개시스템’을 통해 제공하고 있는 지배주주의 소유권 및 지배권을 사용하여 측정하였으며, 공시품질로는 경영진단의견서(MD&A)를 고려하였다. [연구방법] 본 연구는 소유지배괴리도가 경영진단의견서 공시품질에 미치는 영향을 검증하기 위해서 2010년부터 2013년까지 유가증권시장에 상장된 1,483 기업-연도 표본을 대상으로 선형회귀분석을 실행하였다. [연구결과] 소유지배괴리도와 MD&A 공시품질 간에는 유의한 양(+)의 관련성이 존재하는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 소유지배괴리도가 큰 기업일수록 MD&A 공시사항을 충실히 기재하고 있음을 확인하였다. 이는 상반된 두개의 해석을 가능하게 한다. 높은 소유지배괴리도로 인한 지배주주의 사익추구 가능성을 은폐하기 위한 수단으로 공시를 적극적으로 활용할 수 있다는 측면과 높은 소유지배괴리도로 인한 기업지배구조에 대한 부정적인 기업이미지를 해소하고 시장과 원활하게 소통하기 위해 공시를 활용할 수 있다는 해석이 가능하다. [연구의 시사점] 본 연구는 소유지배괴리도와 같은 기업의 소유구조가 기업의 공시품질에 영향을 미치는 요소임을 규명한다는 점에서 공헌도가 있다. 본 연구의 실증결과는 괴리도가 큰 기업일수록 MD&A와 같은 재량적 공시를 적극적으로 수행함으로써 소유구조에 따른 대리인 비용 및 정보비대칭을 완화하고자 하고 있음을 보여준다. 아울러, 대규모 기업집단 지정과 같은 규제제도가 기업들에게 스스로를 관리하게 하는 유인이 될 수 있음을 시사한다. [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to analyze how control-ownership wedge affects disclosure quality. We consider Management Discussion and Analysis(MD&A) as a proxy for disclosure quality [Methodology] This study conducted a linear regression analysis for 1,483 firm-year samples listed on the KOSPI market from the period between 2010 to 2013 to verify the effect of the ownership and control wedge on MD&A. [Findings] This paper showed that there is a significant positive (+) relationship between control-ownership wedge and MD&A disclosure quality. The results of this study verified that firms with a greater degree of control-ownership wedge faithfully described MD&A disclosure items. These results can be explained in two opposite directions. One explanation is that managers of firms with a greater degree of control-ownership wedge can actively use the MD&A disclosure as a mean to conceal the pursuit of the interests of the controlling shareholders. The other explanation is that the MD&A disclosure can be used to solve the negative corporate image of the corporate governance structure due to a high degree of control-ownership wedge and to communicate smoothly with the capital market. [Implications] This study has a contribution that the company’s ownership structure, such as the control-ownership wedge, is a factor influencing the disclosure quality of the company. The empirical results of this study show that firms with a greater degree of control-ownership wedge actively disclose the discretionary disclosure such as MD&A to alleviate agency cost and information asymmetries according to the ownership structure.

      • KCI등재

        자아탄력성 척도의 심리측정학적 특성

        김응준( Kim, Eung-Joon) 한국웰니스학회 2016 한국웰니스학회지 Vol.11 No.1

        본 연구는 선행연구에서 개발되어진 운동선수용 자아탄력성 척도를 문항반응이론을 적용하여 심리측정학적 특성을 분석하는데 목적이 있다. 이 목적을 달성하기 위해 서울, 경기, 강원 등 수도권에 위치한 1000명의 대학교 운동선수들을 대상으로 조사를 실시하였다. 이준석(2013)에 의하여 다시 개발된 자아탄력성 척도를 조사도구로 사용하였다. 수거된 자료 중 832명의 자료를 SPSS 23.0 프로그램을 이용하여 빈도분석, 기술통계분석을 실시하였고, 문항적합도는 문항반응이론을 적용하기 위하여 WINSTEPS 3.74 (Linacre, 2012)을 사용하여 피험자 신뢰도, 문항신뢰도, 척도수의 적절성, 문항적합도와 문항난이도를 산출하였다. 연구목적에 따른 연구결론으로는 첫째, 자아탄력성 척도의 피험자 신뢰도와 척도자체의 신뢰도는 내-외적합도 1.00∼1.03 으로 적합하였다. 둘째, 척도 범주수의 적절성에서는 단계지수로 판단한 결과 7점 척도가 적합하였다. 셋째, 문항적합도와 문항난이도 분석에서는 총 2개 문항에서 문제점이 발견되었다. 따라서, 대학교 남녀 운동선수들의 능력분포와 척도자체의 난이도면에서 판단할 때 자아탄력성 척도는 부분적으로 적절하지 못한 것으로 확인되었다 The purpose of this study was to investigate the ego-resilience questionnaire’s psychometric properties in undergraduate student athletes. To accomplish study purpose, complete enumeration survey and statistical analysis were conducted for 832 student athletes enrolled metropolitan area university. A research tool used in this study was an ego-resilience scale developed by Joon-Seok LEE (2013). Total 14 questions were used with 7 point Likert scale and high point stands for higher the ego-resilience. Frequency analysis was conducted with SPSS 23.0. WINSTEPS 3.74(Linacre, 2012) was used for calculating item goodness-of-fit and subject reliability, scale propriety, item goodness-of-fit and item level of difficulty were calculated. Statistical analysis showed results as follows. First, it was reported to be suitable for subject infit/outfit in the ego-resilience as 1.01~1.03 and the ego-resilience"s scale infit/outfit as 1.00~1.01. Second, 7 scale was suitable for scale propriety resulting from stage index judgment. Third, 2 questions (item 10, item 13) showed problems in item goodness-of-fit; consequently, scale propriety was reported to be inappropriate for considering undergraduate student athletes" ability distribution and scale level of difficulty.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재
      • 水原樹木園地域內의 自然森林植生 調査結果

        李峻雨,禹保命,辛俊煥,金景河,兪鐘德 서울大學校 農科大學 1985 서울대농학연구지 Vol.10 No.2

        樹木園 活成豫定地를 對象으로 土壤 水分含量과 植生을 調査하여 앞으로의 樹木園 造成에 필요한 情報를 얻음과 동시에 樹木園 造成에 따른 植生破壞後 原來植生에 關한 情報가 必要할 때 參考하기 爲하여 1985年 6月 12日에 本 調査를 實施하였는데 그 結果는 다음과 같다. 1. 全體的으로 겨이삭(Agrostis clavata var. nukabo)의 優占度가 매우 높았으며 씀바귀(Ixeris dentata)와 흰씀박귀(Ixeris dentata var. albiflora)는 극히 乾燥한 곳을 제외하고는 대부분 優占度가 높았다. 濕한 곳에는 왕비늘사초(Carex maximowiczii), 기장대풀(Isachne globosa) 等이, 극히 乾燥한 곳에서는 잔디(Zoysia japonica)가, 보통 乾燥한 곳에서는 그늘사초(Carex lanceolata), 김의털(Festuca ovina) 等이 優占度가 높았다. 2. 特히 稀貴植物인 선제비꽃(Viola raddeana)群落과 진퍼리용담(Grntiana scabra var. buergeri for stenophylla)이 Block 3(습지)에 있으므로 앞으로 이 區域은 注意깊게 保存되어야 할 것이다. 3. 土壤 水分含量이 最低 14.7%에서 最高 89.9%까지 分布하여 乾濕의 差異가 심하게 나타났다. 特히 調査 時期가 乾濕期인데도 土壤 水分含量이 70%가 넘는 곳이 3개소나 된다. 이 곳은 地下水位가 높아서 濕地이므로 濕地植物園을 造成해야 될 것이다. 植生의 造成狀態가 區域에 따라 變異가 심하게 나타났기 때문에 이 林地가 매우 不安定한 狀態에 있다고 볼 수 있을 것이다. Soil moisture contents and vegetation of the forest land planed to establish the Suweon Arboretum had been investigated to obtain some informations for establishing arboretum, and also for keeping the original vegetation composition data after the arboretum was established. The results obtained in this investigation could be summarized as follows. 1. In general, the coverage of Agrostis clavata var. nukabo was very high. The coverage of lxeris dentata and ixeris dentata var. albiflora were high except for very arid blocks. Coverages of Carex maximowiczii and Isachne globosa were high in wet blocks. The coverage of Zoysia japonica was high in very arid blocks and that of Carex lanceolata and Festuca ovina in arid blocks were high. 2. Soil moisture content was distributed from 14.7% to 88.9%. Especially the fact of the high moisture content (74.7, 77.5, 88.9%) in dry season implied that the ground water level of this area was high. The vegetation composition of this forest was varied, too. Therefore, it is considered that the stability of this forest was fragile.

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