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영남대 생물학과에 소장되어 있는 표본과 2001년 4월~2002년 6월 사이에 채집한 표본을 대상으로 하여 한국산 야행성 맵시벌의 분류학적 연구와 출현 현황 및 숙주 관계의 분석을 실시하였다. 분류학적 연구 결과 Gauld(1970)가 영국산 야행성 맵시벌을 대상으로 한 연구에서 기록한 Mesochorinae아과, Tryphonin-ae아과, Ctenoplematinae아과, Ophioninae아과의 4아과외에 Metopinae (Metopius속)를 추가하여 한국산 야행성 맵시벌류는 총 5아과 13속을 기록하였다. 또한 한국산 야행성 맵시벌의 출현 현황을 분석한 결과 야행성으로 잘 알려진 Mesochorinae아과의 Mesochorus속, Tryphoninae아과의 Netelia속과 Ophioninae아과가 전체 야행성 맵시벌 증 95%를 차지하였다. 속별 출현현황을 살펴보면 Netelia속이 393개체가 출현하여 가장 많은 수를 나타내었으며 Ophi-on속, Mesochorus속, Enicopilus속도 전체 출현 분류군 중 높은 비중을 차지하였다. 월별 현황을 살펴보면 전반적으로 4월에서 11월 사이에 걸쳐 나타나는데, Op-hioninae아과는 5월과 7월에, Tryphoninae아과는 6월에 집중적인 출현 빈도를 보였다. 숙주의 분류군에 따른 야행성 맵시벌의 기생 양상을 살펴보면 대부분이 나비목을 대상 숙주로 하고 있으며 Mesochorinae아과와 Ctenopelmatinae아과는 벌목에도 많은 종이 기생하는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 Mesochorinae아과의 Cidaphus속은 위생 해충으로 분류되는 기생파리과(Tachinidae)에도 기생하는 것으로 나타나 위생 해충을 구제할 수 있는 천적 분류군으로 연구될 수 있는 가능성을 보였다. 숙주의 식성에 따라 살펴보면 부식성의 먹이를 섭식하는 부식성(saprophagus) 숙주, 곤충의 유충을 섭식하는 식충성(entomophagus)인 숙주가 소수 출현하였고 기생생활(parasite)을 하는 숙주도 다수 출현하였으나 대부분의 야행성 맵시벌의 기생 대상 숙주는 주로 식물을 해하는 식식성 곤충(phytophagus)으로 나타났다. Nocturnal Ichneumonidae, which was called yellow-brown ichneumonoid, included several subfamilies adapted for nocturnal activity. Taxonomic study of nocturnal ichneumonoid has been investigated by Gauld(1975) but examination of Korean nocturnal ichneumonoid has not been provided until now. This present study: the taxonomic revision, Appearance state and Host-parasite relation analysis of nocturnal ichneumonoid, were examined using Korean peninsula specimens. As the result. approximately 13 genera referable to 5 subfamilies appeared regularly in light trap. Genus MetopiudSubfamily Illetopinae) were newly recorded in nocturnal ichneumonoid. Tryphoninae and Ophioninae, which were dominant in appearance taxa! occupied 96% of total numbers of individuals, and majority of them were taken from May to November. Nocturnal ichneumonoid are parasitoids of part of immature holometabolous insects(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera). Lepidoptera is the most common hosts of nocturnal group except Mesochorinae and Ctenopelmatine. In large number of Mesochorinae are koinobiont hyperparasitoids of ectoparasitic or endoparasitic BraconiddHymenoptera), and, less frequently, of Tachinidae(Diptera1. Also, Ctenopelmatinae are koinobiont endoparasitoids of Symphyta and, rarely, Lepidoptera. Majority of nocturnal ichneumonoid hosts are phytophagous, feeding plant taxa, and many host of Mesochorinae taxa are parastoids, and a few host are saprophagus or entomophagus.
Although the finite element method has become an indispensible tool for dynamic analysis of structures, there still remains a problem to quantify the errors associated with discretization. To improve the modeling accuracy, the present paper proposes a method to make a combined use of finite elements and exact dynamic elements. To this end, the dynamic modeling of beams with the finite element method (FEM)are compared with the exact dynamic element modeling (EDEM). Exact interpolation functions for a Timoshenko beam element, as functions of Laplace variables, are derived using the exact dynamic elements, tested and compared with those for the finite element modeling. A Timoshenko frame with a tapered section is tested to demonstrate the design procedure with the proposed method. the numerical study shows that the combined use of finite element model and exact dynamic element model is very useful.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
This study examined the effect of national culture on ICT (information and communication technology) adoption by extending the research of Erumban and de Jong (2005). The results from this study confirmed that people in high power distance nations display lower ICT adoption rates than those in low power distance nations. It was expected and reaffirmed that countries with high degrees of individualism have high levels of ICT adoption rates. With regard to uncertainty avoidance and masculinity, however, the results show an interesting pattern that is different from previous studies based on more traditional measures such as per capita computer. Erumban and de Jong (2005) showed that there was a significant relationship between masculinity and ICT adoption as measured by per capita computer whereas no significant relationship between masculinity and ICT adoption was seen in this study. In addition, results indicate that there was a significant relationship between ICT access and uncertainty avoidance, but not between ICT use and uncertainty avoidance. With regard to long-term orientation, it is not possible to directly compare the results with Erumban and de Jong’s study which did not include the long-term orientation dimension. Interestingly, the results from this study show that long-term orientation among five cultural dimensions has greatest impact on ICT adoption. Korea and Singapore were expected to have low ICT adoption rates given that these two countries have collectivism and high power distance. However, these countries displayed high ICT adoption rate. Thus, long term orientation could be the proper cultural dimension to explain why some Asian countries such as Korea and Singapore have such a high rate of ICT adoption.
The purpose of this paper is to explore 31 regions in China, the influence factors of CEO dismissal. Based on Weiwen Li (2017) and Kwon Jong-Wook (2015) as the previous research and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory as background, but most papers on CEO dismissal do not look at the impact of social networks on CEO dismissal. So this paper further discusses, in China, the cultural dimension and political effect on the CEO dismissal. The results show that with the local political background, the CEO of not easy to be fired. At the same time, we are not limited to the power distance of the influence of the CEO dismissal, further discusses the cultural dimension for the influence of the CEO dismissal, interestingly, we found that unlike other scholar"s research results, the cultural dimension of CEO dismissal and no effect.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the previous research, the 31 provinces of China are classified according to the different values. The author of this thesis takes the thesis of Kwon Jong-Wook (2015) as the previous research and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory as background, to increase the 21 factors which can explain the differences of values to 23, and add the classification of China of the sixth dimensions Indulgence versus Restraint, IND. After study, 20 of the factors are determined factors. This thesis uses Cluster Analysis method to divide China into 2~3 group. In order to test the accuracy of the analysis, we use the problems and data provided in World Values Survey 6 to reinspect the analysis method of this thesis, the results of the test are in agreement with the results of our analysis.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication after bone marrow transplantation. Infectious complications are common in GVHD patients due to defect in cell-mediated immunity. A rare case of S. pneumoniae meningoencephalitis occured in a patient with extensive form of chronic GVHD after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. He was immediately treated with full dosage of ceftriaxone and ampicillin. He suffered from various complications such as sepsis, acute renal failure, atelectasis, and seizure. Despite of aggressive treatment, he died probably due to renal shutdown and massive subacute cerebral infarction of left cerebral hemisphere. This report showed two unusual and rare features. First, the infection site was CNS rather than respiratory system. Second, the causative organism was S. pneumoniae, which is rare cause of CNS infection in immunocompromised patients.
Background: Micafungin, a potent inhibitor of 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase, is a novel antifungal agent of the echinocandin class. In vitro study showed that micafungin was effective against Aspergillus species as well as Candida species, but clinical data on the prophylactic efficacy against invasive fungal infections (IFIs) other than candidiasis are still lacking. Materials and Methods: We identified 60 consecutive adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients who received at least 3 doses of micafungin during neutropenic period. Micafungin was started as an alternative in patients who were intolerant or had adverse events (AEs) to primary prophylactic antifungal agents. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and analyzed the efficacy and safety of micafungin for prophylaxis against IFIs. Results: The patients either had autologous (n=9) or allogeneic (n=51: 1 syngeneic, 24 sibling, 26 unrelated donor) HSCT. Itraconazole oral solution (n=58) was the most frequently used first line antifungal agent for prophylaxis and was administered for median 11 days. The most frequent cause of switch to micafungin was vomiting (n=42). The duration of neutropenia and micafungin administration was median 13 and 12 days, respectively. A successful outcome was achieved in 45 (75%) patients. Empirical antifungal therapy was initiated in 13 (22%) patients. There were 2 cases (3.3%) of breakthrough fungal infections which comprised a probable invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and a possible invasive fungal sinusitis. There was no case of invasive candidiasis. A total of 53 (88%) patients experienced at least one AE regardless of causality during micafungin administration. The most frequent AEs were hypokalemia, vomiting, diarrhea, and elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase. Among the aforementioned AEs, only 1 case of diarrhea could be classified as a probable relation with micafungin when causality was assessed. There was no AEs that caused discontinuation of micafungin. Conclusions: Micafungin seems to be a safe and effective agent for prophylaxis of IFIs including aspergillosis as well as candidiasis in HSCT recipients. However, further large, prospective, and randomized comparative studies are warranted for aspergillosis.
연약지반의 해성 점토로 매립된 준설토지반의 지반개량에는 일반적으로 GCP(Gravel Compaction Pile) , SCP(Sand Compaction Pile) , CDM(Cement Deep Mixing)과 같은 부분치 환공법 과 Lime (Broms et al., 1997) 이나 플라이 애쉬,시멘트 등을 혼합한 전체치환공법 등이 이용되고 있다. 그 중 플라이 애쉬는 화력발전 후 발생하는 2차 부산물로 자원의 재활용 측면에서 친환경적이며,지속적인 공급과 저렴한 가격으로 인하여 다양한 활용방안이 연구되고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 완도 해성 점토에 플라이 애쉬를 혼합하여 흔합함유량에 따른 다짐특성,합축지수,압멸계수 투수계수 시간에 따른 크리프 특성,비배수 전단강도 등의 지반공학적 특성을 분석하여 효율적인플라이 애쉬 함유량을 산정하였다.
A combined numerical model simulating the transport of pollutant in on dimensional flow is presented. The transport of pollutant is governed by the advection-diffusion equation which has characteristics of both hyperbolic and parabolic type partial differential equations. One general choice of numerical techniques for solving the advection-diffusion equation is the so called 'split-operator method' or 'fractioned-step method', this is, the advection and diffusion terms are solved separately by different numerical schemes. In this study, a numerical model is developed using 6-points scheme, improved 6-points scheme and SOWMAC scheme for advection operator and the explicit scheme proposed by Hobson et al. for diffusion in one dimensional flow. To verify the developed model, the source(Gaussian hill), the dual point sources(superposition of two Gaussian hills) at upstream boundary with constant velocity and diffusivity condition, and additionally for the varied flow. Through the comparisons of the numerical results with those of other models and analytic solutions, it is identified that all the schemes give stable solutions and agree well with analytic solutions, For advection simulations, the improved 6-points scheme performs best, but for advection-diffusion simulations SOWMAC method shows better results. All schemes provide satisfactory results for varied flow field and the extension of the scheme to real problem is done straightforword and sucessfully.