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Objectives : It is known that the five Su points are very useful clinically. The following study was undertaken in order to find out the general characteristic and the origin of the five Su points. Methods: We investigated the relation of symptoms that are treated by five Su points and Shi-Dong Suo-Sheng-Bing(是動 所生病). The main reference book was Zhen Jiu Jia Yi jing(鍼灸甲乙經) and the author took Liver Meridian of Foot Gworeum(足厥陰肝經) as an example. Results : 1. Five Su point of Liver Meridian of Foot Gworeum(足厥陰肝經) treats Shi-Dong-Bing(是動病) of Liver Meridian of Foot Gworeum. It is peculiarity of Five Su point of Liver Meridian of Foot Gworeum, differed from the others acupoints. Symptoms of Shi-Dang-Bing appears with the abnormal pulsation of Merdian Gi(脈氣), and the special feature of Shi-Dang-Bing is the symptoms are consisted of disorders of whole body, trobles of an internal organ, and psychosomatic disorders. 2. In <Su Wen San Bu Jiu Hou Lun (素問 三部九候論)>, it is described the part of pulse feeling for Shi-Dong-Bing(是動病) of Liver Meridian of Foot Gworeum(足厥陰肝經) as ‘A region that is 2 Chon(寸) from the basic digital joint of the first toe'. This region is agree with the acupoint of Liver Meridian of Foot Gworeum in <Mai-Jing(脈經)>, <Qian-Jin-Yao-Fang(千金要方)>. And Haeng-gan(行間) Tae-chung(太衝), members of five Su-points of Liver Meridian of Foot Gworeum is situated the same region. So we suppose that the part of pulse feeling for Shi-Dong-Bing of Liver Meridian of Foot Gworeum is transformed into Haeng-gan(行間) Tae-chung(太衝), among the five Su points.
Background Few scales are currently available to evaluate changes in hand volume. We aimed to develop a hand grading scale for quantitative assessments of dorsal hand volume with additional consideration of changes in skin texture; to validate and prove the precision and reproducibility of the new scale; and to demonstrate the presence of clinically significant differences between grades on the scale. Methods Five experienced plastic surgeons developed the Hand Volume Rating Scale (HVRS) and rated 91 images. Another five plastic surgeons validated the scale using 50 randomly selected images. Intra- and inter-rater agreement was calculated using the weighted kappa statistic and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Paired images were also evaluated to verify whether the scale reflected clinical differences. Results The intra-rater agreement was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.922–0.974). The interrater ICCs were excellent (first rating, 0.94; second rating, 0.94). Image pairs that differed by 1, 2, and 3 grades were considered to contain clinically relevant differences in 80%, 100%, and 100% of cases, respectively, while 84% of image pairs of the same grade were found not to show clinically relevant differences. This confirmed that the scale of the HVRS corresponded to clinically relevant distinctions. Conclusions The scale was proven to be precise, reproducible, and reflective of clinical differences.
Thermoacoustic oscillations (TAOs) could be often observed in liquid helium cryogenic system especially in half-open tubes. These tubes have closed warm end (300K) and open cold end (usually 4.4K). This phenomenon significantly induces additionalheat load to cryogenic system and other undesirable effects. This work focuses on using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)method to study TAOs in liquid helium. The calculated physical model, numerical scheme and algorithm, and wall boundaryconditions were introduced. The simulation results of onset process of thermoacoustic oscillations were presented and analyzed. Inaddition, other important characteristics including phase relation and frequency were studied. Moreover, comparisons betweenexperiments and the CFD simulations were made, which demonstrated thevalidity of CFD simulation. CFD simulation can give usa better understanding of onset mechanism of TAOs and nonlinear characteristics in liquid helium cryogenic system.
( Su Jong Yu ), ( Jeong Hoon Lee ), ( Sang Youn Hwang ), ( Joon Suk Kim ), ( Eun Ju Cho ), ( Min Sun Kwak ), ( Eun Sun Jang ), ( Jung Hwan Yoon ), ( Hyo Suk Lee ), ( Chung Yong Kim ), ( Yoon Jun Kim ) 대한간학회 2010 Clinical and Molecular Hepatology(대한간학회지) Vol.16 No.3(S)