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<P>Correction for ‘Bioinspired M-13 bacteriophage-based photonic nose for differential cell recognition’ by Jong-Sik Moon <I>et al.</I>, <I>Chem. Sci.</I>, 2017, DOI: 10.1039/c6sc02021f.</P>
In this study, we attempted to evaluate the feasibility of a supercritical methanol process for direct production of biodiesel from microalgae. The effects of various factors such as temperature, reaction time, water content and pretreatment on the efficiency of biodiesel conversion were investigated. The conversion efficiency increased with both temperature and extraction/conversion time. The supercritical methanol process produced a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of around 88% within 20 minutes. The optimal conditions for this process were found to be a microalgae/methanol ratio of around 1:9, a reaction temperature of about 270℃, and a reaction time of approximately 20 minutes. The effect of water content in microalgae samples on the FAME conversion was also evaluated. The supercritical methanol process was not affected by the water content up to 250 wt%. Our experiments demonstrated that the supercritical methanol process is more effective compared with conventional in situ transesterification processes.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the implicit prices and consumers’ preference by attributes on Korean beef cattle ham using choice experiments. Main attributes are the country of origin, non-antibiotic certification, HACCP certification, addition of Korean agricultural products and use of natural colors. The implicit prices of each attribute and level for country of origin are estimated as KRW 919.0 for Korean pork, KRW 2,173. for imported beef and KRW 5,232.9 for Korean cattle beef. The other estimated implicit prices are KRW1,762.9 for non-antibiotic certification, KRW 577.5 for HACCP certification, KRW 57.9 for addition of Korean agricultural products and finally, KRW 572.9 for use of natural colors. This study is expected to contribute to the decision-making process of Korean beef cattle farmers by providing useful quantitative information on attributes and price that are related to consumers’ preference on Korean beef cattle ham.
Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) is a disease characterized by hyperplastic and significant extension of cystic dilatation of the gastric mucous glands, which results in a cystic lesion in gastric submucosa. It often occurs on the part of gastroenterostomy, but can be found in the stomach without any previous surgery. GCP has variable gross finding including solitary polyps, diffuse ones, submucosal tumors, and rare giant gastric mucosal fold. It is difficult to tell GCP from a cancerous lesion by gross finding that the disease demands a necessary tissue biopsy, though GCP is commonly showed as a benign in the progress. We report a case of GCP in polypoid types diagnosed by endoscopic polypectomy.
Despite enormous progress in current chemotherapeutic approaches for cancer, there is no advances of prognosis in malignant tumor of head and neck. Especially the prognosis in tongue cancer in which vessels are well developed is bad. Therefore, it is very important to distinguish the patient with infiltrating tumor and to find tumor marker which can play a key role in effective strategy for cancer treatment. Because there is little report about CD44 as prognostic marker in tongue cancer, this study was performed to investigate the alteration of CD44 expression in tumor specimens from eleven patients with tongue cancers before and after chemotherapy. In this study, CD44 was expressed strongly in spinous layer of specimen before chemotherapy and the expression of CD44 decreased significantly after chemotherapy, suggesting that the expression of CD44 is related with metastasis of tongue cancer. Taking above, the alteration of CD44 expression in tongue cancer tissue by chemotherapy suggests that CD44 are potentially expected to use in tongue cancer as prognostic factors.
Gastric angiodysplasia is vascular ectasia in mucosa and submucosa of the gastric wall. It is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointesinal hemorrhage that may occur in the stomach or duodenum. There are many kinds of endoscopic treatments, such as argon plasma coagulation, electrocoagulation, heat probe, and submucosal injection of hypertonic saline mixed with epinephrine for gastric angiodysplasia. However, these treatment methods are associated with high rate of rebleeding. In order to avoid the recurrence, endoscopic band ligation has recently been used as an alternative method for endoscopic treatment of gastric angiodysplasia. We encountered a case of gastric angiodysplasia that presented with overt bleeding and anemia, and was successfully treated with endoscopic band ligation.
The purpose of this theses is to examine what effect of Jahn's ideas on German gymnstics. The French Revolution and the ambition of Napoleon's Expedition in Europe caused to infuse intersest in one race and patriotism for one's country in the hearts of the people of Europe. The ideology of the Revolution, that is, liberty, equality and philanthropy, led intellects of the European continent to strongly oppose to feudalism and autocratic monarchism, and to claim the establishment of liberal democracy from monarchs. They also played a leading role in carrying out the revolution during the period of 1848 to 1849. Jahn, a nationalist as well as an educator, first created German gymnastics which is called "Turnen" in 1811 in the suburbs of Berlin in an attempt to elevate hrs people to better status in their life and pursuits. In that contexy, the Turnen Movement hed spread all over Germany. The influence of Jahn's ideas on German gymnastic can be summarized as follows. FIRST, ESTABLISHMENT OF MODERN GERMAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION. The madern gymnastics of German originated by Guts Muths has been polished as modern gymnastics through the Turnen Movement by Jahn. SECONDLY, ESTABLISHMENT OF NATIONAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION Before popularization of Turnen Movement initiated by Jahn, the physical education of Germany was practiced only in a small group of nobility or philanthropium. With the establishment and popularization of Turnen, however, Turnen clubs were organized all over Germany, and it developed into a national-wide movement with the inauguration of Germany Gymnastic Association(Turnverein). The inclusion of gymnastic course into a regular school program contributed to establishing a system of the national physical education in Germany. THIRDLY, CHANGES OF EDUCATION SUBSTANCE. The gymnastics of philanthropismus was practiced and applied on the basis of individual life cycle with the emphasis of difference of individual quality. However, the education of Turnen characterizing the combination of philanthropismus and nationalism was conducted, pursuing cooperation in the community, individual perseverane and patriotism on the basis of the difference of individual quality. For example, it was focused on promotion of endurance with development of the upper part of the body by inventing a parallel bar and horizontal bar lathe then the development of skills of gymnastics.
In rare occasions in which aneurysmal neck clipping is nearly impossible, coating is employed. During the period from 1985 to 1992, 312 patients with aneurysm underwent surgery ; aneurysmal neck clipping were performed in 284 cases while coating only in 28. The reasons that coating was required were ; wide and broad neck in 13, perforators arising from the neck in 4, neck tearing during dissection in 3, very friable neck in 2, severe adhesion with surrounding structures in 3, and small aneurysm without enough room for clipping in 3. In twenty-three cases, cotton wisp and bioglue were used as coating materials. In another five cases, the aneurysmal wall was reinforced using Surgicel or Gelfoam. Patients were followed for 24 months on average of all the patients. Four had last contact Six died(4 due to rebleeding and 2 due to pneumonia). Fourteen were good and 4 were moderately disabled. There were no rebleeding incidences during first three months' follow-up after coating. We thus concluded that coating an aneurysm offers some protection from rebleeding, particularly when the rebleeding risk period is over.