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소비자가 특정 프레스티지 브랜드에 대해 "럭셔리하다"(럭셔리함)라고 느끼는 정도는 소비자가 프레스티지 브랜드를 구매하는 과정에 중요한 영향을 끼친다고 볼수 있겠다. 따라서 소비자가 특정 브랜드에서 느끼는``럭셔리함``은 프레스티지 브랜드 매니저들이나 마케터들에게는 성공적으로 운영해야 하는 중요한 지표가 될 수 있을 것이며, 이들 마케터들은 브랜드의 "럭셔리함(럭셔리한 정도)"을 효과적으로 운영하기 위해서 광고나 가격정책 등 다양한 마케팅 계획을 세울 수 있겠다. 이러한 상황에서 이들 브랜드매니저들이 마케팅 프로그램이 "럭셔리함" 구축에 어떤 영향을 끼치는지를 알수 있다면 보다 효과적인마케팅 프로그램을 수립하는데 큰 도움이 될 것이다. 이 연구는 이러한 프레스티지 브랜드 경영의 주요지표인 ``럭셔리함``이 마케팅 프로그램에 따라 어떻게 영향을 받는지에 대해 검증하고자 하였다. 또한 마케팅 전략 수립시 좀더 기술적이고 실무적으로 도움이 될 수 있도록 소비자행동을 이해하고자하였다. 구체적으로, 프레스티지 브랜드를 포함한 다양한 럭셔리 상품들을 구매하는 소비자층에는 럭셔리 상품에 대한 태도에 따라 두가지 소비자 그룹(elitists vs. democratics)으로 분류가 될 수 있는데, 이들의 태도에 따라 마케팅 프로그램의 결과가 어떻게 나타나는지 검증하고자 하였다. 이러한 연구는 브랜드 매니저와 마케터들에게 타겟에 따른 더욱 효과적인 마케팅을 할 수 있도록 도움이 될 것이다. 다행히도 럭셔리함을 측정하기 위해 5가지 구성요소(conspicuousness, quality, uniqueness, extendedself, hedonism)로 이루어진 BLI 스케일(Vigneron & Johnson, 2004)이 개발되었으며, 이후 이 측정도구의 신뢰성과 타당성에 의문이 제기되어 2015년에 Kim과 Johnson이 위의 측정도구를 수정하였다. 수정된BLI 스케일은 본래의 BLI 스케일과 같은 수인 5개의 요소로 구성되어 있으나 구성 요소에 있어서 다음과 같이 약간의 변동이 있다: quality, extended self, hedonism, accessibility, tradition. 또한 이 연구를 위해 5가지 마케팅 활동으로 이루어진 마케팅 믹스에 대한 소비자의 인식을 측정할 수 있는 스케일 (Yoo et al., 2000)을 사용하였으며, 이들 다섯 가지 마케팅 활동은 다음과 같다: 가격, 매장이미지, 유통망 밀집도, 광고지출액, 가격프로모션. 이 연구를 위해 데이터 수집은 미국에서 온라인 서베이 수단을 통해서 이루어졌으며, 총 253명의 답변으로 분석을 하였다. 5가지의 마케팅 믹스 요소(가격, 매장이미지, 유통망 밀집도, 광고지출액, 가격프로모션)가 5가지 요소로 구성된 ``럭셔리함``에 끼치는 영향력을 알아보기 위해 MANOVA가 사용되었으며, 위의 두 가지의 럭셔리 소비자 집단이 마케팅 활동이 럭셔리함에 끼치는 영향력에 어떻게 간섭하는지를 분석하기 위해서는 ANOVA가 사용되었다. 결론으로, 광고지출액을 제외한 4가지의 마케팅 믹스 활동은 모두 럭셔리함에 유효한 영향력을 끼치고 있음을 알 수 있었으며, 특히 가격과 유통망 밀집도가 럭셔리함의 모든 요소들에 영향을 끼치고 있었다. 구체적으로 보면, 가격과 유통망 밀집도는 럭셔리함을 구성하는 다섯 가지 요소(i.e., consumers` perceptionabout quality, extended self, hedonism, accessibility, tradition) 모두에게 영향을 끼치는 것으로 나타났으며, 매장이미지는 quality, extended self, hedonism, accessibility에만 영향을 끼치고 tradition에는 영향력이 없음이 밝혀졌다. 가격프로모션은 quality, extended self, accessibility, tradition에는 유의한 영향력이 있으나, hedonism에는 영향을 끼치지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 럭셔리 상품에 대한 태도는 세가지 마케팅(가격, 유통망 밀집도, 가격프로모션) 활동 중 가격이 럭셔리함에 주는 영향력에만 간섭을 하는 것으로 나타났다. 다시 말하면, 럭셔리 상품에 대한 태도로 분류된 두 집단은 가격에 대한 영향력을 달리 받고 있었다. 즉 같은 가격 조건에서 럭셔리함에 대한 인지는 서로 달리 하고 있었다. 예를 들면, 엘리티스트 (elitist)들은 고가의 가격정책이 럭셔리함을 느끼는데매우 중요하였으나, 데모크래틱 (democratic)들은 가격이 높고 낮음에 따라 이들이 느끼는 럭셔리함의 정도가 크게 영향을 받지 않음을 볼 수 있었다. 따라서 어떤 고객을 타겟으로 하느냐에 따라서 가격 정책은 달리하여야 할 것으로 보인다. 예를 들면, 매스 럭셔리 소비자를 대상으로 운영하는 브랜드라면 럭셔리함을 유지하기 위해 너무 높은 마진을 책정하지 않을 수 있을 것이다. 그러나 유통망 밀집도와 가격프로모션의 차이에 대해 두 집단이 인식하는 럭셔리함에는 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 존재하지 않았음을 볼 수 있었다. 아마도 가격프로모션이 잦은 경우 일반적으로 상품 질에 대한 신뢰도에 부정적인 영향을 끼치기 때문인 것으로 보이며, 유통망 밀집도의 경우는 실제로 프레스티지 브랜드 매장이 매우 한정적으로만 제공될 때 그 브랜드에 대해 매우 럭셔리하게 느끼기 때문일 것으로 판단된다. Consumers` belief about how luxurious a specific prestige brand is, influences consumer`s behaviors. To manage the perceived luxuriousness of a brand, marketers of a prestige brand may adopt a variety of marketing actions such as advertising, managing their store environment, conducting promotions, and so forth. In order to build efficient and effective marketing programs, a prestige brand company needs to know how their marketing programs contribute to consumer`s perceptions of their brand. Therefore, our first research question is: "How do the marketing programs of existing prestige brands affect consumer`s perceptions of the luxuriousness of the brand?" In addition, understanding consumer`s behavior is essential for marketers to make strategic and tactical decisions about specific marketing actions. Considering that there are two luxury consumer groups (i.e., the elitists vs. the democratics) who show a different attitude toward a luxury good, a question as to whether applying the same marketing strategies to shape perceptions of the luxuriousness of a brand is effective across these two consumer groups was raised. This reasoning led to the second research question; "do both groups respond similarly to a marketing program or does the program have to be customized for each group?" In order to investigate the research problems, we adopted the modified BLI scale (Kim & Johnson, 2015) to measure the perceived luxuriousness of a prestige brand and a scale to measure consumer perceptions of the five marketing mix elements(i.e., price, store image, distribution intensity, advertising expenditures, and price promotions) developed by Yoo et al.(2000). The modified BLI scale has five dimensions (i.e., quality, extended-self, hedonism, accessibility, tradition). Online survey was conducted in USA to collect data. 253 responses were used in analysis. MANOVA was conducted to assess if perception about each marketing mix element influenced components of perceived luxuriousness (i.e., quality, extended-self, hedonism, accessibility, and tradition). And ANOVA was used to investigate whether the influence of price, distribution intensity, and price promotions on overall perceived luxuriousness would be moderated by consumers`` attitude toward luxury (i.e., elitist, democratic). As a result, four marketing mix elements (i.e., price, store image, distribution intensity, and frequency of price promotion) influenced perceived luxuriousness. Only advertising expenditure did not have significant effect on perceived luxuriousness. More specifically, price and distribution intensity influenced all the dimensions of perceived luxuriousness (i.e., consumers` perception about quality, extended-self, hedonism, accessibility, tradition). In addition, the findings regarding the role of attitudes toward luxury indicated that there are at least two types of consumer groups within luxury market who view luxury brands differently. The impact of the marketing mix elements on perceived luxuriousness of a prestige brand was different for these two groups. The elitists seem to consider high price as a very important attribute of a prestige brand thus they are highly influenced by price when evaluating the luxuriousness of a prestige brand in contrast to the democratic luxury consumer. This result is consistent with researchers (Dubois et al., 2005) who demonstrated there were two different attitudes toward luxury. Dubois and his colleagues (2005) showed that the elitists agreed with the idea that luxury is inevitable expensive while the democratics did not agree. However, frequent offers of price promotions eroded the degree of luxuriousness for both the elitists and the democratics. The reason why both groups may have had the same attitude toward price promotionnegative effect on perceived luxuriousness.may be because price promotions suggest unstable quality (Winter, 1991). In addition, both groups revealed a similar impact of distribution intensity on luxuriousness. They both indicated a high degree of the perceived luxuriousness with low levels of distribution intensity. This result may be because prestige brands that are generally regarded as very luxurious have very limited distribution in the real world.
My paper describes a study that links gender with gechnology use in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. It argues that technology use is a significant 21st century social phenomenon due to the rise of consumption-based economics and government plans for technologically-led recoveries in the Aisa-Pacific. It describes how gender interacts with other cultural differences to shape the social use and effects of technology.
Retail therapy occurs when consumers shop to improve negative feelings rather than merely acquire a needed product (Kang & Johnson, 2011). Retailers in all channels enable consumers to have positive emotional responses by providing them with positive experiences. Pine and Gilmore (1999) identified four types of experiences sought by consumers: entertainment, education, escapism, and esthetics (i.e., 4Es). It is not known which, if any, of the 4Es motivate offline and online retail therapy shopping trips. Retail therapy shoppers may seek different benefits in open, online stores (where they have a great deal of freedom) versus closed, brick-and-mortar stores (where they are limited by time and space) (Bhate & Hannam, 2014). When retail therapy shoppers have experiences they desire, they should experience positive emotional reactions (i.e., pleasure, arousal) (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982). Furthermore, consumers who experience positive emotional reactions tend to display impulse buying behavior (Chang, Eckman, & Yan, 2011). Engaging in impulse buying while retail therapy shopping may encourage compulsive buying behavior (Kang & Johnson, 2011), the most severe form of which is shopping addiction (Edwards, 1993). Based on this collection of previous research, the following hypotheses were developed: H1: Among retail therapy shoppers, the amount of a) entertainment b) education, c) escapism, and d) esthetics sought will be significantly different between 1) offline stores and 2) online stores. H2: Retail therapy behavior will be positively related to level of a) pleasure and b) arousal experienced while shopping. H3a: Level of pleasure experienced while shopping will be positively related to impulse buying behavior. H3b. Level of arousal experienced while shopping will be positively related to impulse buying behavior. H4: Among retail therapy shoppers, impulse buying behavior will be positively related to shopping addiction behavior.Method Using Amazon’s MTurk, 409 consumers (62.6% female; 72.0% Caucasian; 36.5% 30-39 years old) were recruited for an online survey. Participants were first asked to indicate if they had experience shopping for clothing to improve their mood. Clothing was selected as the focus of the study because it is a gender-neutral product frequently purchased during retail therapy (Atalay & Meloy, 2011). Only participants who had engaged in retail therapy behavior were asked to complete the rest of the questionnaire. The next five sections of the questionnaire contained multi-item, 7-point, Likert-type scales previously used to assess the variables in the study. Demographic information was also collected. Results To test H1, a series of t-tests was conducted to compare the benefits sought by retail therapy shoppers in open and closed settings. The means for each of the 4 Es were significantly greater for the closed setting of the store than the open setting of the website. Therefore, H1 was supported. Two regression models were created to test H2a and b. The coefficients for retail therapy were positively and significantly related to pleasure (β = .87; t = 35.70; p < 0.000) and arousal (β = .85; t = 32.52; p < 0.00). Thus, H2a and b were both supported. To examine H3a and b, another regression model was created. The coefficients for pleasure (β = .25; t = 4.51; p < 0.00) and arousal (β = .64; t = 11.69; p < 0.00) were positive and significant. Thus, H3a and H3b were both supported. Lastly, to test H4, a final regression model was created. The coefficient for impulse buying behavior (β = .93; t = 51.49; p < 0.00) was positive and significant, supporting H4. Discussion The results of the present study shed light on retail therapy shopping behavior. Consumers do seek the 4Es when therapeutically shopping for clothing, and they seek the 4Es to a greater degree in closed, offline environments. Perhaps the need to delay gratification in offline stores raises expectations of experiences that can be received immediately in online stores. Participants experienced pleasure and arousal when engaging in retail therapy behavior, thereby supporting researchers (Kang & Johnson, 2011) who conceptualized retail therapy behavior as mood-alleviative consumption behavior. The positive emotions experienced while clothing shopping were related to retail therapy shoppers’ impulse buying behavior, which was positively related to shopping addiction. The success experienced by individuals who engage in shopping behavior to improve their mood seems to encourage future shopping trips to enhance positive emotions. Thus, a troubling pattern of overconsumption may develop if retail therapy shoppers do not find additional methods for mood-alleviation.
<P>A series of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate-block-poly(l-lysine)-block-poly(l-histidine) [p(PEGA)30-b-p(Lys)25-b-p(His)n] (n = 25, 50, 75, 100) triblock copolypeptides were designed and synthesized for tumoral pH-responsive intracellular release of anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox). The tumoral acidic pH-responsive hybrid vesicles fabricated were stable at physiological pH 7.4 and could gradually destabilize in acidic pH as a result of pH-induced swelling of the p(His) block. The blank vesicles were nontoxic over a wide concentration range (0.01-100 관g/mL) in normal cell lines. The tumor acidic pH responsiveness of these vesicles was exploited for intracellular delivery of Dox. Vesicles efficiently encapsulated Dox, and pH-induced destabilization resulted in the controlled and sustained release of Dox in CT26 murine cancer cells, and dose-dependent cytotoxicity. The tumor-specific controlled release Dox from vesicles demonstrates this system represents a promising theranostic agent for tumor-targeted delivery.</P>
<P>A series of dual stimuli responsive synthetic polymer bioconjugate chimeric materials, poly(<I>N</I>-isopropylacrylamide)<SUB>55</SUB>-<I>block</I>-poly(<SMALL>l</SMALL>-histidine)<SUB><I>n</I></SUB> [p(NIPAM)<SUB>55</SUB>-<I>b</I>-p(His)<SUB><I>n</I></SUB>] (<I>n</I> = 50, 75, 100, 125), have been synthesized by employing reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of NIPAM, followed by ring–opening polymerization of α-amino acid <I>N</I>-carboxyanhydrides. The dual stimuli responsive properties of the resulting biocompatiable and membrenolytic p(NIPAM)<SUB>55</SUB>-<I>b</I>-p(His)<SUB><I>n</I></SUB> polymers are investigated for their use as a stimuli responsive drug carrier for tumor targeting. Highly uniform self-assembled micelles (∼55 nm) fabricated by p(NIPAM)<SUB>55</SUB>-<I>b</I>-p(His)<SUB><I>n</I></SUB> polymers display sharp thermal and pH responses in aqueous media. An anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox), is effectively encapsulated in the micelles and the controlled Dox release is investigated in different temperature and pH conditions. Antitumor effect of the released Dox is also assessed using the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Dox molecules released from the [p(NIPAM)<SUB>55</SUB>-<I>b</I>-p(His)<SUB><I>n</I></SUB>] micelles remain biologically active and have stimuli responsive capability to kill cancer cells. The self-assembling ability of these hybrid materials into uniform micelles and their efficiency to encapsulate Dox makes them a promising drug carrier to cancer cells. The new chimeric materials thus display tunable properties that can make them useful for a molecular switching device and controlled drug delivery applications needing responses to temperature and pH for the improvement of cancer chemotherapy.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/bomaf6/2013/bomaf6.2013.14.issue-5/bm400089m/production/images/medium/bm-2013-00089m_0008.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/bm400089m'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
<P>Smart delivery system of photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) has been developed for targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT). Simple self-assemblies of the mixtures comprising soybean lecithin derived phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine-poly(L-histidine)(40) (PE-p-(His)(40)), and folic acid (FA) conjugated phosphatidylethanolamine-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(40) (PE-p(NIPAM)(40)-FA) in different ratios yield smart nanospheres characterized by (i) stable and uniform particle size (similar to 100 nm), (ii) positive surface charge, (iii) high hydrophobic drug (Ce6) loading efficiency up to 45%, (iv) covalently linked targeting moiety, (v) low cytotoxicity, and (vi) smartness showing p(His) block oriented pH and p(NIPAM) oriented temperature responsiveness. The Ce6-encapsulated vesicular nanospheres (Ce6@VNS) were used to confirm the efficiency of cellular uptake, intracellular distribution, and phototoxicity against KB tumor cells compared to free Ce6 at different temperature and pH conditions. The Ce6@VNS system showed significant photodynamic therapeutic efficiency on KB cells than free Ce6. A receptor-mediated inhibition study proved the site-specific delivery of Ce6 in targeted tumor cells.</P>