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Over the past decade, Peter J. Katzenstein has made enormous contributions to our theoretical and empirical understanding of Asian economic and security regionalism, which has been manifested by the proliferation of intra- and extra-regional free trade agreements, regional financial institutions, and cooperative regional security dialogues. Katzensteins scholarly works on Asian regionalism and the changing role of Japan have set the pace for research in the field. In this article, a group of distinguished scholars in the field of Asian regionalismVinod K. Aggarwal, Min Gyo Koo, Amitave Acharya, Richard Higgott, and John Ravenhillcritically evaluate Katzensteins approach to the links among Japan, Asian regionalism, and global politics. In response, Katzenstein argues that Asian (and European) regionalism is linked to the American imperium and to core regional states and that regionalism is best studied with an eclectic approach. For him, regionalism is a force that defines security, economic, and cultural dimensions of world politics, thus bringing about a modicum of order therein.
The ultimate goal of regional integration is the long-term high economic growth for member states. Tax revenues are critical to achieving this objective, given the high dependence of developing countries on this fiscal revenue. However, empirical studies have been unable to determine whether regional integration improves or impedes the mobilization of taxes. We use data from 1980 to 2014 in order to estimate a tax model; the results based on the generalized method of moments technique reveal that East African regional integration has had a significant impact on tax revenue owing to the presence of good institutions. We advocate any policy agenda aimed at improving institutional environment, financial sector, macroeconomic stability, and manufacturing and trade, as well as a well-integrated approach to reduce a shadow economy. Finally, given the deleterious nature of capital account liberalization, we believe that cautiously designed capital control policies are likely to enhance tax collections in East Africa.
In contrast to the conventional political novel, which clearly promotes one political system over another, Joseph Conrad routinely rejects all political systems because they privilege ideas over people. In these works, Conrad consistently chronicles a political plot and a personal plot. These plots interact, and invariably Conrad focuses on the effect of the political plot on the personal plot, or more particularly on the damage the events of the political plot have on the individuals of the personal plot. Whether it be the deaths of Winnie and Stevie in The Secret Agent or the destruction of Razumov’s life in Under Western Eyes or Paul’s exile in “An Anarchist” or the death of Ruiz in “Gaspar Ruiz,” Conrad represents human beings not benefitting from political systems but being victims of them. Furthermore, Conrad regularly represents the competing political factions in his works as mirroring rather than opposing one another, which results in the end in their appearing to be little different from one another. The numerous revolutions in Nostromo are equally corrupt; the revolutionary movements and the established governments in The Secret Agent both believe that the ends justify the means; and the revolutionaries and authorities in Under Western Eyes are in the end indistinguishable from one another in their disregard for law and order. And yet Conrad does have hope, but that hope lies in human relationships, in such characters as Tekla in Under Western Eyes and Peyrol in The Rover, who choose people over politics, as we see Conrad time and again affirming those who affirm humanity and rejecting those who reject humanity.
Early research (Limas et al., 1971) as well as recent research (Polka L. & Worker, J.F., 1994) indicates that infants can discriminate between speech sounds very early before they speak. Furthermore, infants evidence the ability to differentiate between differences in talkers` voices (Kohl 1979, Kohl 1983). Hence, most language acquisition research maintains that perceptual capacities are innate and thus don`t discuss any possibilities that some perceptual capacities might be learned (e.g., Fletcher and Garman 1986; Machinery 1987; Piattelli-Palmarini 1980; Pinker 1984; Rice and Schiefelbusch 1989; Wanner and Gleitman 1982). However, some research (i.e. Aslin and Pisoni, 1980) indicates that some perceptual capacities are learned gradually over a period of time. This paper attempts to determine if bilingual infants in their first stages of language production show indications of differentiation between two different language systems.
Numerical calculations of the excitonic absorption spectra in a strained CdxZn1-xO/ZnO quantum dot are investigated for various Cd contents. We calculate the quantized energies of the exciton as a function of dot radius for various confinement potentials and thereby the interband emission energy is computed considering the internal electric field induced by the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations. The optical absorption as a function of photon energy for different dot radii is discussed. Decrease of exciton binding energy and the corresponding optical band gap with the Cd concentration imply that the confinement of carriers decreases with composition x. The main results show that the confined energies and the transition energies between the excited levels are significant for smaller dots. Non-linearity band gap with the increase in Cd content is observed for smaller dots in the strong confinement region and the magnitude of the absorption spectra increases for the transitions between the higher excited levels.
Background To date, there are no consensus guidelines for management of lymphatic leak in groin vascular reconstruction patients. The goal of this study is to review the relevant literature to determine alternatives for treatment and to design an evidence-based algorithm to minimize cost and morbidity and maximize efficacy. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. Two independent reviewers applied agreed-upon inclusion and exclusion criteria to eligible records. Studies that included patients who underwent groin dissection for oncologic diagnoses and level 5 data were excluded. Interventions were then categorized by efficacy using predetermined criteria. Results Our search yielded 333 records, of which eight studies were included. In four studies, the success of lymphatic ligation ranged from 75% to 100%, with average days to resolution ranging from 0 to 9. Conservative management in the form of elevation, compression, and bedrest may prolong time to resolution of lymphatic leak (14-24 days) and therefore cost. Conclusions The majority of patients should be offered early operative intervention in the form of lymphatic ligation with or without a primary muscle flap. If the patient is not an operative candidate, a trial of conservative management should be attempted before other nonsurgical interventions.