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This study was conducted to investigate the changes in total phenolic compounds and abscisic acid (ABA) according to cold stratification and seed harvesting date, and to examine the relationship between germination and the two probable inhibitors in Liriope spicata (creeping lily-turf) seeds. Germination percentage increased in a stratification duration-dependent manner and further stratification beyond 30 days did not show significant difference. Although total phenolic compounds and ABA contents of stratified seeds ranged from 30 to 60 days after cold stratification were slightly reduced, those of the seeds ranged from 0 to 30 days after cold stratification markedly decreased in a duration-dependent manner. Especially, total phenolic compounds and ABA within the seeds greatly decreased during the first 30 days of cold stratification. Depulped L. spicata seeds collected on October 12 did not germinate at all until 40 days after sowing, while those on following harvesting dates ranged from October 22 to December 21 showed various germination percentages ranged from 11.5 to 93.2%. Maximum germination percentage (93%) was obtained from seeds harvested from November 22 and December 1. The lowest content of phenolic compounds within seeds were found on November 22, following December 1, December 11, November 12, sequentially. The increase and decrease pattern of ABA during seed development was very similar to those of phenolic compounds within seeds. In conclusion, enhancing germination by depulping and cold stratification could be attributed to the removal of phenolic compounds and ABA within the pulps and the seeds of L. spicata. In addition, reduction of phenolic compounds contents and ABA within seeds during seed development seemed to be positively correlated with their germination percentage according to seed harvesting dates.
This paper aims to study on Korean [Speculation] and [Intention] modal expressions, ‘-겠-, -(으)ㄹ 것이다, -것 같다, -모양이다, -(으)ㄹ게, -(으)ㄹ래, -(으)ㄹ 걸, -나 보다’, in order to construct the Korean pedagogical grammar. These expressions seem to be problematic for both Korean language learners and teachers because they have distinctive but slippery semantic differences. Therefore, it is difficult not only for learners to distinguish those expressions, but also for teachers to explain them in a clear way. After careful discussion of critical characteristics and differences of those expressions, this paper could obtain the meaningful results for teaching Korean [Speculation] and [Intention] modal expressions. The implications discussed in this paper can be summarized as follows. First, it is necessary to use interactive conversational situations for teaching modal expressions. Second, the characteristics and differences of those expressions should be presented by either definitions or example sentences. Third, [Politeness] is an important Korean language modal category closely related with [Speculation] and [Intention]. We need to mention the modal expressions realizing [Politeness] in the Korean language textbooks.
Lee, Su-Yeon,Kang, Youn-Jung,Kwon, Jinie,Nishi, Yoshihiro,Yanase, Toshihiko,Lee, Kyung-Ah,Koong, Mi Kyoung The Korean Society for Reproductive Medicine 2020 Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine Vol.47 No.3
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate microRNAs (miRNAs) related to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) responsiveness using miRNA microarrays and to identify their target genes to determine the molecular regulatory pathways involved in FSH signaling in KGN cells. Methods: To change the cellular responsiveness to FSH, KGN cells were treated with FSH receptor (FSHR)-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) followed by FSH. miRNA expression profiles were determined through miRNA microarray analysis. Potential target genes of selected miRNAs were predicted using bioinformatics tools, and their regulatory function was confirmed in KGN cells. Results: We found that six miRNAs (miR-1261, miR-130a-3p, miR-329-3p, miR-185-5p, miR-144-5p and miR-4463) were differentially expressed after FSHR siRNA treatment in KGN cells. Through a bioinformatics analysis, we showed that these miRNAs were predicted to regulate a large number of genes, which we narrowed down to cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1) and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) as the main targets for miR-4463. Functional analysis revealed that miR-4463 is a regulatory factor for aromatase expression and function in KGN cells. Conclusion: In this study, we identified differentially expressed miRNAs related to FSH responsiveness. In particular, upregulation of miR-4463 expression by FSHR deficiency in human granulosa cells impaired 17β-estradiol synthesis by targeting CYP19A1 and ESR1. Therefore, our data might provide novel candidates for molecular biomarkers for use in research into poor responders.
<B>Objective</B><P>To examine genetic polymorphisms in the chemokine pathway, and to assess their interactions in relation to susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc).</P><B>Methods</B><P>To identify the risk of SSc conferred by genetic polymorphisms in the chemokine pathway, 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 8 candidate genes were studied in 99 patients with SSc and 198 age- and sex-matched controls in a Korean population. SNPs were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism or sequence-specific primer methods. Genetic associations between each SNP and SSc risk, calculated as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, were estimated using chi-square tests. Haplotypes for the 2 polymorphisms in the gene CCL5 (RANTES) were constructed, and their associations with SSc were tested. Gene–gene interactions were investigated using a recently described novel method, and the results were confirmed by conditional logistic regression. Adjustment for multiple testing was based on Bonferroni correction.</P><B>Results</B><P>There was significant evidence of gene–gene interaction between polymorphisms in the genes CXCL8 (interleukin-8) and CCL5, and both of these were associated with an increased risk of SSc. This SNP–SNP interaction was confirmed by 2 independent statistical methods. The associations remained significant after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing. No significant association between each individual SNP or haplotype and the risk of SSc was found.</P><B>Conclusion</B><P>Crosstalk between the 2 chemokines CXCL8 and CCL5 may contribute to the susceptibility to SSc.</P>
Purpose: We assessed the influence of antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) on the inhospital outcomes of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) infants. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with singletons born at 23+0 to 33+6 weeks of gestation at Seoul National University Hospital from 2007 to 2014. We compared clinical outcomes between infants who received ACS 2 to 7 days before birth (complete ACS), at <2 or >7 days (incomplete ACS), and those who did not receive ACS in IUGR and AGA infants. Multivariate logistic regression using Firth’s penalized likelihood was performed. Results: 304 neonates with 91 IUGR neonates were eligible. Among AGA neonates, mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02 to 0.78), hypotension within 7 postnatal days (aOR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.64), and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.77) were lower in complete ACS group after adjusting for pregnancy induced hypertension and uncontrolled preterm labor. Mortality (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.78), hypotension (aOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.70), and severe BPD or death (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.92) were also lower in the incomplete ACS group. Among IUGR infants, after adjusting for birth weight and 5-minute Apgar score, inhaled nitric oxide use within 14 postnatal days was lower in both complete ACS (aOR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.67) and incomplete ACS (aOR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.37) groups. Conclusion: ACS was not effective in reducing morbidities in IUGR preterm infants.
<P>In spite of the potential importance of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in the germinal center, its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. COX-2 is the key enzyme generating pleiotropic prostaglandins. Based on our previous findings, we hypothesized that lymphocytes would stimulate COX-2 expression in follicular dendritic cell (FDC) by liberating cytokines. In this study, we examined the effect of tonsillar lymphocytes on COX-2 expression in FDC-like cells by immunoblotting. B but not T cells induced COX-2 protein in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Sub-fractionation analysis of B cell subsets revealed that activated but not resting B cells were responsible for the COX-2 induction. Confocal microscopy of frozen tonsils demonstrated that FDCs indeed express COX-2 in situ, in line with the in vitro results. To identify the stimulating molecule, we added neutralizing antibodies to the coculture of FDC-like cells and B cells. COX-2 induction in FDC-like cells was markedly inhibited by TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody. Finally, the actual production of TNF-alpha by activated B cells was confirmed by an enzyme immunoassay. The current study implies an unrecognized cellular interaction between FDC and B cells leading to COX-2 expression during immune inflammatory responses.</P>
본 연구의 목적은 과제에 부과된 부담(스트레스)의 종류에 따른 과제 수행의 차이와 그 기저에 있는 인지신경학적 특성을 살펴보는 것이다. 이를 위하여 본 연구에서는 과제에 부과된 부담을 인지적인 스트레스와 정서적 스트레스로 구분하고 이러한 요소들이 과제수행에 미치는 영향에 대해 살펴보았다. 본 연구에서 참가자들은 제시되는 수식을 보고 수식의 참과 거짓 여부를 판단하는 과제를 수행하였다. 과제 수행 시에 유발되는 인지적 스트레스는 과제 난이도 조작을 통해, 정서적 스트레스는 과제 수행 시 타이머의 유/무와 수행의 자기 조절 가능성 여부의 조작을 통해 유발하였다. 행동 실험 결과 난이도가 높은 문제의 경우에는 정서적 스트레스가 과제 수행에 부정적인 영향을 미쳤다. 하지만 난이도가 낮은 문제의 경우에는 정서적 스트레스가 과제 수행에 긍정적인 영향을 미쳤다. 또한 추가적으로 ERP를 사용하여 과제에 부과된 부담에 따른 차이를 실시간으로 살펴본 결과 정서적 스트레스에 따른 차이는 P1,P2,N400 시간대에 좌반구 후두에서 나타났으며, 인지적 스트레스에 따른 차이는 N400 시간대에 우반구 전측과 중앙영역에서 두드러지게 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 스트레스가 인지적 스트레스와 정서적 스트레스와 구분될 수 있는 복합적인 개념이라는 것을 실험적으로 확인해주며 인지와 정서가 상호작용한다는 것을 시사한다. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference of performance depending on the type of stress imposed on the task. To do so, we divided the stress imposed on the task into cognitive stress and emotional stress and investigated the impact of these stresses on the performance of cognitive task. Participants were asked to solve arithmetic problems. The cognitive stress was aroused by manipulating task difficulty, and the emotional stress was aroused by manipulating the existence of timer and the possibility of self-paced task performance. The results of behavioral experiment showed that emotional stress has negative impact on solving cognitively more demanding problems, but the emotional stress has positive affect on solving less demanding problems. The results of the ERP study showed such that the effect of emotional stress is observed in P1, P2, N400 (left occipital lobe) and the effect of cognitive stress is observed in N400 (right anterior and central lobe). Interestingly, the interaction between emotional processing and cognitive processing was observed in P2 and N400 components. These findings provide experimental evidence that psychological stress is an umbrella concept including two distinct cognitive and emotional stresses and suggest that emotional processing and cognitive processing interact with each other.