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Jin, Sang‐,Man,Shin, Jun Seop,Kim, Kang Seok,Gong, Chang‐,Hoon,Park, Su Kyoung,Kim, Jung‐,Sik,Yeom, Su‐,Cheong,Hwang, Eung Soo,Lee, Choon Taek,Kim, Sang‐,Joon,Park, Chung Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011 Xenotransplantation Vol.18 No.6
<P>Jin S‐M, Shin JS, Kim KS, Gong C‐H, Park SK, Kim J‐S, Yeom S‐C, Hwang ES, Lee CT, Kim S‐J, Park C‐G. Islet isolation from adult designated pathogen‐free pigs: use of the newer bovine nervous tissue–free enzymes and a revised donor selection strategy would improve the islet graft function. Xenotransplantation 2011; 18: 369–379. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.</P><P><B>Abstract: </B><B> Background: </B> In clinical trials using adult porcine islet products, islets should be isolated from the designated pathogen‐free (DPF) pigs under the current good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations. Our previous studies suggested that male DPF pigs are better donors than retired breeder pigs and histomorphometrical parameters of donor pancreas predict the porcine islet quality. We aimed to investigate whether the use of the newer bovine nervous tissue–free enzymes and a revised donor selection strategy could improve the islet graft function in the context of islet isolation with DPF pigs.</P><P><B>Methods: </B> Using 30 DPF pigs within a closed herd, we compared the islet yield of porcine islets isolated with Liberase PI (n =<I> </I>11, as a historical control group), Liberase MTF C/T, which is a GMP‐grade enzyme (n<I> </I>=<I> </I>12), and CIzyme collagenase MA/BP protease (n<I> </I>=<I> </I>7). We analyzed the relationship between the diabetes reversal rate of recipient NOD/SCID mice (n<I> </I>=<I> </I>75) and histomorphometric parameters of each donor pancreas as well as donor characteristics.</P><P><B>Results: </B> Proportion of islets larger than 200 μm from the biopsied donor pancreas (P<I> </I>=<I> </I>0.006) better predicted islet yield than age (P<I> </I>=<I> </I>0.760) or body weight (P<I> </I>=<I> </I>0.371) of donor. The proportion of islets larger than 200 μm from the biopsied donor pancreas was not related to the sex of the donor miniature pig (P<I> </I>=<I> </I>0.358). The islet yield obtained with the three enzymes did not differ, even after stratification of the donor with the histomorphometric parameters of the biopsied donor pancreas and the sex of donor. The use of the newer bovine nervous tissue–free enzymes (P<I> </I><<I> </I>0.001), a higher proportion of large islets in donor pancreas (P<I> </I>=<I> </I>0.006), and a male sex of the donor (P<I> = </I>0.025) were independent predictors of earlier diabetes reversal.</P><P><B>Conclusions: </B> Use of the newer bovine nervous tissue–free enzymes including a GMP‐grade enzyme resulted in better islet quality than that of islet isolated using Liberase PI. To obtain high‐quality islet from DPF pigs, the donor should be male pig and histomorphometrical parameters from donor pancreas should be considered.</P>
To accurately measure Cl₂ mixing ratio using stack emission monitors and leak monitoring sensors in a workplace, it is essential calibrating monitors and sensors periodically using a Cl₂ standard gas mixture. Because there is no reliable analytical technique for Cl₂, an international standard for high-pressure Cl₂ gas mixtures has not been established. A novel approach for the quantification of Cl₂ was developed using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) with an expanded uncertainty of 0.7 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP>. A 100 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP> chlorine (Cl₂)/N₂ gas mixture was produced through a two-step procedure involving dilution of Cl₂ with N₂ in high-pressure aluminum cylinders. To check the consistency between 100 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP> Cl₂ gas mixtures in different cylinders, Cl₂ gas mixtures were quantified using the QMS based approach. It was found that four cylinders of 100 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP> Cl₂ gas mixtures prepared in 2016 agreed within 0.7 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP>. The long-term stability of 100 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP> Cl₂ gas mixtures was assessed through changes in the Cl₂ mixing ratio over a one-year. It was found that the 100 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP> Cl₂ gas mixture was stable within ±0.7 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP> over one year. Finally, 100 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP> Cl₂/N₂ gas mixture was successfully developed in a high pressure cylinder with an expanded uncertainty of 2.0 μmol mol<SUP>-1</SUP> (k=2; 95% confidence level).
AT Shift Quality is one of major drivability target and it needs much calibration effort in the respect of cost and time. These days test work of TCU calibration increases radically due to explosion of vehicle-engine variant and complexity of control parameter. Therefore automated calibration methodology was developed for time and cost efficiency by integration of objective drivability evaluation system, vehicle driving control system and automated calibration optimization system. In addition to development time and cost saving, this new methodology has also benefits of high reliability and repeatability of test result, which were proved by demonstration test.
Since the introduction of PCs, a keyboard, one of the most common input devices, has been studied primarily in terms of usability. Nowadays, the elements that can stimulate human affection are getting more attention. Therefore, this study explored the affection and design elements affecting user satisfaction of the keyboard. We selected 12 pairs of affective vocabularies related to the tactile feedback among the various affective attributes. Also, six common design elements of the keyboard were extracted. We then quantified the relationship between affection and user satisfaction using regression analysis and explored the relationship between design and affective attributes through correlation coefficients. Finally, we derived major design elements that affect user satisfaction through Quality Function Development (QFD) method. As a result, we were able to bring coolness, refreshing, familiarity, comfort, and firmness as the main affection. In addition, the pressure point force, reset point, actuation force, and key trigger travel were derived as the main design elements.