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Dysuria has been mentioned several times in “Treatise on cold” and “Golden Chamber” of Zhang Zhong-jing in Han Dynasty. This article makes a detailed discussion of etiology, pathogenesis, treatment and prescription of Dysuria from three periods that is Han and Tang Dynasty, Song and Yuan Dynasty, Ming and Qing Dynasty. It has demonstrated the inheritance, development and innovation of academe ideas of later physicians from Zhang Zhong-jing, which enriched and developed the theory of Zhong-jing.
Yogurt has high temperature sensitivity, resulting in the temperature variations from production to consumption. Cooling capacity of cold chain facilities and product storage height are regarded as factors contributing to temperature variations in this study. To find an effective method to monitor temperature history of every yogurt product, three measurements were used: the set point of a cold chamber, a data logger, and a time–temperature integrator (TTI). The mean measured yogurt quality factor (acidity, T) of 30 samples was 92.1 T, and predicted values were 91.8 T from the set point, 93.3 T from the data logger, and 92.4 T from the TTI. In terms of individual prediction, the SSE of the TTI showed the smallest difference (5.76) followed by 81.5 of the set point and 118.9 of the data logger. Thus, the TTI showed the best performance and can be used to monitor the time–temperature history of yogurt in the cold chain system.
The therapeutic effects of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on ischemic stroke have been extensively studied in recent years. However, the differences in early EPCs and endothelial outgrowth cells (EOCs) are still unclear. Clarifications of their respective properties and specific functioning characteristics contribute to better applications of EPCs in ischemic diseases. In this review, we discuss cellular origin, isolation, culture, surface markers of early EPCs and EOCs and relevant applications in neurological diseases. We conclude that EOCs possess all characteristics of true endothelial progenitors and have potent advantages in EPC-based therapies for ischemic diseases. A number of preclinical and clinical applications of EPCs in neurological diseases are under study. More studies are needed to determine the specific characteristics of EPCs and the relevant mechanisms of EPCs for neurological diseases.
Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of diamide insecticides has led to DBM resistance in the world, and this presents a serious threat to vegetable production. In the present study, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were combined to investigate the potential flubendiamide‐resistance mechanism in DBM. The lab‐selected (Rh) and field‐collected (Rb) flubendiamide‐resistant lines of P. xylostella with resistance ratios of 1889.92‐fold and 1250.97‐fold, respectively, were used, as well as a lab‐reared flubendiamide‐susceptible line (S). Compared with the S group, the transcriptomic analysis revealed 151 upregulated and 287 downregulated gene messengers in the Rh group and 432 upregulated and 565 downregulated gene messengers in the Rb group. The most frequently enriched pathways of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly involved in metabolic pathways. Metabolism related genes, including two P450, two ABC transporters, and three trypsins, were upregulated in the Rh line. Additionally, some P450 genes, trypsin, juvenile hormone (JH), and mucin genes were also upregulated in the Rb line. In proteomic analysis comparisons with the S group, there were 78 upregulated and 90 downregulated proteins in the Rh group and 221 upregulated and 155 downregulated proteins in the Rb group. Further analyses found that three CYP and 11 CYP proteins were over‐expressed in Rh and Rb lines, respectively. Four glutathione S‐transferase (GST) and four UGTs were over‐expressed in Rb line. So, we deduced that the detoxification metabolism may be the main mechanism of flubendiamide resistance in P. xylostella.
To investigate schemes of secret key generation from Ultra-wideband (UWB) channel, we study a statistical characterization of UWB outdoor channel for a campus playground scenario based on extensive measurements. Moreover, an efficient secret key generation mechanism exploiting multipath relative delay is developed, and verification of this algorithm is conducted in UWB Line-of-sight (LOS) outdoor channels. For the first time, we compare key-mismatch probability of UWB indoor and outdoor environments. Simulation results demonstrate that the number of multipath proportionally affects key generation rate and key-mismatch probability. In comparison to the conventional method using received signal strength (RSS) as a common random source, our mechanism achieves better performance in terms of common secret bit generation. Simultaneously, security analysis indicates that the proposed scheme can still guarantee security even in the sparse outdoor physical environment free of many reflectors.
In this paper, forced vibration was used to regulate the droplet migration, fully recording the transient migration of droplets on a micro-textured substrate under the resonance frequency by a high-speed camera. The influence of resonance frequency and dynamic migration characteristics of droplets on the solid micro-texture surface under lateral vibration were researched. The experiment demonstrates that the driving force is caused by the difference between the left and right contact angles made the droplet oscillate and migrate, and as time t increases, the left and right contact points are periodically shifted and the amplitude of migration increases. Therefore, based on the droplet migration behavior and its force balance mechanism, a spring vibration model of migration behavior of the vibrating droplet micro unit was set up to predict the complete trajectory of its migration on a solid surface. The calculation results show that the theoretical displacement is less than the experimental displacement, and the longer the time, the larger the difference. Affected by the vibration, part of the droplet permeates through the micro-texture, resulting in the droplet losing height and the contact angle becoming smaller as well. While the other part of droplet overcomes the internal surface tension to migrate.
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Marine fish skin peptides (FSP) have been widely studied due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. We aimed to use a natural antioxidant, FSP, to replacing synthetic preservatives in a pork patty model, which is safer for human body. Moreover, nano-liposome technology can be applied for masking the fishy smell and improving the stability of this peptide. Therefore, in this study, the effects of FSP and FSP-loaded liposomes (FSPL) on pork patty were evaluated through the tests of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), color, cooking loss, texture, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), and the pH value, during 14 d of refrigerated (4°C) storage. The results showed that all FSP-treated patties had lower TBARS values than control patties, which indicated an inhibitory effect of FSP on lipid oxidation. This effect in the patties depended on the FSP concentration. However, FSPL-treated patties showed significantly higher and undesirable TBARS values compared to the control, and this effect depended on the FSPL concentration. None of the physicochemical results showed remarkable changes except the pH and VBN values. Therefore, this study provides evidence that FSP has great potential to inhibit the lipid oxidation of pork patties and is capable of maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life. However, it is necessary to study the application of FSP treatments greater than 3% to improve the antioxidant effect on pork patties and search for other coating materials and technology to reduce the drawbacks of FSP.
Zircon is usually used as a main additive to silica-based ceramic core materials in precise investment casting in order toimprove their high temperature properties. But there is still a disagreement in its effect on crystallization behavior of fusedsilica. In this study, cristobalite crystallization of fused silica in three silica-based core materials containing 10, 30 and 50 wt%zircon respectively were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energydispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS). Results showed that zircon addition had neglected effect on cristobalite crystallizationduring sintering at 1180 oC, 1200 oC, and 1220 oC, but could decrease crystallization during simulated casting process at1500 oC. It was suggested that diffusion of zirconium atoms played a crucial role in this suppressing behavior of zircon on thecristobalite crystallization. During cooling from 1500 oC, cristobalite transformation from β to α caused microcracks in thesesamples that containing 10% or 30% zircon. But when zircon content increased to 50%, crack was prevented. Less phasetransformation of fused silica → cristobalite and enhanced strength by zircon was supposed to be the reason that wasresponsible for prevented cracks.
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a colon-specific, pulsatile drug delivery system, which consists of an impermeable capsule body filled with a 5-aminosalicylic acid rapid-disintegrating tablet and a pectin-based erodible plug placed in the opening of the capsule body. To obtain an appropriate gel-forming ability and suitable lag time for the colon-specific drug delivery, high-methoxy pectin (HM-pectin) was formulated with lactose and lowmethoxy pectin (LM-pectin) with HPMC to prepare the plug tablet. In order to evaluate the lag time, prior to the rapid drug release, both the formulation of the plug tablet and in vitro release medium were studied. The lag time prior to the rapid drug release was mainly determined by the HM-pectin/lactose or LM-pectin/HPMC ratio. The addition of pectinase or rat cecal content into the release medium shortened the lag time significantly, which predicted the probable enzyme sensitivity of pectin plug tablet. In vivo studies showed that the plasma concentration of drug can only be detected 6 h after oral administration of the pulsatile capsule, which indirectly proved the colon-specific characteristics. These results show that the pulsatile capsule may have the therapeutic action for colon-specific drug delivery.