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선조대 장수였던 박진은 密陽府使시절 33세의 나이에 임진왜란을 맞이하게 되었다. 그는 개전 초기 소산역과 작원관에서 일본군의 공격을 저지하고자 하였으나, 수적열세로 연이어 패배를 당하였다. 그럼에도 박진은 이들에 맞서 항전하였고, 그 공적을 인정받아 慶尙左兵使로 임명을 받았다. 당시 경상좌도의 상황은 개전 초기 일본군에 의해 대부분의 지역이 유린을 당하면서, 군사력이 와해되었다. 경상좌병사로 부임한 박진은 행정관내의 명령체계를 구축하고 군사들을 수습하였다. 그 결과 경상좌도 조선군은 반격을 감행하여 영천성과 경주성 등 주요 읍성들을 수복하는 등 육전에서의 전황을 유리하게 이끌었다. 이후 안동으로 돌아간 박진은 이 지역 의병장들과 수차례 논의 하면서 상호 협조체제를 구축하여 이 일대에서 활동하는 일본군을 격퇴하였다. 이듬해 4월 그는 조정에 입조하였으며, 명나라 장수와 군사를 논하면서 도성의 상황과 관련된 정보를 입수하기도 하였다. 이후 박진은 督捕使로서 다시 경상도로 내려가 밀양과 초계 등지에서 일본군과 맞서 싸우면서 주요 지역을 방어하였으며, 경상우도와 전라도, 황해도에서 군사업무를 수행하다가 1597년 38세로 사망하였다. 박진은 임진왜란기 장수로 활동하면서 당대로부터 긍정적인 평가와 함께 부정적인 평가도 함께 따라다녔으며, 수많은 전공을 세웠음에도 그의 사후에는 임진왜란 공신명단에 오르지 못했다. 이로 인해 그 후대에 이르러서도 그 공적에 대해 제대로 인정받지 못했다. 하지만 전쟁 당시 육전에서 뛰어난 전공을 세웠던 그의 행적들은 조선의 대표적인 명장으로 기억될 것이다. Park-Jin, born in 1560 and a military commander during the reign of King Seonjo in the Choson Dynasty, met the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592 when he was the governor of Miryang at the age of 33. In the early days of the war, he tried to block the Japanese army's advance in Sosan Yeok and Jagwon Gwan, but was defeated consecutively due to the numerical inferiority. Nevertheless, Park-Jin fought back against the enemy persistently, by which he was appointed to the chief commander in left Gyeongsang province, recognizing his contribution. The circumstances of left Gyeongsang province at that time were ruined in most of the regions by Japanese army's invasion in the early days of the war, consequently the military power of Choson collapsed. As proceeded to his new post, the chief commander in left Gyeongsang province, Park-Jin established the commanding system in his administrative jurisdiction and collected soldiers. As a result, the Choson armed forces of left Gyeongsang province could counterattack, by which the main town castles including Yeongcheon and Gyeongju castle were recaptured, before the war situation in ground battles turned to be favorable for Choson armed forces. Afterwards, coming back to Andong, Park-Jin discussed about military operations several times with generals of Righteous Armies in these regions, while establishing mutual co-operation systems, and this resulted in allowing Choson armed forces to beat off Japanese armies operating in this area. In April next year, as he entered in the Royal Court, he performed the role of a military diplomat, while discussing about the military matters with Ming dynasty's generals and collecting the informations related to the Capital's situations and so on. Later, he returned to Gyeongsang province as a chief general, and defended major regions, fighting against Japanese armies in Miryang, Chogye and other regions. Afterwards, while he conducted military operations in right Gyeongsang, Jeolla and Hwanghae province, died in 1597 at the age of 38. While Park-Jin took an active role of a military commander during the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, he received positive assessment followed by negative one, and in spite of numerous distinguished war services, his name was not recorded in the Meritorious Subject list for the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592 after his death. Consequently, even arriving at later generations, his contributions were not recognized properly. However, his distinguished services in the ground battles during the war time will allow him to be remembered as a typical great military commander of the Choson Dynasty.
The Golpum system was the unique form of the status system in the Silla dynasty in Korea. It was a typical ancient Korean society`s status system which has been investigated field in the academia. In particular, a kinship system, which is composed of Seong-gol and Jin-gol, is the most hottest issue in the Korean academic circles. However, there is a no point of agreement whether Seong-gol was the reality or not, and concerning about its management and times. This research has a purpose to investigate how the status system established and guaranteed in the society. The Buddism has attracted public attention as a theoretical basis of the status system. The Samkuksagi (The chronics of the three nations) described the Buddism as a state religion while it did not focus on the myths about the Buddism. We assume that the Buddism was the meaningful political controller in the Silla dynasty. Seong-gol was regarded as the royal familiy, and it was available when the King had the superiority over the nobility. The Kings of Sylla dynasty had been called the Great King with a qualifier ``saint`` when the Buddism instituted a state religion. It means that Seong-gol (the saunt family) was established based on the Buddism. Jin-gol also entered a field of history similar times to Seong-gol, and both two terminologies was established the same period in terms of the Buddism terminology. Seong-gol guaranteed a royal family`s prestige through the change of ennoble system Galmun King and the use of the Great King title. The King`s brother, who were Seong-gol, secured the superiority over the nobility by getting the title of ennoblement. The Kings also solidified their status through the ennoble system, and they monopolized political power because the kings restrained the right of succession only kings heirs. Jin-gol also guaranteed their political prestige after established Daedeung. The House of Lords in Silla dynasty limited the qualification only who had the title of Daedeung. Jin-gol class took the reins of the nobility through only Jin-gol getting the title of Daedeung.
This study was carried out to apply an optimized convenient assay, exploiting azo dye-bound chromogenic substrates, to measurement of protease activity. When determined for responses at varying concentrations of two substrates, azocasein and azoalbumin, using 0.5 and 5.0 mg/mL each of bovine pancreas trypsin, 3% azocasein was found to be the most appropriate substrate solution to measure protease activity. Compared with a conventional casein-Folin phenol assay, the chromogen-based protease assay exploiting 3% azocasein showed better precision to have a coefficient of variability in seven repetitive measurements less than 1.11%. When various reagent-grade and industrial proteases that showed proteinase or peptidase activities were tested by this assay at increasing enzyme concentrations, typical shape of rectangular hyperbola in activity-enzyme concentration profiles was observed. In addition, the assay of this study was suitable for activity measurement in real samples that were prepared by hydrolyzing wheat gluten and anchovy fine powder with proteases.
이 글의 목적은 수양서에 보이는 양생사상을 밝히는 것이다. 수양서는 조선조 영조 때에 영의정을 역임한 심수현(沈壽鉉, 1663~1736)이 저술한 것으로 알려져 있다. 그 내용은 중국 당대의 사마승정이 저술한 천은자제사를 필두로 조기결, 소씨양생결, 그리고 도인법 등 중국의 서적, 그리고 조선의 정렴이 지은 양생지남, 조선 단학파의 단가별방 등 신선술의 수련과 양생에 관한 것이다. 이것은 심수현의 독창은 아니고 그가 편집하여 재구성한 것이다. 수양서의 핵심 사상은 속인 신선론에 집약된다. 속인도 양기를 잘 하면 누구나 신선이 될 수 있다는 사상이다. 이 같은 사상은 양생지남에도 보이는 조선단학파의 일관된 사상체계와 그 맥락을 같이 한다는 점에서 의의가 크다고 할 수 있다. 수양의 단계로는 재계, 안처, 존상, 좌망, 신해의 5점문이 있으며 실제의 수련에는 도인법, 토납법, 연액법, 존상법을 들고 있다. The purpose of this study was to find out the philosophy of the nourishing vitality in Sooyangseo(修養書). This was written a writing brushy by Shim Soo Hyun(沈壽鉉, 1663~1736)who was consecutively occupied the prime minister of the king Young Jo in Choseon dynasty. Bibliographical method was adopted to analyze the Sooyangseo. The result of this study is following. 1. Sooyangseo was completed the many kind of the Shentaoshu(仙道書)that was written about the training method the shinshen(神仙). Shim Soo Hyun made a dupulicate of these Shentaoshu which included the Chinese and Korean. Tianyintsu(天隱子), A secret about the breath manipulation(調氣訣), the secret on nourishing vitality by Chao(巢氏養生訣), Daoin and A guide the nourishing vitality(Yangsaengjinam), A special secret of jindan (Dangabyolbang) was there in. 2. The principal idea in Sooyangseo is that anyone who willingly learns and who has strong will and talent can be a shenxian. Shim Soo Hyun emphasized the theory of all the people is shinshen. Even the ordinary became the shinshen if he was going to training method the shinshen. This was the same theory of the Danhak school in Chosun. The theory of 'Easy and simple Shinshen' was the traditional thought in Chosun dynasty. 3. Sooyangseo explains in detail how to train the yangchi(養氣) in the human body, which is considered an important aspect to becoming a shinshen. The training methods follow the gradual five doors involving the purification of body and mind, the good daily life, the concentration of mind, the meditation, the enlightenment. 4. A ordinary who will become shinshen had to put in practice Daoin, breathing like a fetus, swallow his saliva, meditation for concentration of mind.
Young-Ah,Han,Min-Sung,Kang,Soo-Nam,Kim,Jae-Hwan,Kim,Jin,Soo,Lee,Jin-Hee,Lee,Young-Soo,Yang,Seong-Jin,Choi,Soon-Jin,Kwon,Heung-Sik,Seo,Byeong-Chan,Lee,Hee-Jin,Yu,Jeong-Ah,Song,Eun-Jung,Park,Kyung,Jin,J 한국환경독성학회 2009 한국독성학회 심포지움 및 학술발표회 Vol.2009 No.11
Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium that opportunistically infects humans with underlying hepatic diseases, heavy alcohol drinking habits, and other immunocompromised conditions. A locus in the V. vulnificus genome was cloned and sequenced, which showed similarities to the bacterial two-component signal transduction system. The locus encoded a putative sensor kinase, designated vvgS, and a divergently transcribed putative response regulator, designated vvgR. VvgS was predicted to be a protein belonging to the tripartite hybrid sensor kinase subfamily such as ArcB and BvgS. VvgR showed similarities to well known response regulators. An insertional mutation of vvgS in a V. vulnificus strain led to a remarkable decrease of cytotoxicity to HeLa cells, while the production of exotoxins, the hemolysin and the protease, slightly increased by the vvgS mutation. Adhesion to HeLa cells only slightly decreased. However, the vvgS mutation had no effect on the motility of V. vulnificus. The vvgS mutation resulted in a significant decrease of lethality to mice. These results indicate that vvgRS two-component system plays a very important role in regulating novel virulence factor(s) of V. vulnificus associated with cytotoxicity other than hemolysin and protease during the infection process.