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1993년부터 2015년까지 관측된 제주도 지하수 장기모니터링 관측정(N = 4,835)에서 수집된 지하수 수질자료(N = 21,568)를 기반으로 질산성질소의 시공간적 변동 특성을 평가하였다. 제주도 지하수의 질산성질소 농도의 중앙값은 2.5 mg/L로서 다른 국가나 대륙의 조사 결과에 비해 다소 높거나 유사한 것으로 나타났다. 또한 지하수 용도, 행정구역 및 고도 별로 유의한 차이를 보였다. 특히, 산간 지역에 비해 저지대 해안가에 위치한 농업 및 주거지역에서 농도가 높음을 확인하였다. Mann-Kendall 및 Sen’s slope 분석을 활용한 질산성질소 농도의 추세 분석 결과, 하류 저지 대에 비해 중산간지역에서의 질산성질소 농도 증가 경향이 뚜렷하였다. 제주도 내 토지 피복의 시계열 변화 특성과 결부 지어 보면, 중산간지역의 오염 증가 추세는 농업지역의 확장 등 인위적 활동 증가에 기인한 결과로 판단된다. 반면,기지정된 지하수자원특별관리구역에서는 전반적으로 질산성질소 농도의 감소 경향이 나타났는데, 이는 지하수 관리 측면에서 수질관리를 위한 적극적인 정책이 유효함을 시사한다. 본 연구에서는 제주도 지하수의 질산성질소 오염관리를 위한 적정 방안을 제안한다. The spatio-temporal variations of nitrate concentrations in groundwater of Jeju Island were evaluated by an analysis of time series groundwater quality data (N = 21,568) that were collected from regional groundwater monitoring (number of wells = 4,835) for up to 20 years between 1993 and 2015. The median concentration of NO 3 -N is 2.5 mg/L, which is slightly higher than those reported from regional surveys in other countries. Nitrate concentrations of groundwater in wells tend to significantly vary according to different water usage (of the well), administrative districts, and topographic elevations: nitrate level is higher in low-lying agricultural and residential areas than those in high mountainous areas. The Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope analysis show that nitrate concentration in mid-mountainous areas tends to increase, possibly due to the expansion of agricultural areas toward highland. On the other hand, nitrate concentrations in the Specially Designated Groundwater Quality Protection Zones show the temporally decreasing trend, which implies the efficiency of groundwater management actions in Jeju. Proper measures for sustainable groundwater quality management are suggested in this study.
Jin‑Kyung Jeon,Hyunseon Seo,Jimin Park,Soo Ji Son,Yeong Rim Kim,Eun Shil Kim,Jong Woong Park,Woong‑Gyo Jung,Hojeong Jeon,Yu‑Chan Kim,Hyun‑Kwang Seok,Jae Ho Shin,Myoung‑Ryul Ok 대한금속·재료학회 2019 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.25 No.4
The excessive initial corrosion rate of Mg is a critical limitation in the clinical application of biodegradable Mg implantsbecause the device loses its fi xation strength before the fractured bone heals. This study suggests a new approach to overcomethis hurdle by accelerating tissue regeneration instead of delaying the implant biodegradation. As angiogenesis is anessential process in early bone regeneration, a Mg implant coated with electrospun nanofi bers containing nitric oxide (NO),which physiologically promotes angiogenesis, is designed. The integrated device enables adjustable amounts of NO to bestored on the NO donor-conjugated nanofi ber coating, stably delivered, and released to the fractured bone tissue near theimplanted sites. An in vitro corrosion test reveals no adverse eff ect of the released NO on the corrosion behavior of the Mgimplant. Simultaneously, the optimal concentration level of NO released from the implant signifi cantly enhances tube networkformation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells without any cytotoxicity problem. This indicates that angiogenesis canbe accelerated by combining NO-releasing nanofi bers with a Mg implant. With its proven feasibility, the proposed approachcould be a novel solution for the initial stability problem of biodegradable Mg implants, leading to successful bone fi xation.
Jin, Kwang Hyun. “Legal Conflicts and Justice in Measure for Measure: Natural Law vs. Civil Law.” The Journal of Modern British & American Language & Literature. 30.4 (2012): 259-279. This paper aims to study distinctive and often contradictory concepts of law such as civic, natural, common and ecclesiastical in one of the Shakespeare"s problem plays, Measure for Measure. The legal tensions are deeply embedded in the structure of the play: providential legalism (equitable justice) vs. civic justice (political expediency). The judicial dilemma of the play derives from the fact that Juliet"s premarital pregnancy and her legal relationship with Claudio can be viewed and legally judged from two contradictory perspectives: legitimate consummation vs. fornication. In Vienna where there is no divinely-established legal authority, the law becomes a political instrument for the political expediency of the state. The Vienneses legal authorities ascribe social disorder and moral breakdown to unrestrained sexual energies in an attempt to reestablish social order and state control mechanism. In that sense, the play is clearly symptomatic of the dynamic and unprecedented social, economic and religious changes and subsequent moral tensions in the late British Renaissance. (University of Ulsan)
Outdoor terminations connecting overhead transmission lines and power cables comprise a stress relief cone, which is made of silicone rubber, and insulating oil in a composite or porcelain insulator. The lower the insulating oil viscosity, the greater is its ease of injection. However, the swelling and the degree of change in the electrical properties of the silicone rubber increase with a decrease in the insulating oil viscosity. Therefore, the efect of the expected change in the electrical proper‑ ties of the silicone rubber on the outdoor termination quality should be examined before choosing the insulating oil. In this study, specimens made of insulating and semiconducting silicone rubber were made to swell by impregnating them with three types of insulating oils with diferent viscosities. The AC breakdown strength of the swollen insulating specimens and the volume resistivity and relative permittivity of the semiconducting specimens were measured. The Weibull statistical analysis showed that the lower the insulating oil viscosity, the lower was the AC breakdown strength in overlapping con‑ fdence intervals. The volume resistivity and relative permittivity of the semiconducting specimens changed considerably with a change in the viscosity of the insulating oil. In particular, the volume resistivity of the specimen impregnated with the lowest viscosity insulating oil was 1.57×106 Ω m, indicating loss of semiconducting properties. Furthermore, the efect of changes in the electrical characteristics of the specimens on the outdoor termination quality was examined by performing an electric feld analysis. Compared with the other oils, impregnation with the lowest viscosity insulating oil resulted in the electric feld strength at the edge of the outer semiconducting layer increasing by 15.7%.
Background p19arf, primarily known as a tumor suppressor, has also been reported to play an essential role in normal development of mouse eyes. Consistently, lack of p19arf has been associated with ocular defects, but the mixed background of the knockout (KO) mouse strain used raised a concern on the accuracy of the phenotypes observed in association with the targeted gene due to genetic heterogeneity. Object We carried out a study to investigate into the efect of genetic background on the manifestation of p19arf KO associated phenotypes. Methods We characterized the phenotypes of novel p19arf KO mouse lines generated in FVB/N and C57BL/6J using a transcription activator-like efector nuclease (TALEN) system in comparison to the reported phenotypes of three other p19arf-defcient mouse lines generated using homologous recombination. Results Ninety-fve percent of FVB/N-p19arf KO mice showed ocular opacity from week 4 after birth which worsened rapidly until week 6, while such abnormality was absent in C57BL/6J-p19arf KO mice up to the age of 26 weeks. Histopathological analysis revealed retrolental masses and dysplasia in the retinal layer in FVB/N-p19arf KO mice from week 4. Besides these, both strains developed normally from birth to week 26 without increased tumorigenesis except for a subcutaneous tumor found in a C57BL/6J-p19arf KO mouse. Conclusion Our fndings demonstrated surprisingly variable manifestation of p19arf-linked phenotypes between FVB/N and C57BL/6J mice, and furthermore between our mouse lines and the established lines, indicating a critical impact of genetic background on functional study of genes using gene targeting strategies in mice.
This paper proposes a fault-tolerant control (FTC) strategy for an open-circuit fault (OCF) of a single IGBT in a two-parallelconnected three-phase AC–DC pulse-width-modulation (PWM) converter system. In the case of the parallel-connected PWM converter system, the OCF of the IGBT causes not only DC-link voltage fluctuation and grid current distortion, but also a zero-sequence circulating current (ZSCC). Although the effect of these problems can be reduced by existing FTC methods which is used in the single PWM converter, it is difficult to totally mitigate the problems due to the ZSCC. Therefore, this paper proposes a new FTC strategy to suppress the ZSCC using the healthy converter in the parallel-connected converter. First, it is analyzed how the difference in common-mode (CM) voltage between the two converters causes ZSCC flowing inside the parallel-connected converter under the fault condition. And then, the limitation of the existing control method for ZSCC is explained. To suppress the ZSCC using the healthy converter, the proposed control method uses a d-axis voltage injection of the healthy converter which does not affect an active power control. The effectiveness of the proposed FTC strategy is verified through experimental results.
In 2007, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended an immunization schedule for adults residing in Korea. This recommendation includes four categories: standard immunization for healthy persons, supplementary immunization for persons with underlying illnesses, recommendations for health-care personnel and for international travelers. The Standard Immunization Schedule consists of universal vaccination (tetanus-diphtheria/tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Td/Tdap); hepatitis A vaccine for persons aged 20s; human papilloma virus vaccine for women under 26 years old; meningococcal vaccine for military recruits and college students in dormitories; influenza vaccination for persons aged 50 years or more and pregnant women; and pneumococcal vaccination for persons aged 65 years or more) and catch-up vaccination (hepatitis A vaccine for persons aged 30s; hepatitis B vaccine, varicella and MMR vaccines for persons who have uncertain specific immunities). The Supplementary Immunization Schedule recommends 4 vaccines, i.e., pneumococcal, influenza, meningococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, appropriate to the underlying illnesses, and confirmation of the presence of antibodies to hepatitis A and hepatitis B. The Recommendation for Health-Care Personnel includes universal vaccination (influenza and pertussis) and catch-up vaccination (hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella and varicella for seronegative health-care personnel). The Recommended Immunization for International Travelers focuses reinforcement of vaccinations for healthy persons and includes certain immunizations necessary for international travel (yellow fever, meningococcal, plaque, tick-borne encephalitis, and cholera). These guidelines can be seen at www.ksid.or.kr.