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      • KCI등재

        한국인 직무 스트레스 측정도구의 개발 및 표준화

        장세진,고상백,강동묵,김성아,강명근,이철갑,정진주,조정진,손미아,채창호,김정원,김정일,김형수,노상철,박재범,우종민,김수영,김정연,하미나,박정선,이경용,김형렬,공정옥,김인아,김정수,박준호,현숙정,손동국 大韓産業醫學會 2005 대한직업환경의학회지 Vol.17 No.4

        Background and Purposes: Over the past three decades, numerous studies performed in Korea have reported that job stress is a determinant risk factor for chronic diseases and work disability. Every society has its own culture and occupational climate particular to their organizations, and hence experiences different occupational stress. An occupational stress measurement tool therefore needs to be developed to estimate it objectively. The purpose of this study is to develop and standardize the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) which is considered to be unique and specific occupational stressors in Korean employees. Subjects and Methods: Data were obtained from the National Study for Development and Standardization of Occupational Stress (NSDSOS Project: 2002-2004). A total of 12,631 employees from a nationwide sample proportional to the Korean Standard Industrial Classification and the Korean Standard Occupational Classification were administered. The KOSS was developed for 2 years (2002-2004). In the first year, we collected 255 items from the most popular job stress measurement tools such as JCQ, ERI, NIOSH and OSI, and 44 items derived from the a qualitative study (depth interview). Forty-three items of KOSS, in the second year, were retained for use in the final version of the KOSS by using Delphi and factor analysis. Items were scored using conventional 1-2-3-4 Likert scores for the response categories. Results: We developed eight subscales by using factor analysis and validation process: physical environment (3 items), job demand (8 items), insufficient job control (5 items), interpersonal conflict (4 items), job insecurity (6 items), organizational system (7 items), lack of reward (6 items), and occupational climate (4 items). Together they explained 50.0% of total variance. Internal consistency alpha scores were ranged from 0.51 to 0.82. Twenty-four items of the short form of the KOSS (KOSS-SF) were also developed to estimate job stress in the work setting. Because the levels of the subscales of occupational stress were gender dependent, gender-specific standard norms for both the 43-item full version and the 24-item short form using a quartile for the subscales of KOSS were presented. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that KOSS might be an appropriate measurement scale to estimate occupational stress of Korean employees. Further and more detailed study needs to be conducted to improve the validity of this scale.

      • KCI등재후보

        클럽 샤프트(Club Shaft) 특성에 따른 골프 스윙(Golf Swing)동작 분석

        김성일,김기형,김형수,이현섭,김진욱,안찬규,김희진 한국운동역학회 2002 한국운동역학회지 Vol.12 No.2

        본 연구는 클럽 샤프트의 대표적인 재질인 그라파이트(graphite)의 유연한(flexible) 클럽 샤프트(club shaft)의 특성에 따라 피험자가 운동학적(kinematics) 요인이 되는 관절의 각변위, 각속도, 각가속도, 클럽헤드의 속도와 가속도와 같은 변인들이 어떻게 적응하는지 비교 분석하여 보다 효율적인 드라이버 선택에 도움을 주며 샤프트 특성에 따른 신체관절의 움직임에 대한 자료를 제시하고자 하였다. 고속 카메라 2대의 속도는 500fps로 하였고 각 regylar,stiff, x-stiff, 자신의 클럽을 포함 각 4개의 클럽을 사용하여 각 클럽당 3번씩 촬영하였으며 목표방향에서 20m이상 벗어나는 경우의 촬영은 다시 촬영하였다. 본 연구에서는 디지타이징(digitizing)을 신체 9개 마커는 강체로 가정된 클럽과 신체분절 모델로 정의하였으며 2 대의 카메라(500fps)로부터 얻은 avi화일을 컴퓨터에 저장하고 자료로부터 Butterworth 6th order recursive digital filter를 사용하여 1차 자료를 smoothing 하고 DLT를 이용하여 3차원 좌표를 구성하도록 한다. 좌표값을 얻기 위하여 kwon3d v3.0을 이용하였다. 본 실험은 피험자 스스로 클럽의 특성에 따라 스윙의 속도를 달리 하기 때문에 스윙의 시간이 달라지며 어느 정도 클럽이 강성에 따라 스윙시간이 빨라지는 결과로 나타났다. 이것은 피험자가 샤프트가 강성(stiffness)에 따라 스윙 속도를 빨리 하게 되는 원인이 되는 것으로 생각된다. 어깨의 각변위는 클럽이 regular의 경우 임팩트에서 각속도를 계속 유지하고 있으며 stiff, x-stiff의 경우에는 어깨의 움직임이 임팩트에서 급격하게 감소되는 것을 알 수 있다. 이것은 팔의 동작과 클럽의 힘을 크게 하기 위한 동작으로 생각된다. 어깨 각속도는 클럽이 stiff할수록 각속도가 큰 감속하는 것으로 나타났다. 손목속도는 regular 클럽의 경우 손목의 감속이 늦게 되고 임팩트에서 손목의 감속이 적게 하는 것으로 나타났으며 stiff와 x-stiff의 클럽에서 임팩트 시에 순간적인 감가속으로 인해 클럽의 속도를 증가시키고 있다. 임팩트 시에 손목의 감가속은 클럽헤드의 임팩트 시 속도를 증가시키는 결과를 보였다. 클럽헤드는 regular 클럽이 임팩트전에는 속도 증가가 커지는 결과와 일치된 결과를 보이고 있다. The purpose of this study was to find the rational method to analyze golf swing with specific property of club shaft. Three subjects were filmed by two high speed digital cameras with 500fps. The phase analyzed was downswing of each subject. The three-dimensional coordinates of the anatomical landmarks were obtained with motion analysis system Kwon3d 3.0 version and smoothed by lowpass digital filter with cutoff frequency 6Hz. From these data, kinematic and kinetic variables were calculated using Matlab(ver 5.0) The variables for this study were angular velocity and accelerations, which were calculated and following conclusions have been made : 1) Golf swing time of stiff club is faster than that of regular club. 2) In shoulder joint motion of swing with the stiff club, x-stiff showed mort rapid negative acceleration than that of regular club. 3) In regular club, the velocity of club head would be more effective velocity, which was increasing, than those of other clubs before impact. 4) In wrist joint motion of swing with stiff club, x-stiff club showed faster than regular club in the downswing and impact more rapid negative acceleration.

      • KCI등재후보

        Lidocaine, Thrombin, Epinephrine 의 항균효과

        김진우,이동건,전혜선,김승준,김석찬,안중현,김치홍,권순석,김영균,김관형,문화식,신완식,송정섭,박성학 대한감염학회 2005 감염과 화학요법 Vol.37 No.6

        목적 : 기관지내시경 검사에서 흔히 사용되는 국소마취제인 lidocaine과 내시경시 지혈목적으로 사용되는 thrombin과 epinephrine이 각종 균주에 미치는 항균효과에 대해 알아보고자 하였다. 재료 및 방법 : 균주는 가톨릭대학교 성모병원에서 2004년 3월부터 2004년 9월까지 임상검체 에서 동정된 S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa 각각 42, 42, 42, 43주를 대상으로 하였다. Lidocaine, thrombin, epinephrine 감수성 검사는 National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 2002)의 기준에 따랐다. 결과 : Lidocaine은 S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa에서 MIC_(50), MIC_(90) 모두 20,000 ㎍/mL 이었다. K. pneumoniae는 각각 10,000 ㎍/mL이었다. Thrombin은 S. aureus와 P. aeruginosa에서 MIC50 500 lU/mL 과 MIC_(90) 500 IU/mL 이상이었고, K. pneumoniae에서는 MIC_(50)과 MIC_(90)이 모두 500 lU/mL이상이었으나 S. pneumoniae에서는 MIC_(50)과 MIC_(90)은 125 IU/mL이었다. Epinephrine은 K. pneumoniae, S. pneumoniae에 대한 MIC_(50), MIC_(90)가 모두 >500 ㎍/mL이었고, S. aureus와 P. aeruginosa에 대한 MIC_(50), MIC_(90)가 모두 500 ㎍/mL이었다. 결론 : 기관지 내시경 검사에서 흔히 쓰이는 lidocaine, thrombin, epinephrine 등의 약제들이 호흡기 질환의 흔한 병원균인 S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa 균주들에 대해 항균 효과가 있을 수 있어 세균배양검사에 영향을 미칠 수 있겠다. Background : We performed this stody to find out about antimicrobial effect of lidocaine which is commonly used local anesthetic, and thrombin and epinephrine used for hemostasis during bronchoscopic procedures. Materials and Methods : The microorganisms that were cultured from specimens obtained during bronchoscopy were Staphylococcus aureus (n=42), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=42), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=42), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=43) collected from St. Mary's Hospital, from March to Sep 2004 were used for susceptibity testing. Susceptibility to lidocaine, thrombin, and epinephrine were tested according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Result : MIC_(50) and MIC_(90) of lidocaine for S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa were all 20,000 ㎍/mL and that for K. pneumoniae were 10,000 ㎍/mL. MIC_(50) and MIC_(90) of thrombin for both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was 500 IU/mL and above 500 IU/mL, respectively; that for K. pneumoniae were all above 500 IU/mL and for S. pneumoniae they were 125 IU/mL, MIC_(50) and MIC_(90) of epinephrine for K. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae were above 500 ㎍/mL; that for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were 500 ㎍/mL. Conclusion : We observed possible antimicrobial effect of lidocaine, thrombin, and epinephrine in vitro against pathogens such as S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, which are common respiratory microorganisms. The use of these agants could affect the result of bacterial culture.

      • SCOPUSSCIEKCI등재

        난치성 전두엽 간질의 외과적 치료

        김정목,김형일,김근수,김철진,이정청,이민철 대한신경외과학회 1996 Journal of Korean neurosurgical society Vol.25 No.11

        Recent advances of neuroimaging and electrophysiological monitoring technique have contributed in improving the surgical outcome of frontal lobe epilepsy. The authors have analysed 36 consecutive cases of intractable frontal lobe epilepsy that were treated at our institute between September. 1992 and December, 1995 to determine the clinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging characteristics as well as to delineate the efficacy of surgical treatment in improving the seizure outcome. The patients consisted of 19 males and 17 females. The mean age of the seizure onset and the mean duration of epilepsy were 14.9 and 11.6 years, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) showed no lesion in 9 patients and pathological lesions in 27 patients. The types of the lesions observed included primary brain tumor, mostly low-grade glioma in 10 patients, cortical dysplasia in 4, posttraumatic scar in 4, neocortical gliosis in 3, cyst in 3, and postencephalitic atrophy in 3. Intracranial recordings were performed in 23 cases to determine the epileptogenic zone. The surgical outcome was graded according to Engle’s Classification as Class A in 20 patients. Class B in 2, Class C in 9, and Class D in 5. The surgical outcome was promising regardless of the presence or the absence of the lesion on MRI, invasive recording, age of seizure onset, and duration of epilepsy.

      • KCI등재

        항공사의 서비스 실패 및 회복노력이 서비스 접점의 고객만족에 미치는 영향

        김형순,김립인 한국경영과학회 2004 韓國經營科學會誌 Vol.29 No.4

        This study will attempt to build an integrated model of the customer satisfaction process with service encounter in a comprehensive point of view including the expectancy-disconfirmation theory, justice theory, and attribution theory. In addition, this study will attempt to examine the influence of service failure-related variables and service recovery-related variables on customer satisfaction in the airline firms' service failure and recovery situation. The results showed that the higher the controllability and severity of the failure, the more positive influence on expectancy of recovery and more negative influence on the recovery satisfaction increased. They also showed that the higher procedural recovery efforts and distributive/interactional recovery efforts, the more positive influence on perceived recovery performance and recovery satisfaction also increased. It was found that the recovery satisfaction with service encounter depended on the extent to which the customer's perception of recovery efforts confirmed the expectancy of recovery. Also it was found that perceived recovery performance has an effect on recovery satisfaction through the mediation of recovery disconfirmation indirectly as well as directly.

      • 펄프 몰드의 탈수성 개선을 위한 기능성 첨가제의 응용

        김형진,서진호,류정용 한국공업화학회 2004 응용화학 Vol.8 No.1

        Recently, with the higher concerns of environmental problem, the pulp mold products are newly focused as a substitute for styrene form products. In spite of great advantage of pulp mold for environmental-friendly product, the mold industry are still small scaled and poor-equipped. Therefore, this study was carried out for the efficiency improvement of mold product by the evaluation of dewatering ability. 5kinds of functional wet-end additives were applied to wet forming process as a floculant for the improvement of dewatering. The addition of PAM based additives showed higher dewatering ability than PEI based agent.

      • 중추성 요붕증이 동반된 랑게르한스 세포 조직구증 1예

        김진호,문준성,문선중,이지은,최재원,은미정,천경아,조인호,윤지성,원규장,이경희 신덕섭,이형우 영남대학교 의과대학 2005 Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine Vol.22 No.2

        Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a syndrome characterized by thirst, polydipsia and polyuria. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is one of the etiologies of DI. Recently we experienced a central DI associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The 44 years old female patient complained right hip pain polydipsia and polyuria. We carried out water deprivation test. After vasopressin injection, urine osmotic pressure was increased form 109mOsmol/Kg to 327mOsmol/Kg (300%). Brain MRI showed a thickened pituitary stalk and at hot bone CT.CT guided biopsy revealed abnormal histiocytes proliferation and abundant lymphocytes, The final diagnosis was central DI associated with systemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis invading hip bone, L-spine and pituitary stalk. Desmopressin and etoposide chemotherapy were performed to the patient.

      • Alum첨가에 의한 settling tank의 백수 침전효율 평가

        김형진,안정송,유성호 한국공업화학회 2004 응용화학 Vol.8 No.1

        Because paper industry spends lots amount of water, the reuse from recycling of water is very important in economically as well as environmental aspects. Save all system, like CDS and settling tank, plays an important role in the recycling of water. In this study, the sedimentation efficiency of white water was tested under the different amount of alum addition in order to find the optimum conditions of waste water treatment. At the conditions of alum 100 ppm and A-polymer 1 ppm, the coagulation efficiency was highest and SS density was obtained below 50 ppm from 3 kinds of paper production lines.

      • 한국인에서 CC-SIT와 비교한 KVSS Test의 임상적 유용성 평가 : 예비연구 Pilot study

        김진국,장현종,임채형,남태욱,심대보 건국대학교 의과학연구소 2003 건국의과학학술지 Vol.13 No.-

        Background and Objectives: Sniffin' Sticks test is the test of nasal chemosensory performance based on pen-like odor dispensing devices. KVSS(Korean Version of Sniffin' Sticks) Test was developed as the "Korean olfactory test" using the odorants which are familiar to Korean. Authors evaluated the clinical validity of KVSS Test compared with CC-SIT (Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test) in Korean. Materials and Methods: The subjects of this study were 25 normosmic volunteers who were divided into five groups according to age. Each group was 5 normosmic volunteers. And they consisted of 12 men and 13 women. KVSS Test and CC-SIT were used for the evaluation of olfactory function. Results: Our study showed the negative correlation between age and olfactory function test (CC-SIT score, KVSS Test I score and KVSS Test II score). Normosmia rate of KVSS Test was more higher than that of CC-SIT. Also KVSS Test had more familiar items for Koreans compared with that of CC-SIT. CC-SIT score and KVSS Test score showed showed the positive corrclation. And each test revealed high reliability in test-retest evaluation. Conclusion: The KVSS Test can be used as an olfactory function test for Koreans.

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