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본 연구는 제 7차 초등 수학 교육과정의 내용 조직을 연속성, 계열성, 통합성의 관점에서 분석하였다. 분석 결과 수학 내용이 일회적이고 분절적으로 제시되고 있으며 내용 간의 통합성도 부족하다는 것이 가장 큰 문제점으로 드러났다. 이에 대한 개선 안 모색을 위해 외국의 초등 수학 교육과정 내용 체계를 살펴보았다. 그 중 시카고 대학의 수학 연구팀에 의해 개발된 「Everyday Mathematics」는 수학 내용 조직과 관련하여 유용한 시사점을 주었다. 첫째는 학생들에게 중요한 수학 내용을 배울 수 있는 충분한 활동과 시간을 제공해야 한다는 것이다. 현행 초등 수학 교육과정의 경우 내용이 일회적으로 다루어지고 있어 그 시점에서 제대로 학습하지 못하면 배울 기회를 잃게 되고 이러한 상황이 누적될 때 학생들은 결국 수학 학습 실패의 경험을 하게 되고 수학에 대한 관심과 흥미를 잃게 된다. 둘째는 수학 내용 간에 그리고 내용 영역들 간에 연관성이 필요하다는 것이다. 수학 내용을 한 내용 영역에서만 단편적으로 가르칠 것이 아니라 여러 내용 영역에서 통합적으로 다룸으로써 학생들이 중요한 수학 내용을 다양한 관점에서 접근할 수 있고 그리하여 수학 내용에 대한 깊은 이해를 할 수 있도록 도와주어야 할 것이다. The present study examined the Korean elementary school mathematics curriculum focusing on the scope and sequence of mathematical content. The results showed a lack of continuity, sequence, and integration of mathematical content. Mathematical concepts and skills are usually introduced once with little relation to previously taught concepts and skills. In addition, six content domains tend to be mutually exclusive, showing students little connections among six domains. In order to find out the alternatives, we reviewed elementary mathematics curricular in the United States and Canada. In particular, Everyday Mathematics curriculum provided useful suggestions. In Everyday Mathematics, important mathematical concepts and skills are introduced in the first grade and extended and deepened throughout the elementary school years. Thus the curriculum provides students with ample time and opportunities to learn important mathematical concepts and skills. Further, mathematical content domains are closely related and so a mathematical concept is taught in several content domains from various perspectives. In doing so, the curriculum helps students develop an in-depth understanding of important mathematical concepts. The purpose of this comparative analysis is not to argue that the Korean Curriculum should follow the way the mathematical content was selected and organized in the Everyday Mathematics. Instead, we hope that this comparative study promotes further research and discussion on the alternative approaches to curriculum development as well as the selection and organization of mathematical content.
Objective : Altered expression of cell adheion molecules is associated with biologic behavior of tumor. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression pattern of E-cadherin, β-catenin and p53 protein according to histologic grade and invasion pattern of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and the relationship between E-cadherin, β-catenin and p53 protein expression. Methods and Material : The materials were fifty seven cses of squamous cell carcinoma, and clinicl parameers such as age, sex, tumor location, stage and recurrence were recorded. Histologic review was done based on histologic grade and invasion pattern(nodular vs infiltrative). Immunohistochemical stains for E-cadherin and β-ca tenin were interpreted based on staining pattern as los of membranous expression and cytoplasmic expression and p53 protein expression was defined as positive if more than 10% of nuclei were reactive. Statistical analysis between E-cadherin, β-catenin and p53 protein expressions and histologic grade and invasion pattern and the relationship between E-cdherin, β-catenin and p53 protein expressions were perfomed. Results : There wa positive correlation between higher histologic grade and infiltrative pattern. Loss of membranous expression and cytoplasmic expression of E-cadherin were noted in 33.3% and 57.9%, respectively, and loss of membranous expression of E-cadherin showed increaing tendency in poorly differentiated carcinomas, however, there was no significant difference of cytoplasmic expression rate of E-cadherin according to histoogic grade. Altered expression of E-cadherin was more frequent in poorly differentiated carcinomas. Loss of membranous expression and cytoplasmic expression of E-cadherin were more frequent in carinomas with infiltrative pattern than in carcinomas with nodular pattern, but their diferences were not significant, Loss of membranous expression and cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin were observed in 19.3% and 80.7%, respectively. Loss of membranous expression of β-catenin howed no positive correlation according to histologic grade and invasion pattern, but cytoplasmic expression rate of β-catenin was higher in poorly differentiated carcinomas and in carcinomas with infiltrative pettern. p53 protein expression rate was 45.6%, and showed invreasing tendency in poorly differentiated carcinomas, but no significant relationship with invasion pattern. There was an inverse relationship of loss of membranous expression and cytoplasmic expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin. Altered expression of E-cadherin was related to cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin, however, there were no significant relationship between altered expressions of E-cadherin and β-catenin and p53 protein expression. Conclusion : In squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, altered expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin was more frequent in poorly differentiated carcinomas and in carcinomas with infiltrative pattern and there was positive correlation betwween altered expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin. These findings suggest that altered expressions of E-cadherin and β-catenin may have a role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas with aggressive biologic behavior. but altered explosions of E-cadherin and β-catenin. These findings suggest that altered expressions of E-cdherin and β-catenin my have a role in the development of squmaous cell carcinomas with aggressive biologic behavior. But altered expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin might not be related to p53 protein expression. Further study on genetic mutation related to altered expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin will be needed
교육과정 개정 때마다 수학 내용의 적정화가 중점 사항으로 제시되어 왔음에도 수학 내용의 양과 수준의 문제는 여전히 쟁점으로 남아있다. 이는 수학 내용의 적정화 문제를 내용의 양을 축소하고 수준을 하향 조정하는 기존의 방식으로 해결할 수 없음을 보여준다. 본 연구는 수학 내용의 적정화 문제를 내용 조직의 관점에서 접근해야 한다는 가정 하에 제 7차 초등학교 수학 교육과정의 수학 내용 조직에 관한 분석을 목적으로 하였다. 내용 조직에 대한 분석은 연속성, 계열성, 통합성의 원리에 근거하였다. 분석 결과 현행 초등학교 수학 교육과정의 내용 조직은 일회성, 단절성, 배타성의 특징을 띠고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 주요 수학내용이 대체로 한번 가르쳐지고 마는 편이었으며 현재 다루어지고 있는 내용이 전에 가르쳤던 내용과 그리고 앞으로 소개될 내용과 어떻게 연결되는지 내용의 위계를 찾기 어려운 경우가 많았다. 또한 여러 내용 영역들이 통합적으로 조작되어 내용 체계를 이루기보다는 서로 배타적으로 병립하고 있는 경향을 보였다. 수학 내용의 적정화를 위해서 수학 내용을 엄선하는 것 뿐 아니라 선정된 내용을 연속성, 계열성, 통합성의 원리에 근거하여 체계적으로 조직하는 작업이 요구된다. The present study examined the Korean elementary school mathematics curriculum focusing on the organization of mathematical content. The result showed a lack of continuity, sequence, and integration of mathematical content. Mathematical concepts and skills are usually introduced once with little relation to previously taught concepts and skills. In addition, six content domains - numbers and operations, geometry, measurement, patterns and functions, probability and statistics, and symbols - tend to be mutually exclusive, showing students little connections among six domains. Therefore, the present study suggests that important mathematical concepts are extended and deepened throughout the elementary school years so that students are provided with ample time and opportunities to learn important mathematical concepts and skills. Further, mathematical content domains need to be closely related and so important mathematical concepts are taught in several content domains from various perspectives. In doing so, the curriculum can help students develop an in-depth understanding of important mathematical concepts.
This research was conducted on the basis of leading young athletes to a right path for future planning by focusing on their attitude at school, while learning about their thoughts on future planning and finding out about their thoughts on future planning and the relation between their plans and school attitude, thus making them change their minds about school life and the ability to study. Few examples of school attitude are the willingness to participate in class as well as the importance they think about the relationship between difficulties and friends and lastly the attitude they show when taking part in extra-curriculum activities. As for future planning, a research on the relationship between attitude at school and future planning by finding out whether they had decided on future plans or whether they had knowledge about their plans and trying to work for it. For this research, a survey method was used where male and female students who attended at least once a year. From this survey they again selected answers of students that were answered honestly, and this accounted for 263 of them. For the estimating tool, 35 questions on school attitude and future planning were reasembled by the use of SPSS program with the redone sheets. The following results were concluded from the steps taken above. Firstly, female students had a higher average on attitude at school thereby showing that female students attitude were better than male students. For the future planning the average of male students were higher than that of the female students showing the male students were more specific and positive in planning in planning for their future. Therefore, statistically it was shown that there werent much difference in attitude at school and future planning. Secondly, not much difference was shown in attitude at school and future planning amongst art stream students and other stream students. Thirdly, according to gender, human relation had many impact on male students attitude at school. Statistics also showed that attitude at school and human relation had relatively high relation showing that high school students with good relation with others had better attitude at school. Fourthly, human relation was found to have most effect on high school athletes of the arts stream; the same result were found for other streams as well. This target of this research was maninly athletes from ball games whereby unity and teamwork amongst each other is regarded as an important factor. Therefore the results can be said that these athletes have higher social skills such as cooperation and consideration of others than non-athletes. Fifthly, it was found that attitude of male students at school and their plannings for future were not inter-related but statistically participating in class, a form of attitude at school, and future planning is said to have some relation. It is hard to explain about the relation of female students attitude at school and future planning. Therefore, it can be said that attitude at school has no such impact on decison-making of student-athletes. Sixthly, rate of relation between future planning of arts stream student-athelete and attitude at school is said to be low and in the case of student-athletes of other streams, it was found to have no relation at all. While this research was being conducted, it isn't balanced that student-athletes at school and on future planning were not various what I had in mid at first. I was able to know that their plans were directed towards one goal-sports. School education is suppose to have positive impact by leading and helping adolescents plan for their future. But the present educatuon system prevents student-athlets from doing so. Before the they were athletes, they were students and teenagers. Therefore, these student-athletes have to remeber that they not only need to focus on sports voluntarily; without being forced to do so. Educational interest of student-athletes and concerns are to be given to these students so that they will have a wide range of path could help them palm for the future.
The present study examined the 7th national elementary school mathematics curriculum from a perspective of mathematical creativity. The study investigated to what extent the activities in the Pattern and Function lessons in the national elementary school mathematics textbooks promoted the development of mathematical creativity. The results indicated that the current elementary school mathematics curriculum was limited in many ways to promote the development of mathematical creativity. Regarding the activities in Pattern lessons, for example, most activities presented closed tasks involving finding and extending patterns. The lesson provided little opportunities to explore the relationships among various patterns, apply patterns to different situations, or create ones own patterns. In regard to the Function lessons, the majority of activities were about computing the rate. This showed that the function was taught from an operational perspective, not a relational perspective. It was unlikely that students would develop the basic understanding of function through the activities involving the computing the rate. Further, the lessons had students use exclusively the numbers in representing the function. Students were provided little opportunities to use various representation methods involving pictures or graphs, explore the strengths and limitations of various representation methods, or to choose more effective representation methods in particular contexts. In conclusion, the lesson activities in the current elementary school mathematics textbooks were unlikely to promote the development of mathematical creativity.
본 연구는 여성생활사 중심의 유물 박물관인 숙명박물관의 인지도와 브랜딩의 문제를 해결하기 위해 브랜드·스페이스·마케팅을 활용한 통합 브랜드 개발 프로세스를 제안하는데 목적이 있다. 아울러 본 연구는 박물관의 브랜드를 프로모션하고 그래픽, 제품, 공간의 통합 브랜드를 구축하는 일련의 프로세스를 밝히는데 목적이 있다. 이에 본 연구의 시간적 범위는 2017년 3월부터 6월까지 총 15주간 숙명여대 환경디자인학과 <브랜드·스페이스·마케팅>수업에서 진행된 수업의 결과물로서 4개 팀 중, 1개 팀의 작업물로 한다. 본 연구의 대상적 범위는 ‘숙명여자대학교 숙명박물관'의 2D~4D까지의 전반으로 설정한다. 그 결과, 제품부터 공간까지 숙명박물관의 통합된 브랜딩은 일 관성과 객관성, 스토리성을 얻을 수 있었다. ’숙명박물관'은 학교의 박물관이라는 장점을 극대화시켜 가치와 스토리를 부여하고 하나의 브랜드로 리뉴얼했다는 점에서 의의가 있다. 또한 향후 보편적인 박물관들의 차별화된 브랜드 개발의 참고자료로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대하며 브랜드 개발에 있어서 G·I, P·I, S·I의 통합 브랜드 메뉴의 기초 자료로 활용될 것으로 사료된다.
This study investigated the experience and practice of elementary school students on nutrition education. The data were collected from 217 male and female students attending 5-6th grade elementary schools in Seoul and Kyunggi-Do from March to June 2007, interviewing face to face by a nutrition teacher and 3 interns of a nutrition teacher. The results were as follows: 86.5% of the subjects learned about ‘Table etiquette’, ‘Reasons for eating fruits and vegetables’ (78.7%), ‘Food waste and environment’ (72.3%), ‘Healthy snacks’ (55.7%), ‘Food sanitation’ (52.3%), ‘Food culture of foreign countries’ (48.1%). Nutrition education experience was significantly different by gender. A total of 43.5% boys responded that they never learned about ‘basic food preperation’ (p < 0.01). They had learned ‘Nutrients for body’ and ‘Food waste and environment’ in school, ‘Healthy weight loss’, ‘Food culture of foreign countries’, ‘Food circulation’ on television, Most content (‘Table etiquette’, ‘Simple cooking’, ‘Food sanitati n’, ‘Eating behaviors for health’, ‘Reasons for eating fruits and vegetables’, ‘Healthy snacks’) was learned from parents. The practice after nutrition education was higher in ‘Table etiquette’ (2.14), ‘Eating fruits and vegetables’ (2.07) than others compared with education experience. The most reason of non-practice on nutrition information was ‘Troublesome’. In ‘Nutrients for body’, a boy answered ‘Difficult for practice’ 20.0%, a girl answered ‘Difficult to understand’ 32.6%, showing a significant difference between the gender groups (p < 0.001). They remembered the ‘Nutrients for body’ (49.6%), ‘Food sanitation’ (44.5%) because of ‘important content’,‘Basic food preparation’ (40.6%), ‘Food culture of foreign countries’ (36.3%) because of ‘interesting content’, ‘Healthy weight loss’ (52.0%), ‘Eating behavior for health’ (44.5%) and ‘Healthy snacks’ (33.7%) because of ‘need for my health’.
It is important to interpret the soil chemical properties in order to effectively manage the farmland. This study was conducted to investigate the soil chemical properties of upland soybean field according to the soil series at 32 upland fields located in the parts of Gangwon-do. Soil sampling sites were selected by using the National Statistics DB and KSIS DB that is a soil environment information system provided by the Rural Development Administration. Soil samples were collected from 0~15 cm of top soil before seeding or transplanting, air-dried, passed through a 2 mm sieve, and analyzed for soil pH, EC, organic matter, available phosphorus (P2O5), exchangeable potassium, exchangeable calcium and exchangeable magnesium. The average chemical properties have exceeded the each nutrient optimum range level of RDA, except the organic matter in experimental soil 2015. And despite application of conventional fertilization, each soil series nutrient contents were change respectively. The results of this study suggest that conventional fertilization should be applied based on the analysis about the amount of accumulated nutrient contents in the soil.