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The electronic structure and optical properties of La0.75Sr0.25MnO3-σ (LSMO3-σ) materials with 1 × 1 × 4 orthorhombic perovskite structure were performed by first-principles calculation. The structural changing of LSMO3 (ideal structure, σ = 0) was not obvious under generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA + U arithmetic. On the contrary, the structural changing of LSMO3-σ (σ = 0.25, with oxygen vacancies defects in the z = 0, c/8, c/6, c/4, and c/2) with GGA + U were more obvious than the result of ideal. This structural distortion induced distinct changing in density of states (DOS) for LSMO3-σ materials. Oxygen vacancy defects caused a shift of the total density of states (TDOS) features toward low binding energies and LSMO3-σ keep half-metal properties as well as LSMO3 ideal structure. In addition, the hybridization between the Mn-eg and O-2p orbital was weakened and the partial density of states (PDOS) of Mn indicated a strong d-d orbital interaction. By the result of oxygen vacancy formation energy, oxygen vacancy defects can be more easily formed in La-O layers (z = 0 and c/6) to compare with other layers (z = c/8, c/4 and c/2). The calculation result of optical properties suggested that the ideal LSMO could be produced strong absorption in the range of ultraviolet and visible light, while the LSMO3-σ with oxygen vacancies defects were presented weak absorption in the range of visible light.
Aging and solid-solution are main methods to strengthen metal, and their optimal strengthening temperature and time are more and more drew attention to study. Al-Cu alloys are one kind of typical precipitation hardening alloy, and high strength casting Al-Cu alloy has been widely used in industry. In this study the authors use heat treatment and aging to strengthen the alloy, and then the analysis techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical metallographic examination(OM), metallographic analysis, fracture analysis and electron diffraction were employed in this dissertation.
Jiang, Shu-Heng,Li, Jun,Dong, Fang-Yuan,Yang, Jian-Yu,Liu, De-Jun,Yang, Xiao-Mei,Wang, Ya-Hui,Yang, Min-Wei,Fu, Xue-Liang,Zhang, Xiao-Xin,Li, Qing,Pang, Xiu-Feng,Huo, Yan-Miao,Li, Jiao,Zhang, Jun-Feng Elsevier 2017 Gastroenterology Vol.153 No.1
<P><B>Background & Aims</B></P> <P>Desmoplasia and poor vascularity cause severe metabolic stress in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions that contributes to tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of 5-HT signaling in the growth of pancreatic tumors.</P> <P><B>Methods</B></P> <P>We measured the levels of proteins that regulate 5-HT synthesis, packaging, and degradation in pancreata from Kras<SUP>G12D/+</SUP>/Trp53<SUP>R172H/+</SUP>/Pdx1-Cre (KPC) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, as well as in PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 human PDAC samples. We also analyzed expression levels of proteins involved in 5-HT synthesis and degradation by immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue microarray containing 311 PDAC specimens, and associated expression levels with patient survival times. 5-HT level in 14 matched PDAC tumor and non-tumor tissues were analyzed by ELISA. PDAC cell lines were incubated with 5-HT and cell survival and apoptosis were measured. We analyzed expression of the 5-HT receptor HTR2B in PDAC cells and effects of receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as HTR2B knockdown with small hairpin RNAs. We determined the effects of 5-HT stimulation on gene expression profiles of BxPC-3 cells. Regulation of glycolysis by 5-HT signaling via HTR2B was assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analyses, as well as by determination of the extracellular acid ratio, glucose consumption, and lactate production. Primary PDACs, with or without exposure to SB204741 (a selective antagonist of HTR2B), were grown as xenograft tumors in mice, and SB204741 was administered to tumor-bearing KPC mice; tumor growth and metabolism were measured by imaging analyses.</P> <P><B>Results</B></P> <P>In immunohistochemical analysis of a tissue microarray of PDAC specimens, increased levels of TPH1 and decreased level of MAOA, which regulate 5-HT synthesis and degradation, correlated with stage and size of PDACs and shorter patient survival time. We found levels of 5-HT to be increased in human PDAC tissues compared with non-tumor pancreatic tissues, and PDAC cell lines compared with non-transformed pancreatic cells. Incubation of PDAC cell lines with 5-HT increased proliferation and prevented apoptosis. Agonists of HTR2B, but not other 5-HT receptors, promoted proliferation and prevented apoptosis of PDAC cells. Knockdown of HTR2B in PDAC cells, or incubation of cells with HTR2B inhibitors, reduced their growth as xenograft tumors in mice. We observed a correlation between 5-HT and glycolytic flux in PDAC cells; levels of metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, the phosphate pentose pathway, and hexosamine biosynthesis pathway increased significantly in PDAC cells following 5-HT stimulation. 5-HT stimulation led to formation of the HTR2B–LYN–p85 complex, which increased PI3K–Akt–mTOR signaling and the Warburg effect by increasing protein levels of MYC and HIF1A. Administration of SB204741 to KPC mice slowed growth and metabolism of established pancreatic tumors and prolonged survival of the mice.</P> <P><B>Conclusions</B></P> <P>Human PDACs have increased levels of 5-HT, and PDAC cells increase expression of its receptor, HTR2B. These increases allow for tumor glycolysis under metabolic stress and promote growth of pancreatic tumors and PDAC xenograft tumors in mice.</P>
Background: Findings from previous published studies regarding the association of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism with glioma susceptibility have often been conflicting. Therefore, a meta-analysis including all available publications was carried out to make a more precise estimation of the potential relationship. Methods: By searching the electronic databases of Pubmed and Embase (up to April 1st, 2013), a total of nine case-control studies with 3,752 cases and 4,849 controls could be identified for inclusion in the current meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Results: This meta-analysis showed the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism to be significantly associated with decreased glioma risk in the allelic model (Met allele vs. Thr allele: OR= 0.708, 95%CI= 0.631-0.795). Moreover, we also observed a statistically significant association between the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and reduced glioma risk in analyses stratified by ethnicity (Asian) and source of controls (hospital based) in the allelic model. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism may be a risk factor for glioma development, especially in Asians.
Jiang, Jun,Bai, Zi Long,Chen, Zhi Hui,He, Long,Zhang, David Wei,Zhang, Qing Hua,Shi, Jin An,Park, Min Hyuk,Scott, James F.,Hwang, Cheol Seong,Jiang, An Quan Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan P 2018 NATURE MATERIALS Vol.17 No.1
Erasable conductive domain walls in insulating ferroelectric thin films can be used for non-destructive electrical read-out of the polarization states in ferroelectric memories. Still, the domain-wall currents extracted by these devices have not yet reached the intensity and stability required to drive read-out circuits operating at high speeds. This study demonstrated non-destructive read-out of digital data stored using specific domain-wall configurations in epitaxial BiFeO<SUB>3</SUB> thin films formed in mesa-geometry structures. Partially switched domains, which enable the formation of conductive walls during the read operation, spontaneously retract when the read voltage is removed, reducing the accumulation of mobile defects at the domain walls and potentially improving the device stability. Three-terminal memory devices produced 14 nA read currents at an operating voltage of 5 V, and operated up to T = 85 °C. The gap length can also be smaller than the film thickness, allowing the realization of ferroelectric memories with device dimensions far below 100 nm.
A new ent-kaurane type diterpenoid glycoside, 17-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), together with 17-hydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), 16α,17-dihydroxyl-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and 16α-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent- kauran-19-oic acid (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. The structure of 1 was determined mainly by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques including HSQC, 1H-1H COSY, HMBC, and NOESY. In addition, 4 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC50 value of 14.3 μg/mL. A new ent-kaurane type diterpenoid glycoside, 17-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), together with 17-hydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), 16α,17-dihydroxyl-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and 16α-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent- kauran-19-oic acid (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. The structure of 1 was determined mainly by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques including HSQC, 1H-1H COSY, HMBC, and NOESY. In addition, 4 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC50 value of 14.3 μg/mL.
Nonferrous metals have a very important position in industry. At present, parts of shipbuilding, automobile, and aircraft etc. are designed and manufactured accurately, simultaneity need light-weight and high-strength. Aluminum copper alloys are one kind of typical precipitation hardening alloy which has been widely used. It is interesting to investigate transformation behavior of precipitated phase in such kind of alloys under high magnetic field. Transformation of materials under high magnetic field is many different compared with conventional condition. The author prepared the Al-4%Cu alloy.
A deep understanding of the metallic silver catalysts formation process on oxide support and the formation mechanism is of great scientific and practical meaning for exploring better catalyst preparing procedures. Herein the thermal decomposition process of supported silver catalyst with silver oxalate as the silver precursor in the presence of ethylenediamine and ethanolamine is carefully investigated by employing a variety of characterization techniques including thermal analysis, in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The formation mechanism of supported silver particles was revealed. Results showed that formation of metallic silver begins at about 100 oC and activation process is essentially complete below 145 oC. Formation of silver was accompanied by decomposition of oxalate group and removal of organic amines. Catalytic performance tests using the epoxidation of ethylene as a probe reaction showed that rapid activation (for 5 minutes) at a relatively low temperature (170 oC) afforded materials with optimum catalytic performance, since higher activation temperatures and/or longer activation times resulted in sintering of the silver particles.
cess of the high-order structures in biomaterials. Real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and optical microscopy demon-strated that helical segments formed along with the spherulite growth. Atomic force microscopy revealed the details of growth,twisting and branching of lamellar crystals. Cooperative packing of these twisting lamellae led to regular banded spherulites observedunder polarized light microscopy. Real-time observation on the crystallization process provided richer information than the characterization of the final structures; consequently, it provides deeper insight into the organization mechanism of the hierarchical structures.