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The aim of this study was to develop esomeprazole magnesium (EMZ-Mg) enteric-coated pellets and pellet-based tablets, as well as to investigate the effects of pellet size and compression method on acid tolerance, content uniformity, compressibility, and stability of preparations. This study used two types of pellet cores, namely, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) core with a particle size of 150–300 μm and sucrose core with a particle size of 600–700 μm. Enteric-coated pellets, which consisted of a drug-free core, a drug layer, a sub-coating layer (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, 6 cps), and an enteric-coating layer ( Eudragit®L30D-55), were prepared by using a bottomspray fluidized bed-coating technique. Pellet-based tablets were prepared by using a direct compression method or a wet granulation method. The acid tolerances of the two types of enteric-coated pellets (MCC and sucrose cores) reached up to 98% in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.0) within 2 h, and the dissolution rates in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) reached up to 85% of the labeled amount within 15 min. When compressed into tablets, the pellets based on MCC core (smaller particle size) displayed a significantly higher acid tolerance (up to 92%) compared with the pellets based on sucrose core (larger particle size). In addition, the MCC core-based tablets (F8), especially those prepared by using a granulation method, showed higher drug content uniformity and compressibility than the sucrose core-based tablets (F10), and no lamination phenomenon was observed during compression. The crystallinity of EMZ-Mg was altered during drug layering process, and some physicochemical interactions were observed between the drug and excipients. Moreover, the two types of enteric-coated pellets showed a relatively high stability after storage under high temperature and strong light. However, they showed poor stability under high humidity, resulting in remarkable degradation of active compound. The EMZ-Mg entericcoated pellets and pellet-based tablets were successfully developed, and reduction in pellet size and wet granulation reduced the differences in content uniformity and better protected the pellet coating from damages during compression.
본 연구에서는 중국 소수민족 교육정책에 따라 연변주 조선족 교육정책이 어떤 형태로 전개되고 있는지를 실증적으로 분석할 필요가 있다는 문제의식에 근거하여 근원이 되는 민족에 대한 민족정체성과 본국의 국가정체성의 조화를 위한 문화교차적 관점에서의 과경민족 교육 모델 정립을 위한 시사점을 도출하고자 하였다. 연변주 조선족 교육정책은 학제 구성, 과목배치 및 수업계획, 이중언어 교육 등의 체제 정비가 이루어졌다, 그러나 이러한 체제 정비 이후 교육과정 구성 등에 있어서는 민족정체성과 국가정체성의 조화 방향을 결정하는 것이 우선되어야 할 것이다. 과경민족인 연변주 조선족의 생활근거지가 중국이라는 점에서 민족정체성만을 강조하기에는 현실적인 어려움이 있음을 감안하고, 교육방법적 측면에서 문화교차적 성격이 부각되도록 해야 할 것이다. 특히 교육과정 설계에 있어서 민족정체성에 대한 객관적 사실 인지가 우선되어야 할 것이며, 학교 소재 지역의 지리적 특성을 고려하여 민족문화 교육과정을 구성하려는 노력이 필요하다. 구체적인 방법으로 백두산, 도문강 등의 자연자원을 이용하거나 청산리 전투지, 명동학교, 일본간도총영사관 옛터 등 역사 문화 자원을 이용하여 조사와 연구를 전개하는 방법을 고려할 수 있다. The purpose of this study is to propose the direction of intercultural education model with the concept of the ethnic identity and national identity in China’s cross-boundary nationality area, focused the ethnic Koreans living in China. It is to determine the harmony of direction must be a priority that cross-boundary nationality is needed the harmony between the ethnic identity and national identity and they should be select the ethnic identity under the Covenant within the category of national identity. In particular, it is necessary to establish the objective of the national identity education in the design curriculum, and the efforts to construct a national cultural education curriculum are needed considering the geographic characteristics of the school region.
Baoyou Jiang. 2002. Korean Language Education and Teaching Methodology in Chinese Universities. Journal of Korean Language Education 13-2: 1∼19. Korean language education in Chinese universities began in the 50s of the 20th century. and has undergone a long and complex period of development in the past fifty years. Now Korean is taught at 23 universities and colleges in China. The teaching methods we have adopted include grammar-translation method, direct method, bilingual comparative method, communicative method, interactive method, notional-functional method, dialectic method and cultural perspective method. This paper elaborates on the notion of cultural perspective, its methodology and significance in the teaching of Korean in the Chinese context, with the emphasis on the effectiveness of this method in the teaching of the Korean phonetics, lexis and grammar. This paper holds that the combination of dialectic method and cultural perspective method is most effective to the Chinese students. (Fudan University)
In this study, I have attempted to present the teaching method of Chinese Language in the everyday environment, that would enable Korean university students to loam Chinese in a simple, direct, and accurate manner within the shortest possible time. The Korean people live in a culture greatly influenced by Chinese culture and Chinese language throughout its history and accordingly, they can team Chinese language much easier than those living in other parts of the world. Particularly, their ability to read Chinese is exceptionally good. Despite the fact that most Chinese words used in two countries are the same, some words are used differently creating confusion between the two. Accordingly, for the best results, the Chinese Language should be taught with the following points in mind. First, special emphasis should be given to Chinese characters that are used differently in each country even though they are written the same way. Therefore, comparative teaching is recommended Secondly, Chinese characters that have the same meanings but pronounced differently between the two should be taught in a comparative manner as well. Thirdly, those learning Chinese language should also team about Chinese culture for a more comprehensive and in-depth understanding. Lastly, many new words created everyday as China goes through a drastic social change after the opening of the country must be taught in the actually applied situations so that the students loaming these words can understand the changing Chinese society better. The teachers of Chinese Language should consider the above points or more effective teaching. It will also give students a better understanding of Chinese society and culture.
The archwire bending is one of processes the most frequently used in the orthodontic treatment. Furthermore, the springback of sheet metal, which is defined as elastic recovery of the part during unloading, should be taken into consideration so as to produce formed archwire within acceptable tolerance limits. In this paper, the springback angle of different alloy archwires (including NiTi alloy wire, Beta-Ti alloy wires, Chinese stainless steel wires, and Australian stainless steel wires) were performed by the theoretical calculation based on large deformation theory and the finite element analysis. A series of numerical simulations has been conducted for the bending test, which physically simulates the actual bending of alloy archwire with a robotic apparatus. The finite element analysis of springback is shown to be very consistent with the theoretical calculation results.
A new ent-kaurane type diterpenoid glycoside, 17-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), together with 17-hydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), 16α,17-dihydroxyl-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and 16α-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent- kauran-19-oic acid (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. The structure of 1 was determined mainly by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques including HSQC, 1H-1H COSY, HMBC, and NOESY. In addition, 4 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC50 value of 14.3 μg/mL. A new ent-kaurane type diterpenoid glycoside, 17-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), together with 17-hydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), 16α,17-dihydroxyl-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and 16α-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent- kauran-19-oic acid (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. The structure of 1 was determined mainly by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques including HSQC, 1H-1H COSY, HMBC, and NOESY. In addition, 4 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC50 value of 14.3 μg/mL.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding genes that participate in post-transcription regulation by either degrading mRNA or blocking its translation. It is considered to be very important in regulating insect development and metamorphosis. Insects are the largest group of animals and are extremely valuable in biological and agriculture research. Insects are also important pests to human health and agriculture, and efforts are necessary protect both humans and plants from disease and damage. Despite their importance, insects lag behind mammals, nematodes, and plants in miRNA research. At present, only 279 insect miRNAs have been identified from Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, and D. pseudoobscura in miRBase, and most of these miRNAs were computationally predicted without experimental validation. Functional analysis of insect miRNAs has only been conducted in D. melanogaster.
Jiang Linghui. 2014. A Comparative Study on Chinese ‘有(you)’ and Korean ‘있다(issta)’ with Korean-Chinese Parallel Corpus. Journal of Linguistic Studies 19(3), 255-280. This paper attempts to make a comparative study on Chinese ‘有(you)’ and Korean ‘있다(issta)’ through Korean-Chinese parallel corpus by implementing the usage analysis of sentences. In Chinese, ‘有(you)’ has many meanings, and the most frequently used is ‘to possess' or 'to own’ and ‘to exist’. Generally, Chinese-studying students think Chinese ‘有(you)’ is the same as Korean ‘있다(issta)’. It is because in many cases Chinese ‘有(you)’ is directly interpreted or translated to Korean ‘있다(issta)’ as a one-to-one correspondence. This paper reorganized the meanings of Chinese ‘有(you)’ through the existing dictionaries and grammar books, observed and analyzed the meanings by the sentences which were extracted from Korean-Chinese parallel corpus, and contrasted Chinese ‘有(you)’ with Korean ‘있다(issta)’ based on these sentences. (Yonsei University)
We show a novel approach to fabricate plasmonic nanoantennae based on a maskless focused ion beam nanoring patterning process. Antenna nanoarrays with desired outlines are achieved by precisely controlling the geometric parameters during the milling process. Various nanoantenna designs of bow-tie, nanoclusters (pentamers), and ellipsoid shaped satellites surrounded particle lattices arerealized. The whole fabrication method is programmable and monolithic since only a one-step milling process is involved. The opticalproperties are experimentally characterized. Such nanoantennae may find extensive applications in chemical/bio-sensing due toremarkably enhanced near field intensity at the plasmon resonance.