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      • 쿠싱증후군 환자에서 당 대사 이상 정도에 따른 인슐린 감수성과 인슐린 저항성의 변화

        정인경,김성훈,정재훈,민용기,이명식,이문규,유형준,안규정,노정현,김동준,김광원 대한내분비학회 2003 Endocrinology and metabolism Vol.18 No.4

        연구배경 당질 코르티코이드는 당 대사에 매우 중요한 호르몬으로 내인성 당질 코르티코이드 과다상태인 쿠싱증후군에서는 말초조직에서 인슐린 저항이 증가하고 이를 보상하고자 인슐린 분비의 증가로 고인슐린혈증이 동반된다고 보고되고 있다. 하지만 생체 내에서와 달리 시험관내에서는 췌도세포에 당질 코르티코이드를 장시간 처리하면, 인슐린 분비 및 생합성이직접적으로 억제됨이 확인된 바 있어 쿠싱증후군 환자에서 당뇨병의 원인으로는 아마도 말초조직에서 증가된 인슐린 저항성 뿐 아니라 이를 충분히 보상하지 못하는 췌장에서의 인슐린 분비 저하가 같이 동반되어있지 않을까 하는 가설을 세우게 되었고, 아직까지 당질코르티코이드가 당대사 이상을 일으키는 기전에 대해 쿠싱증후군을 당대사 정도에 따라 인슐린 감수성과 분비능을 분석한 연구는 없었기에 이를 알아보고자 하였다. 방법: 삼성서울병원에서 쿠싱증후군으로 진단 받은 환자 15명을 대상으로 하였다. 이에 대한 대조군으로는 쿠싱증후군 환자와 같은 성별 그리고 체질량지수를 갖은 15명의 건강한 성인을 대상으로 비교 하였다 쿠싱증후군 환자를 대상으로 경구당부하 검사를 통해 당대사 정도를 정상군, 내당능장애군, 그리고 당뇨병군으로 나눈 후 정맥 당부하 검사를 시행하여 각군의 인슐린 저항성과 인슐린 분비능의 지표를 비교하고, 수술 후 쿠싱증후군이 완치된 상태에서 수술 전후의 당대사 지표의 변화를 조사하였다. 결과: 1) 쿠싱증후군 환자 중 정상인은 20%, 내당능 장애는 27%, 그리고 당뇨병은 53%였다. 체질량지수, 나이, 그리고 발병 기간은 세 군간에 의미 있는 차이가 없었으나, 24시간 소변검사의 코르티솔 농도는 당뇨병군에서 의미있게 높았다. 2) 정맥당부하 검사 결과, 인슐린 감수성 지표인 Sl는쿠싱증추린」서 1.58±0.10[×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]로 정상 대조군의 3.37±0.49[×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]에 비해 의미있게 낮았으나(P=0.024), 쿠싱증후군 환자 중 NGT, IGT, DM 군간에 서로 통계적인 차이는 없었다. 3) SG는 정상 대조군과 쿠싱증후군 환자간에는 의미있는 차이가 없었고, 쿠싱 증후군에 있어서 당대사가 악화될수록 감소하는 경향을 보였으나 의미있는 차이는 없었다. 4) 인슐린 분비능의 지표인 AIRg는 정상인에 비해 전체 쿠싱증후군 환자의 경우 증가하는 경향을 보였으나 의미있는 차이는 없었다. 하지만 쿠싱증후군 환자중에서 당대사 상태에 따라 NGT군은 1299 (1297∼1310)(mu/g/min ×10^(-2))로 정상 대조군(368.9±98.6[mu/g/min ×10^(-2)]) 보다도 의미있게 높았고, DM군{202.2 (91.1~371.4) [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)}은 NGT군에 비해 의미있게 낮았다(P=0.0031). 5) 15명중 현재 완치 상태에 있는 6명에 대해 수술전과 후로 비교하였다. 수술 전 당대사 상태가 1명은정상, 1명은 내당능 장애, 그리고 4명은 당뇨병이었으나 수술 후 시행한 경구 당부하 검사상 모두 정상 당대사 상태를 보였다. 6) 수술 후 완치된 환자 6명에 있어 인슐린 감수성지표인 Sl는 수술전에 중앙값이 1.22[×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]로 대조군에 비해 의미있게 감고』어 있었으나(p.0.05), 수술후 10.95 [×10^(-4)(min^(-1)(μU/mL)^(-1)]로 정상 수준으로 회복되었고(P=0.0022), 인슐린 분비능을 나타내는 AIRg [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)] 값도 정상수준으로 회복되었다. 특히 인슐린 분비능의 회복양상은 혈당농도에 따라 판이하게 나타나서, 정상과 내당능장애 상태에 있던 2명은 수술전에 1201 [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)]로 증가되어 있던 AIRg 값이 수술 후 정상 수준으로 감소하였고, 수술 전에 당뇨병 상태에 있던 4명의 경우 245.9 [mu/g/min ×10^(-2)]로 인슐린 분비능이 감고il어 있었는데 이들은 수술 후 모두 정상 수준으로 증가되었다 (P=0.0286). 결론: 쿠싱증후군 환자에서 당대사 이상은 80%로 높은 유병률을 보였다. 모든 쿠싱증후군환자에서 인슐린 감수성은 정상인에 비해 저하되어 있어 말초조직의 인슐린 저항이 선행됨을 시사하며, 인슐린 분비능은 당대사의 정도에 따라 다르게 나타났는데, 정상 당대사군에서는 인슐린의 저항성을 극복할 만큼 정상 대조군보다 더 많은 양의 인슐린 분비를 하다가 고코르티솔혈증이 심할수록 인슐린 분비능의 감소로 당뇨병으로 진행됨을 확인할 수 있었고, 이런 인슐린 저항성과 인슐린 분비장애는 수술 후 다시 회복되는 가역적인변화를 보였다. Background: Glucocorticoid plays an important role in the control of carbohydrate metabolism. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have been reported to have an increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance due to peripheral insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, although the exact incidence and nature of this disorder have remained unclear. Few results have been published about insulin resistance and insulin secretion according to the level of glucose concentration, or about the reversibility of such defects in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Methods: To assess the effect of glucocorticoid on the insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in Cushing's syndrome, 15 patients with Cushing's syndrome were classified into 3 groups (normal glucose tolerance: NGT, impaired glucose tolerance: IGT, diabetes: DM) according to the degree of glucose tolerance based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin modified, frequently sampled, intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) was performed before and after curative surgery on these patients and on 15 healthy control subjects. Data were evaluated by non-parametric statistical analysis. Results: 1) Among the 15 patients with Cushing's syndrome, 3 (20%) were NGT, 4 (27%) IGT, and 8 (53%) DM, based on OGTT. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) was significantly higher in the DM group. 2) Insulin sensitivity index (SI) of Cushing's syndrome was significantly lower than that of the control group p=0.0024), but was not significantly different among the three Cushing's syndrome groups of NGT, IGT and DM. 3) Glucose mediated glucose disposal (SG) (Ed- confirm this abbreviation; it does not seem to match the definition) of Cushing's syndrome was not significantly different from that of the control group. 4) Insulin secretion (AIRg) of Cushing's syndrome tended to be high, but it was not significantly different from that of control. However, according to the level of glucose concentration there was significant difference in AlRg among the three Cushing's syndrome groups p=0.0031); AIRg of DM was significantly lower than that of NGT. 5) After surgical treatment, parameters of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were normalized in 6 cured patients; 1 with NGT, 1 with IGT, and 4 with DM, preoperatively. Median SI of all 6 patients was significantly improved up to the normal range postoperatively p=0.0022). Median AIRg of these 6 patients was balanced around that of normal control postoperatively p=0.0286). Conclusion: Eighty percent of patients with Cushing's syndrome had abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin sensitivity was significantly decreased in Cushing's syndrome. Insulin secretion was significantly higher only in the NGT and IGT groups of Cushing's syndrome. As the hypercortisolemia is exacerbated, insulin secretion is significantly decreased and causes DM, suggesting that glucocorticoid has a direct or indirect toxic effect on the pancreatic beta cell (J Kor SOC Endocrinol 18:392-403, 2003).

      • SCIEKCI등재

        Reduction of Bacillus cereus Contamination in Biofilms on Stainless Steel Surfaces by Application of Sanitizers and Commercial Detergent

        Lee,,Min-Jeong,Ha,,Ji-Hyoung,Kim,,Yong-Su,Ryu,,Jee-Hoon,Ha,,Sang-Do The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistr 2010 Applied Biological Chemistry (Appl Biol Chem) Vol.53 No.1

        We established the effectiveness of a washing, detergent and sanitizer treatments for reducing Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) contamination in biofilms on stainless steel surfaces. A water treatment did not affect biofilms and chlorine treatments at 200 ppm for 10 min and 300 ppm for 5 min, iodophor at 200 ppm for 10 min, and QAC at 400 ppm for 10 min were used to eliminate all B. cereus cells. B. cereus cells after detergent treatment were eliminated by chlorine at 100 ppm for 10 min, 200 ppm for 5 min, and 300 ppm for 3 min, and with iodophor at 100 ppm for 10 min and 200 ppm for 10 min, and QAC at 400 ppm for 10 min.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Uncoupling Protein 3의 골격근 세포내 과발현이 OLETF 백서 및 배양된 골격근 세포에서 포도당대사에 미치는 영향

        한정희,박혜선,고정민,김하영,강호경,이인규,박중열,홍성관,이재담,이기업 대한당뇨병학회 2002 Diabetes and Metabolism Journal Vol.25 No.6

        연구배경:Uncoupling protein(UCP)는 미토콘드리아의 내막에 위치하는 단백질로 세포내의 과다한 에너지를 열로 발산시키는 기능을 가진다. 최근 동물의 갈색지방조직에만 존재하는 UCP와 유사성을 가진 아형들(UCP2,3)이 사람에게도 존재함이 알려져 큰 관심을 끌도 있는데 이중 UCP3는 그 발현이 골격근세포와 갈색지방조직에만 국한된다. 본 연구에서는 UCP3가 체내 인슐린 감수성을 결정하는데 가장 중요한 조직인 골격근에 국한되어 발현되는 점에 착안하여 UCP3를 골격근세포에 과발현시켰을 때 포도당 대사에 어떠한 영향이 나타나는 지를 조사하였다. 방법:25주령의 8마리의 OLETF 백서를 대상으로 하여 4마리는 골격근에 adenovirus 2mL(1×10¹²pfu/mL)를 주사하여 대조군으로 하였고 4마리는 골격근에 재조합법으로 제작된 adenovirus­UCP3 2mL(1×10¹²pfu/mL)를 주사하였다(UCP3 과발현군). UCP3를 투여한 백서에서 먹이섭취가 증가하는 경향이 있어 그 전날 대조군이 먹은 야의 먹이만큼 투여하였다. 골격근에 adenovirus를 주사한 10일 후에 euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp를 시행하였다. Adenovirus­UCP를 C2C12 골격근 세포에 transfection시켜 UCP3를 C2C12 골격근 세포에 transfection시켜 UPS3­C2C12를 만들고 C2C12 골격근 세포와 UPS3­C2C12 골격근 세포에서 포도당 수송 및 당원합성을 측정하였다. 결과:UCP3 과발현 OLETF에서 체중이 감소하는 경향을 보였고 인슐린 감수성이 증가하였다. C2C12세포에서 기저상태 포도당 수송은 1.28±0.17μmol/L/min였고 100nM 인슐린으로 2시간 처리한 후 2.67±0.20 μmol/L/min로 증가하였다. UCP3­C2C12 세포에서는 기저상태 포도당 수송이 3.98±0.13μmol/L/min로 증가되었고 인슐린 처리 후 5.74±0.44μmol/L/min로 증가하였다. 인슐린을 처리한 UCP3­C2C12 세포에 P13K 억제제인 wortmannin을 첨가하였을 때 포도당 수송활성이 3.81±0.20μmol/L/min로 감소하였다. 기저상태 당원합성은 C2C12 세포에서 0.25±0.01μmol/L/min였고 인슐린 처리 후 0.45±0.01μmol/L/min로 증가하였다. UCP3­C2C12 세포에서는 기저상태 당원합성이 0.62±0.01μmol/L/min였고 인슐린 처리 후 1.26±454μmol/L/min로 증가하였다. UCP3­C2C12세포에 wortmannin을 첨가하였을 때 당원합성율이 0.80±0.04μmol/L/min로 감소하였다. 결론:UCP3 과발현이 OLETF 백서에서 인슐린 감수성을 증가시켰고 골격근세포에서 포도당 수송 및 당원합성을 증가시켰다. wortmannin을 첨가하였을 때 포도당 수송 및 당원합성이 감소함으로 보아 이 과정이 인슐린 신호전달체계인 P13K에 일부 의존함을 알 수 있었다. Background : UC P3 is a mitochondrial membrane protein expressed selectively in the skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Since the skeletal muscle is the main organ determining insulin sensitivity in the body, it was hypothesized that UCP3 overexpression in skeletal muscle cells would improve glucose metabolism. Methods : An adenovirus-UCP3 was produced by a recombinant DNA method. OLETF rats were divided into 2 groups. Four rats were injected with the adenovirus-UCP3 (UCP3 group) and others were injected with the adenovirus(control group) in the skeletal muscle. The UCP3 group was provided with the same quantity of food as that consumed by the control group on the previous day. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp method. In a separate experiment, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis we evaluated in C2C212 cells transfected with ether an adenovirus or the adenovirus-UCP3. Results : The insulin sensitivity improved significantly and the body weight decreased in the UCP3 group. The glucose transport and glycogen synthesis were higher in the UCP3-C2C12 skeletal muscle cells at the basal state. After insulin treatment, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis were also higher in the UCP3-C2C12 cells but the increments were reduced after treatment with wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor. Conclusion : Insulin sensitivity was higher in the UCP3-overexpressed OLETF rats in the in vivo study. UCP3 transfection also increased glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in the cultured skeletal muscle cells by a PI3K dependent mechanism(J Kor Diabetes Asso 25 :460~468, 2001).

      • KCI등재

        정약용『經世遺表』구성의 철학적 원리

        백민정(Baek, Min-Jeong) 한국동양철학회 2012 동양철학 Vol.0 No.37

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        『經世遺表』는 정약용의 대표적인 정치경제학 저작이다. 그는 『자찬묘지명』에서 철학적 의미를 다룬 應學과 정치사회적 문제를 다룬 經世學이 本末구조를 이룬다고 말했다.『경세유표』의 경우 철학적ㆍ사상적 토대는 알려진 것처럼『周禮』와 『尙書』라는 고대유학 경전이다. 정약용은『周禮全注』를 기획했지만 이루지 못했기에『주례』에 대한 그의 입장은『상서』등 다른 경전 주석을 통해 살펴볼 수밖에 없다. 『주례』에 대한 다산의 관점은『春秋』『周易』및『中庸』『大學』 과도 긴밀히 연계돼 있다. 그는『주례』를 중심으로 육경사서를 연결시킨 후 이러한 철학적 경전 이해를 통해『경세유표』의 사회제도 개혁안을 구상했다. 특히『주례』와『상서』의 上帝 개념을 통해 君主의 의미와 역할을 규정하고 君民 관계를 유비적으로 설명했고,『주례』의 6부 정부조직안을 모델로 조선의 중앙정부와 관료제를 구상했다. 수도권과 지방의 교육체제, 토지와 조세제도의 개혁, 도시와 지방의 구획 및 운영 등을 모두『주례』의을 바탕으로 제안한 것이다. 물론 정약용의 제안은 조선후기 현실에 맞게 유학 경전의 내용을 상당 부분 변형한 것이다.『경세유표』에서 다산이 제안한 사회개혁안에 따르면, 국왕과 신료 모두 철저한 관료제시스템에서 제도적 방식을 통해 제한된 권력만을 행사할 수 있다. 정약용은 王權을 강조한 것이 아니라 상징적 왕을 통해 公權力을 강조했다고 볼 수 있다. 또한 관료기구의 확대, 중앙정부의 철저한 지배, 직업과 거주지, 교육, 사회신분 등을 엄격하게 제한하고 차등적으로 통제할 것을 주장했다. 관료제 중심의 개혁안은 다산이 중간 기득권층의 횡포를 막고 국가 전체를 일관된 제도적 원리에 따라 효율적으로 지배하기 위해 내놓은 방안이지만『경세유표』가 전제한 철학적ㆍ이념적 원리에 대해서는 비판적 검토가 필요하다고 본다. Jeong Yak-yong's Gyeongseyupyo is a well-known work on politics and economics. As the Joseonhak movement during the colonial periods spread in the 1930s, Jeong Yak-yong was recognized as a representative Silhak scholar and, of his numerous “Yeoyudang” works, Gyeongseyupyo became the most famous. For his own epitaph, however, Jeong Yak-yong wrote that his Gyeonghak(經學), which dealt with philosophical matters, and his Gyeongsehak(經世學), which dealt with sociopolitical matters, were intimately connected and that they complemented each other. With Gyeongseyupyo, it is well-known that its philosophical and ideological foundations were based on ancient Confucian writings called Jurye(周禮) and Sangseo(尙書). Jeong Yak-yong had wanted to write a comprehensive commentary on Jurye but could not carry it out. His thoughts on Jurye can only be indirectly examined through his studies on Sangseo. Jeong Yak-yong's thoughts on Jurye are also intimately linked to the Six Classics(六經) such as Chunchu (春秋) and Juyeokl(周易), and also the Four Books(四書) such as Jungyong (中庸) and Daehak(大學). He connected the Six Classics and the Four Books using Juryeas the focal point, and designed his plan for reforming the social system in Gyeongseyupyo based on his understanding of those classic philosophical texts. In particular, he defined the meaning and the role of the sovereign(君主) using the idea of Sangje(上帝) found in Jurye and Sangseo, and anagogically explained the relationship between the ruler and the ruled (君臣). He also conceived Joseon's central government and its bureaucracy using the six-part government organization plan in Jurye as his model. His suggestions on the educational system for the capital and provincial areas, organization of farmlands and the land system, comprehensive reformation of the tax system, division of cities and provinces and their operational principles were all based on the contents in Jurye. Of course, he also made many modifications in his presentation of those contents in order to suit the realities of the late Joseon period. According to the ideas proposed in Gyeongseyupyo regarding social reform, both the ruler and the ruled can only function with limited authority exercised through systemic and procedural methods which are bound by a thoroughly bureaucratic mechanism. Jeong Yak-yong did not emphasize sovereign power(王權) but rather the public authority of the state. In other words, his emphasis was on governmental authority(公權力) as represented by a symbolic King. He also argued that such matters as the expansion of bureaucratic organs and the central government's detailed control of its people, their jobs, residence, education and social identity should all be strictly limited and individually controlled. This type of bureaucracy-centered reformation plan, however, has already appeared many times in history and is known to have various shortcomings. Jeong Yak-yong's proposals were aimed at stopping the tyranny of the mid-level authorities and enable the state to efficiently rule the entire country according to consistent institutional principles. Nevertheless, the philosophical and ideological principles premised in his Gyeongseyupyo need to be critically examined.

      • KCI등재

        과열증기처리 반탄화 추출물의 항산화 효과 검증에 관한 연구

        오근혜(Geun Hye Oh), 남정빈(Jeong Bin Nam), 양승민(Seung Min Yang), 정원희(Won Hee Joung), 정진산(Jin San Jeong), 신종민(Jong Min Shin), 강석구(Seog Goo Kang) 한국펄프·종이공학회 2018 펄프.종이技術 Vol.50 No.2

        The antioxidant properties of the extracts from torrefied wood subjected to superheated steam treatment were investigated. Total polyphenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) were determined to evaluate antioxidant activity. The total polyphenol content was 879.67±40.41 ㎎/mL at a concentration of 25 g/mL when the extract was subjected to a temperature of 300℃ for 10 min, and 759.67±25.17 ㎎/mL at a concentration of 25 g/mL at 350℃ for 10 min. The value of at 300℃ was 15.79% higher than that obtained at 350℃. Total flavonoid content was 111.18±3.55 ㎎/mL at a concentration of 25 g/mL at 300℃ for 10 min, and 80.58±2.58 ㎎/mL at a concentration of 25 g/mL at 350℃ for 10 min. The value at 300℃ was 37.97% higher than that obtained at 350℃. For the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the highest scavenging activity was observed at a concentration of 6 g/mL. DPPH free radical scavenging activity at a concentration of 6 g/mL at 300℃ for 10 min was 89.83±0.03%, whereas at 350℃ for 10 min at the same concentration, it was found to be 87.99±0.1%. The value at 300℃ was 2.09% higher than that obtained at 350℃. Reducing power was determined to be 3.59±0.04 at a concentration of 25 g/mL at 300℃ for 10 min, and 2.92±0.1 at a concentration of 25 g/mL at 350℃ for 10 min. The value at 300℃ was 22.94% higher than that obtained at 350℃. FRAP was 1742±37 μM at a concentration of 25 g/mL at 300℃ for 10 min, and 1106±8 μM at a at 350℃ for 10 min. At 300℃, the FRAP value was 57.50% higher than that obtained at 350℃. Based on these results, we suggest that torrefied wood treated with superheated steam can be used in various applications because of its effective antioxidant properties.

      • KCI등재

        인공호흡기 적용 환자에서 고빈도 흉벽진동요법과 손타진법의 효과 비교

        전성숙 ( Seong Sook Jun ), 전정해 ( Jeong Hae Jeon ), 최영선 ( Young Sun Choi ), 김민정 ( Min Jeong Kim ), 김명희 ( Myoung Hee Kim ), 오미영 ( Mi Young Oh ) 부산대학교 간호과학연구소 2012 글로벌 건강과 간호 Vol.2 No.2

        Purpose: This study examined the effects of chest physiotherapies, high-frequency chest wall oscillation and manual percussion, in mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: This repeated measure-experimental study was done with 11 ICU patients with ventilators. Each patient received manual percussion 5 min (method 1), high-frequency chest wall oscillation 5 min (method 2), and 10 min (method 3) at 2 hour intervals. After each chest physiotherapy, amount of sputum collected was measured. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), tidal volume (TV), dynamic lung compliance and peripheral oxygen saturation recorded at prior to, immediately, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after each chest physiotherapy. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: There was no significant differences in sputum amount for each method. However, 10 min after the intervention, there were significant increase in SBP (p=.024), HR (p=.013), and TV (p=.007) in method 2, and significant increase in SBP (p=.032) and HR (p=.012) in method 3, and SBP (p=.008) in method 1. Conclusion: The effect of the two chest physiotherapies for mechanically ventilated patients on sputum amount, hemodynamic indicators and ventilation is not different. When applying high-frequency chest wall oscillation therapy, providers should observe heart rate of patients carefully.

      • 고농도 산소 공급이 노인의 인지 능력과 혈중 산소 포화도에 미치는 영향

        김지혜(Ji-Hye Kim), 신채호(Chae-Ho Shin), 최윤정(Yoon-Jeong Choi), 최미현(Mi-Hyun Choi), 이수정(Su-Jeong Lee), 양재웅(Jae-Woong Yang), 민병찬(Byung-Chan Min), 박세진(Se-Jin Park), 정순철(Soon-Cheol Chung) 대한인간공학회 2010 대한인간공학회 학술대회논문집 Vol.2010 No.10

        This study investigated changes in cognitive task performance and blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) of old people when the concentration and supply rate of oxygen administration were varied (21% (1L/min), 93% (1L/min), and 93% (5L/min)). It recruited totally 20 elderly subjects including 9 males (75.1±4.2 years) and 11 females (73.1±4.3 years). The experiment consisted of 1-back task performed under three conditions (21% (1L/min), 93% (1L/min), and 93% (5L/min)). Each run consisted of three phases: Adaptation of oxygen administration (3 min), Control (2 min), and 1-bak task (2 min). SpO2 [%] was measured during each phase. Higher concentration and supply rate of oxygen administration were associated with more pronounced increase in SpO2 and decrease in response time of 1-back task.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        신장기능영상용 방사성의약품 Bz - MAG3 (Benzoylmercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine) 의 키트화 및 체내분포

        장영수,김영주,이명철,고창순,이동수,정준기,정재민,조정혁 대한핵의학회 1996 핵의학 분자영상 Vol.30 No.3

        The MAG₃ is a tubular excreting radiopharmaceutical for renal image.We synthe-sized benzoyl MAG₃ (Bz-MAG₃) and made a kit for labeling with Tc-99m. We checked the labeling effeciency of Tc-99m labeled MAG₃ and biodistribution. Labeling efficiency was checked by TLC- SG (acetonitrile/H₂O=2/1). After injecting of 1 mCi of Tc-99M-MAG3 to ICR-mice, Tmax(min), T1/2(min) were obtained in the renogram. Sequencial images (30sec, 2min, 5min, 10min, 15min, 20min) of TC-99m-MAG₃ were compared with those of commercial Tc-99m-DTPA (Du Pont Merck Pharmaceutical Co.) kit. 1) The Rf value of synthesized Tc-99m-MAG₃ was 0.78 and labeling efficiency was 97.5±1.9% (n=10). 2) The dynamic images of the Tc-99m-MAG₃ were better than those of the Tc-99m-DTPA. 3) The Tmax(min.) and T1/2(min.) of Tc-99m-MAG₃ (n=10) were 1.5±0.5 (left), 1.4±0.4(right), and 4.3±1.4 (left), 4.8±2.0 (right), respectivel. The Tmax(min.) and T1/2(min.) of Tc-99m-DTPA (n=7) were 2.7±1.6 (left), 2.7±1.6 right), and 3.8±1.7 (left), 4.5±2.7 (right), rly. The quaility of image and labeling efficiency of the synthesized Bz-MAG3 kit were excellent, that it was supposed to be used in routine clinical work.

      • KCI등재

        초음파 주파수 및 반응조건 변화에 따른 나프탈렌 분해효율과 OH 라디칼의 발생량 비교

        박종성(Jong Sung Park), 박소영(So Young Park), 오재일(Jei Ll Oh), 정상조(Sang Jo Jeong), 이민주(Min Ju Lee), 허남국(Nam Guk Her) 大韓環境工學會 2009 대한환경공학회지 Vol.31 No.2

        나프탈렌은 휘발성이 있는 소수성 물질로 발암유발 가능성이 있고, 수생태계에 심각한 영향을 미친다. 본 연구는 초음파의 주파수 및 반응조건별 나프탈렌 분해효율과 OH 라디칼 변화량을 조사하였다. C-18 역상칼럼을 이용한 LC/FLD (1200 series, Agilent)로 나프탈렌을 분석한 결과 MDL (Method detection limit)은 0.01 ppm이었다. 초음파 조사 동안 휘발된 나프탈렌은 거의 검출되지 않았고(0.05 ppm 이하), 반응조 덮개 개폐별 나프탈렌 분해효율은 거의 차이를 보이지 않았다(1% 이내). 초음파 반응온도가 증가할수록 나프탈렌 제거효율은 감소하는 경향(15℃: 95%→40℃: 85%)을 보였고, pH가 낮을수록 나프탈렌 분해효율이 증가(pH 12: 84%→pH 3: 95.6%)하였다. 나프탈렌 초기농도의 감소에 따라 반응속도는 증가하는 경향을 보여주었다(2.5 ppm: 27.3×10(-3) min(-1), 5 ppm: 22.7×10(-3) min(-1), 10 ppm: 19.0×10(-3) min(-1)). 동일한 초음파 조건(2.5 ppm 나프탈렌, 0.075 W/mL, 20℃, pH 6.8)에서 28 kHz의 분해효율이 132 kHz보다 약 1.46배 높았고(132 kHz: 56%, 28 kHz: 82.7%), 유사 일차반응 속도상수(k1)도 약 2.3배 높게 나타났다(132 kHz: 2.4×10(-3) min(-1), 28 kHz: 5.0×10(-3) min(-1)). 초음파 조사 10분 후 H₂O₂ 농도는 132 kHz가 28 kHz보다 약 7.2배 높았지만(132 kHz: 0.36 ppm, 28 kHz: 0.05 ppm), 조사 90분 후에는 28 kHz가 132 kHz보다 1.1배 높았다(28 kHz: 0.45 ppm, 132 kHz: 0.4 ppm). 2.5 ppm 나프탈렌 용액에 132 kHz와 28 kHz 초음파 조사시 발생된 H₂O₂ 농도는 초순수에 초음파 조사한 결과보다 각각 0.1 ppm과 0.05 ppm씩 낮게 나타났다. 혼형(24 kHz)과 배스형(28 kHz) 초음파의 나프탈렌 분해효율은 각각 87%와 82.7%였고, k1은 22.8×10(-3) min(-1)와 18.7×10(-3) min(-1)로 산출되었다. 다주파 복합형 초음파 시스템(28 kHz 배스형+24 kHz 혼형 초음파)의 나프탈렌 분해효율은 단일주파수 24 kHz(혼형)와 비슷한 제거효율을 보였으나(88%), H₂O₂의 농도는 약 3.5배 높게 조사되었다(28 kHz+24 kHz: 2.37 ppm, 24 kHz: 0.7 ppm). 이와 같은 다주파 복합형 초음파 시스템은 OH 라디칼에 의해 산화가 잘 일어나는 물질의 분해에 매우 효과적으로 적용될 수 있을 것으로 예상된다. Naphthalene is a volatile, hydrophobic, and possibly carcinogenic compound that is known to have a severe detrimental effect to aquatic ecosystem. Our research examined the effects of various operating conditions (temperature, pH, initial concentration, and frequency and type of ultrasound) on the sonochemical degradation of naphthalene and OH radical production. The MDL (Method detection limit) determined by LC/FLD (1200 series, Agilient) using C-18 reversed column is measured up to 0.01 ppm. Naphthalene vapor produced from ultrasound irradiation was detected under 0.05 ppm. Comparison of naphthalene sonodegradion efficiency tested under open and closed reactor cover fell within less than 1% of difference. Increasing the reaction temperature from 15℃ to 40℃ resulted in reduction of naphthalene degradation efficiency (15℃: 95%→40℃: 85%), and altering pH from 12 to 3 increased the effect (pH 12: 84%→pH 3: 95.6%). Pseudo first-order constants (k1) of sonodegradation of naphthalene decreased as initial concentration of naphthalene increased (2.5 ppm: 27.3×10(-3) min(-3)→10 ppm : 19.0×10(-3) min(-3)). Degradation efficiency of 2.5 ppm of naphthalene subjected to 28 kHz of ultrasonic irradiation was found to be 1.46 times as much as when exposed under 132 kHz (132 kHz: 56%, 28 kHz: 82.7%). Additionally, its k1 constant was increased by 2.3 times (132 kHz: 2.4×10(-3) min(-1), 28 kHz: 5.0×10(-3) min(-1)). H₂O₂ concentration measured 10 minutes after the exposure to 132 kHz of ultrasound, when compared with the measurement under frequency of 28 kHz, was 7.2 times as much. The concentration measured after 90 minutes, however, showed the difference of only 10%. (concentration of H₂O₂ under 28 kHz being 1.1 times greater than that under 132 kHz.) The H₂O₂ concentration resulting from 2.5 ppm naphthalene after 90 minutes of sonication at 24 kHz and 132 kHz were lower by 0.05 and 0.1 ppm, respectively, than the concentration measured from the irradiated M.Q. water (no naphthalene added.) Degradation efficiency of horn type (24 kHz) and bath type (28 kHz) ultrasound was found to be 87% and 82.7%, respectively, and k1 was calculated into 22.8×10(-3) min(-1) and 18.7×10(-3) min(-1), respectively. Using the multi- frequency and mixed type of ultrasound system (28 kHz bath type+24 kHz horn type) simultaneously resulted in combined efficiency of 88.1%, while H₂O₂ concentration increased 3.5 times (28 kHz+24 kHz: 2.37 ppm, 24 kHz: 0.7 ppm.) Therefore, the multi-frequency and mixed type of ultrasound system procedure might be most effectively used for removing the substances that are easily oxidized by the OH radical.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Influence of Hot Water Immersion and MAP Pre-treatments on Sterilization and Asparagus Spear Qualities During Cold Storage

        Hyuk,Sung,Yoon,In-Lee,Choi,Jae-Yun,Heo,Ju,Young,Kim,Su,Jeong,Han,Ho-Min,Kang 한국원예학회 2018 원예과학기술지 Vol.36 No.5

        The purpose of this study was to determine how asparagus spear qualities are affected by hot water immersion (HWT) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) pre-treatments. Asparagus spears were treated either with different durations of HWT or packed with 10,000 cc/m²·day·atm oxygen transmission rate (OTR) film as the MAP treatment, and then stored at 4°C until the final storage day. Respiration and ethylene production rates in asparagus increased after HWT, with 8 and 16 min treatments having the most effect on these parameters. Fresh weight loss was less than 0.3% with all treatments. Gas composition (i.e., C₂H₄, CO₂, and O₂) within the packaging was not significant among all treatments during storage. The MAP and HWT treatments made no difference not only in fresh weight but also in gas composition. Microbial growth (i.e., total aerobic bacteria, yeast, mold, and E. coli) was lower with the 2 and 4 min treatments than with the other treatments. Electrolyte leakage was less in the control, 2 min, and 4 min treatments compared to the 8 and 16 min treatments. The hue angle and total chlorophyll values, which are associated with yellowing, remained constant at the 2 and 4 min treatments compared to the other treatments, which did not have maintained values. Asparagine content accumulated in the control, 2 and 4 min treatments, whereas the 8 and 16 min treatments showed a decrease in asparagine content. Stem firmness was similar to pre-storage measurements with the 4 min treatment. Stem length for all of the treatments was slightly increased before storage regardless of HWT duration. Asparagus off-odor and visual qualities were the best with 4 min treatment compared to the other treatments. Consequently, HWT for 2-4 min and MAP Pre-treatments were effective in maintaining the measured qualities among the treatment and control groups. In contrast, HWT for more than 8 min offset any beneficial heat-treatment effects for long-term storage; as indicated by tissue softening at the stem tip, which resulted in secondary damages that included microorganism infection and deterioration of visual quality in the vegetables.

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