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      • 十五一言에 對하여

        李正浩 서경대학교 1977 論文集 Vol.4-5 No.-

        "The Words of Ten and Five Accorded with One"(十五一言) may sound strange to those not acquainted with Jeong Yeok (正易). It is a condensed expression of three principles, namely, Ten the Illimitable(無極 Mu-geuk), Five the Central Ultimate(皇極 Hwang-geuk), and One the Great Ultimate(太極 Tae-geuk). Ten(Mu-geuk) and Five(Hwang-geuk) are the central numbers of the Yellow River Map (河圖). And One the Great Ultimate, when accompanied by Ten the Illimitable, makes "Ten and One Rendered to the Same Body"(十一歸體) as was noted as the Illimitable (being) the Great Ultimate(無極而太極). It is the point of departure and arrival of all the things dead and alive, and is represented to be the very middle of Five the Central Ultimate. Many crucial facts of Jeong-Yeok―e.g., Ban-go(盤古)'s transformation(盤古化), the origin of the Orthodox Learnings(道學) and its successors, and the arrangement and realization of the Jeong Yeok's Map of Trigrams (正易八卦圖), etc.―are derived from the principle of "The Words of Ten and Five Accorded with One." The general scheme of the observations the author made is as follows: 1. The problems of 'Ban-go'(盤古) In I Ching(or the Book of Changes 周易) it is noted that He (Pao Hsi 伏羲, 포희) proceeded directly from the human body and indirectly from natural objects" (近取諸身, 遠取諸物). In accordance with this the author analyzed both human birth and universal creation into four embryological steps, namely, Fertilization, Pregnancy, Nourishment and Birth(胞胎養生). These four steps were contrasted with the numbers of changing features of heavenly bodies (i.e., Heaven, Earth, Sun, Moon). And it was explained why they have their causes in the activities of Ban-go with special emphasis on the meaning of the Ban-go's transformation(盤古化) and the Ban-go's fifth transformation(盤古五化). 2. The origin of the Orthodox Learnings(道學) The principle of Stagnation and Communication(否泰) which is characteristic of the Yellow Rive Map(河圖) and of the River Lo Writing(洛書) gives some light to the understanding of the origin of the Orthodox Learnings. One passage which may account for the Learnings of Jeong Yeok is that Suppressing Yin and Elevating Yang is the main theme of the learning in the former Heaven and Harmonizing Yang and Rythmizing Yin is the Way of the latter Heaven. (抑陰尊陽先天心法之學, 調陽律音後天性理之道) As the Orthodox Learnings has it origin "The Words of Ten and Five Accorded with One" in the Yellow River Map and the River Lo Writing, so have the fifteen sages who have been the successors of the Learnings. Fourteen of them are sages of the former Heaven whose missions are to be eventually fulfilled by Il Bu(literally 'One Man', the sage of the latter Heaven. This is what the following line implies: All movements under Heaven become One in due course. (天下之動 貞夫一者) 3. The problem of the Jeong Yeok posited to the Golden Mean(中位正易) The Jeong Yeok posited to the Golden Mean implies the accomplishment of Jeong Yeok as Heaven and Earth receive their deserved positions, Thunder and Wind do not act contrary to each other, Water and Fire attain together and Mountain and Lake interchange their infuences. (天地正位, 雷風不相悖, 水火相逮, 山澤通氣) Some points are made here: 1) According to the theory of Thunder and Wind posited to the Golden Mean, Ten the Thunder (Che^n 震) and Five the Wind (Sun 巽), having accomplished the role of directors in the former Heaven in the title of Ch'ien(乾) and K'un(坤), recede to the positions of One and Six. Thus to the positions of Ten and Five come the deserved members of Ch'ien and K'un and their administrative authority and musical virtuosity are conceded to "Ten and One rendered to the same body(十一歸體)" of Mountain and Lake. Now the principle that the filial son doesn't contradict (his parents) (孝子不相悖) is observed and way of humility (Ch'ien 謙) is followed. 2) From the theory of Water and Fire attaining together the following points are made. The changes meant by I Ching are changes of the Sun and the Moon. The phase of the Moon is ceaselessly changing while constancy is characteristic of the Sun. The changes of the Moon especially noted in Jeong Yeok are the changes in months and years. A month (lunar) in the former Heaven begins on the day Mu Jin(戊辰), and that in the latter Heaven on the day Kye Mi(癸未). Hence the calendar without intercalation is to be used in the latter Heaven, which means a year consisted of 360 days net. To keep pace with this astronomical change which is simply beyond man's reach everyone should become a man of complete virtue by ever changing his inner self―this is what is emphasized in the hexagram Ko(Molting 革). The Great Man changes himself like a tiger. The Superior Man changes himself like a panther. (大人虎豹, 君子豹變) 3) As is shown in the treatise on "Moutain and Lake Interchanging their Influences" (山澤通氣) there are two levels on which the Wei Chi(Before Completion 未濟) of the former Heaven changes into the Chi Chi(After Completion 旣濟) of the latter Heaven. On the personal level a harmonious marital life and domestic courteousness lead to the production of men of complete virtue and harmony, and on the social level Union of Ken (Moutain) and Tui (Lake) (艮兌合德) and the Administration of Ten and One(十一用政) make for the construction of the New World Illimitable(无量世界). The way to it is―to enhance and enlarge human love to the extent that One makes one's fellowship in the open(同人于野) and One bears with the uncultured in gentleness(包荒). 4) The theory of Ch'ien and K'un posited to the deserved positions(乾坤正位論) is that Ten the Thunder (Che^n 辰) and Five the Wind(Sun 巽) recede to the positions of One and Six from the positions of Ten and Five, and to the positions Ten and Five come Ch'ien(乾) and K'un(坤). Now Ch'ien and K'un are at the blank position(空位) as the result of Sublimation(of Ch'ien and K'un to the blank positions 乾坤尊空). Everything comes to be in order. Filial piety in the latter Heaven firmly takes root, and all the mischievous disappear. Besides, modest Che^n(震) and Sun(巽) concede their administration to Ke^n(艮) and Tui(兌) (i.e., Mountain and Lake that interchange their influences) a penetrating brotherly love is fulfilled. Thus filial piety and brotherly love are fulfilled all over the world. As Ch'ien and K'un are posited to their deserved positions, the Jeong Yeok's year arrives―a year consisting of 360 days with every season and month ever mild and fresh. All the people become peace-lovers. In this way the Rule of the Being Himself(己位親政) and the construction of the New World Illimitable become inevitable. 4. On the hexagram Ch'ien (Modesty 謙) According to the Sequence of Hexagrams(序卦), Ch'ien(謙) is the 15th hexagram of I Ching. Generally specking the orderly sequence displayed in the Sequence has some specific meaning. In the former part of I Ching it is closely related with the phasic changes of the Moon such as Obscure, New Moon, Quarters, and Full Moon. Why is the hexagram Ch'ien(謙) at the fifteenth of this Sequence while the hexagram of the full moon (namely, Ta Yu, 大有, Possession in Great Measure) comes to the fourteenth? The answer we find in I Ching: He who keeps to be modest in spite of his possession in great measure, carries things through(有大而能謙…君子有終). Ten and Five are numbers of Che^n(震) and Sun(巽) as well as of Ch'ien(乾) and K'un(坤). As are shown by the Jeong Yeok's Map of Trigrams, Thunder and Wind recede ro the positions of One and Six to sublimate Ch'ien(乾) and K'un(坤) to the blank positions(乾坤尊空) and to make Mountain(山) and Lake(澤) do their administration of Ten and One in the East and West. This is the realization of the proposition that Thunder and Wind do not act contrary to each other, and is the true reason why "Thunder and Wind" becomes the Master of the hexagram Ch'ien(謙). With no danger of exaggeration we affirm it is there that we can find the gist of Jeong Yeok. The theory above also constitutes a part of "Words of Ten and Five Accorded with One." 5. The problem of the Complication by Three and Five(三五錯綜) In I Ching the passage The three and five operations are undertaken in order to obtain a change. Divisions and combinations of numbers are made. (參伍以變 錯綜其數) discusses the process of manipulating stalks to obtain the hexagram. But in the context of Jeong Yeok the Complication by Three and Five is suggestive of complication by three and five in the Former Heaven. They are the numbers of the ultimate change(至變度數), a change from Kap Jin(甲辰) to Mu Jin(戊辰) in sexagenery cyclic(六甲) terms, or a change from the Yellow River Map to the River Lo Wrting. From it comes Before Kap(甲), three days. After Kap(甲), three days. (先甲三日, 後甲三日) The same logic is found in the diagram of basic initial sounds of Hun-Min Jeong-Eum(訓民正音). In Jeong Yeok the complication by Three and Five implies the Three Cardinal Numbers in the system of the former Heaven, where Kap Ja is brought forth in the midnight of Kap and Ki(甲己夜半生甲子). Besides in the relationship of the Three Abilities(三才) and the Five Primary Currents(五行), mutually functioning as the fundamental(體) and the practical(用) for each other, we find another example of the complication by Three and Five. The same may be said of Five and Central Ultimate(皇極 ??) of the Yellow River Map. From the above observation it is clear: the Jeong Yeok of the Golden Mean(中位正易) is the Jeong Yeok of Thunder and Wind(雷風正易), which is the same thing as the Jeong Yeok of Il Bu(一夫正易). It is "the Jeong Yeok of the initial Ban-go(盤古一元)" "Words of Ten and Five accorded with One" is the structure, essence and the function of Ban-go.

      • KCI등재

        鄭道傳의 학문과 功業 지향의 정치론

        정호훈(Jeong Ho-Hoon) 한국사연구회 2006 한국사연구 Vol.135 No.-

        This writing addressed the Political Thought of Jeong Do-jeon, who is the leading role of Joseon's foundation. Jeong Do-jeon criticized Goryeo Society based on the New Confucianism(Seongrihak), and mapped out a Political System, which is required for the new Nation Joseon. Jeong Do-jeon externalized a Plan that can step up the Unity in Politics and the Centralization in a System, by taking Advantage of this Thinking. 《Joseongyeonggukjeon(朝鮮經國典)》 was a Book that contained this Political Conception. The Point that is noted in this Book is many. First, it stressed much a Role of the Law in operating a Nation. What the Law is the mainly instrumental Means for the good Government was Jeong Do-jeon's Idea. Second, he thought that the Nation's Citizenship needs to be intensified largely. What becomes the Core was an Issue that increases the Nation's commanding Power over the People and the Land. Third, he considered that the practical Operation of a political System needs to be attained centering on the prime Minister. Fourth, his political Theory of centering on the prime Minister had a characteristic that attaches Importance to ‘an Achievement'. It was said that the Achievement and the Result are completed by realizing such moral Character and Talent through Bureaucracy, with the prime Minister and Officialdom of having Virtue and Capability. His political theory was much distant from a political Theory of Jujahak(Zhu Xi philosophy), which had the Logic that Bureaucrats including a Monarch preferentially require the perfect Morality, and on the Basis of this, need to perform Politics. Jeong Do-jeon was arranging for a political Theory based on the New Confucianism, but didn't utilize Jujahak enough. This political Theory had Tendency of Hsun tzu(荀子) more strongly than of Mengtzu(孟子). What his learning comes to be excluded by Sadaebu(ruling elite) in Joseon, without being accepted, seems that this Element functioned greatly. In terms of trying to maintain the Position as a Sovereign along with Autonomy as Yangban(兩班) Sadaebu(士大夫), the political Theory of Jujahak was more efficient. What people in the 16th Century had tried to establish a System of learning from Jeoluipa(節義派) since Jeong Mong-ju, was a part of an Effort aiming to have the political Theory of Jujahak as their Thinking.

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        정지용의 ‘民謠風詩篇'과 초기시의 다양한 형식에 나타나는 비근대적 사유의 양상

        정용호(Jeong, Yong-Ho) 한국어문학회 2015 語文學 Vol.0 No.127

        Considerable numbers of traditional elements can be found in Jeong Ji-Yong's early poetry. One of the most significant implications in Jeong Ji-Yong's early poetry is its folk style, which has been discussed in quite a few times. Surprisingly, discussions on Folk Style Poem Collection, of its term ‘Folk Style' has been denominated by Jeong Ji-Yong himself, however, would not seem to be placed quite actively. In addition, it has been concluded that previous discussions on Jeong Ji-Yong's poetry was only focused on his borrowing of folk style, which resulted in lack of detailed discussion on emotional contexts of folk style, Thus, this paper will review the format of Jeong Ji-Yong's Folk Style Poem Collection and his mental orientation based on its format. Presumably, the main format of Jeong Ji-Yong's Folk Style Poem Collection is closely connected with the principle of folk style's extended edition. The insertion, which takes place in folk song's oral transmission site, can be processed by adding performer's own lyrics into its original lyrics and making it extended edition. In this process, individual songs can be affected as a whole component with overall organic characteristics. The process of putting four pieces of poetry into one collection under the same category of Folk Style Poem Collection has a similar aspect of folk song's style of extended edition. This feature shows in the formal characteristics of symbols, functioning as a ring phrase and nonformal word spacing. Jeong Ji-Yong also made it clear of the value of his words (languages) in his thought. This rather has dynamic and fluid forms, which is totally different from the words that produce stereotype and fixed structure and value, The image of the words, which Jeong ji-Yong pursued had constantly shown in his works from Folk Style Poem Collection to Nostalgia. Words in his work pieces represent dynamics and openness, which embraces various things.

      • On Hun Min Jeong Eum and Jeong Yeok

        Yi,,Jeong,Ho 서경대학교 1978 論文集 Vol.6 No.-

        周易 說卦傳에 「說言乎兌……成言乎艮」이라는 말이 있다. 說言乎兌는 이역을, 成言乎艮은 革易을 말한 것으로 볼 수 있다. 이역은 訓民正音이요 革易은 金火正易이라 하였다. 訓民正音과 金火正易은 다 같이 韓國에서 上下 五百年을 隔하여, 하나는 우리의 말씀과 文字를 開發 整理하기 위하여, 하나는 우리의 精神과 哲學을 提高 結實하기 위하여 나타난 것이라 하겠다. 말씀과 精神은 遊離하여 存在할수 없다. 言語를 通하여 哲學하고 哲學을 通하여 眞理를 探求한다. 言語와 眞理는 人間生活에 있어서 暫時도 서로 떠날 수 없는 存在이다. 이 가장 重要한 두 가지를 담은 訓民正音과 金火正易의 두 易이 後天의 先後天易으로서 漢土가 아닌 槿域의 우리나라에 나타난 것은 그것이 가지는 人類史的 意義가 자못 重大함을 느끼는 同時에 우리 民族이 負荷하여야 할 世界史的 使命이 크고 神聖함을 깨닫는 바이다. 우리는 이 點을 再吟味 再認識할 必要가 있다고 생각한다.

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        정인섭의 아동문학 연구

        한정호 ( Han Jeong-ho ) 현대문학이론학회 2017 現代文學理論硏究 Vol.0 No.69

        정인섭(鄭寅燮, 1905-1983)은 우리 근대문학사에서 다채로운 활동을 보여준 문학인가운데 한 사람이다. 그는 1920년대부터 다양한 분야와 여러 갈래에 걸쳐 문학적 역량을 보여주었다. 그는 아동문학가, 시인, 수필가, 문학평론가, 번안작가, 민속학자, 영문학자, 한글운동가, 그리고 어린이운동가로서 크게 활약했다. 특히 그는 우리나라의 초창기 아동문학 분야에서 중심적 역할을 했고, 아동문학의 여러 갈래를 넘나들며 많은 작품을 남겼으며, 아동문화운동에도 적극적인 활동을 펼쳤다. 따라서 이 글은 정인섭의 삶과 문학 가운데서도 초창기에 열정을 쏟았던 아동문학가로서의 면모를 살피는 데 목표를 두었다. 이에 글쓴이는 정인섭의 문학살이와 어린이문화운동에 대해 우선적으로 짚어보았다. 특히 그의 삶과 어린이문화운동 가운데 중요한 것은 색동회의 활동이라 할 수 있다. 이를 통해 정인섭은 암울한 시대현실에서도 계몽과 교육을 통해 어린이들에게 꿈과 의망을 불어넣고자 했던 것이다. 그런 다음, 글쓴이는 정인섭의 아동문학 작품을 동요, 동화, 동극, 동수필로 나눠 아동문학적 특성에 대해 구체적으로 살펴보았다. 정인섭의 동시는 애상적이고 낙천적인 어린이들의 자연친화적 정서와 그들의 해맑은 순수 동심을 노래하고 있다. 또한 나라 잃은시기의 현실에 대한 어린이들의 구체생활이나 미래지향적 경향의 작품을 발표하고 있다. 정인섭은 전래동화의 현대화 작업과 외국 설화의 번안동화, 그리고 자신의 순수 창작동화 등을 적고 있다. 이는 어린이문화운동과 초창기 아동문학의 기틀을 갖추기 위한 선각자적 각성에서 비롯된 것이다. 아울러 그는 창작동화에도 큰 관심을 보여주고 있는데, 이는 당시 어린이들에게 읽을거리는 물론 교훈과 계몽을 주기 위한 방안이었던 셈이다. 정인섭의 동극은 교훈적 측면에서 전래동화나 외국동화 등의 이야기를 무대화하기도 하고, 예술교육의 측면에서 춤과 노래 등의 동요를 활용하여 상상력을 확장시켜 예술적 경험을 하게 하였으며, 계몽적 측면에서 어린이들이 성장해가는 데 필요한 삶의 덕목을 강조하고 있다. 아울러 정인섭은 자신의 유년 체험과 여행 체험을 중심으로 당대 어린이들의 정서함양, 그리고 전통과 현실에 대한 지식 전파를 위해 교육적 차원에서 동수필을 적고 있다. 그런 점에서 그의 동수필은 그의 아동관과 문학사적 행보를 살펴보는 데 유용한 자료로서 가치를 지닌다. 이렇듯 정인섭은 1920년대 우리 아동문학을 자리매김하는데 중요한 역할을 맡았다. 많은 동극을 창작하여 우리나라 동극의 터전을 닦았고, 우리 겨레의 민족성을 어린이들의 마음속에 심어주고자 노력했다. 그런 점에서 그의 아동문학은 우리나라 근대 어린이문화운동과 맥락을 같이하며, 여러 갈래에 걸쳐 값진 성과를 보여주고 있다. Jeong In-seop(1905-1983) is one of literary man showed a variety of activities in our modern literature. He showed literary skills across various sectors and branches since the 1920s. He was a large activity as a children`s literature, poet, essayist, literary critic, writer adaptation, folklorist, english scholars, and Hangul activists. In particular, he had a central role in the country`s early children`s literature field and left a number of works across the various branches of children`s culture and also played an active workout of children`s literary movement. This author is also aimed to appearance of aspect as a children`s literature a early passion for literature among life and literature of the jeong In-seop. First of all, this writer first saw point out literature about children`s movement and cultural age of Jeong In-seop. Especially, It is important that saekdonghoe(stripes of many colors) was activity among in his life and children`s culture movement. Through this fact, He put their dreams and hope to children through enlightenment and education in grim reality era. Next, his children`s literature divided into fairy tales, nursery rhymes and fairy essay. I investigated on specifics about children`s literature characteristics. He shows an angel childlike and realism childlike in his children`s world. His fairy-tale world announced the adapted fairy tales, fairy tales and creation of modernization and foreign legends of fairy tales. It derives from the pioneering awakening to equip children with the groundwork of the early cultural and children`s literature movement. On the other hand, the characteristics of nursery rhymes of Jeong In-seop is that it is creative with a live performance in mind. So his nursery rhymes world is unfolding as in life childlike through song and dance. Eventually, Jeong in seop have greater merit as a pioneer nursery rhymes as a means of children cultural movement in the 1920s. His essays usually put out his own childhood home candid experience and travel experience. Also he writed many essay in terms of education for the children`s knowledge propagation and cultivation emotion to the children. As such, Jeong in seop has played a major role in becoming our children`s literature in the 1920s. He brushed the grounds of the country nursery rhymes with creation of many nursery rhymes and tried to instill our countrymen ethnicity in the minds of the children. In this regard, his children`s literature is in context with a country of modern children`s cultural movement and shows the valuable achievements across multiple branches. Future, it will have to be more active to research on the overall life and activities of Jeong Iin-seop. For instance, the meticulous research on Korean linguistics and folklore work as well as cultural activity of poems, essays, criticism, literary translation work will be followed. To do so, the complete works of his life and activities will have to be published. Only then, this place become and full value for it be followed.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재SCIE

        PGA2-induced expression of HO-1 is mediated by transcriptional upregulation of Nrf2

        Sang-sun,Lee,Yun-Jeong,Choe,Hyein,Lee,Sun-Young,Lee,Ho-Shik,Kim 대한독성 유전단백체 학회 2019 Molecular & cellular toxicology Vol.15 No.2

        Backgrounds: Prostaglandin (PG) A2 reportedly stimulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 at the level of transcription via the activation of p38MAPK. Details of the mechanism, however, have not been provided, and this includes identification of the transcription factors responsible for PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Herein is described an analysis of the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and how PGA2 increases the activity of Nrf2 during PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Methods: Expressions of HO-1 and Nrf2 were analyzed at the levels of both mRNA and protein. Nrf2 siRNA, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38MAPK, and scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used to identify the effects of Nrf2, p38MAPK and ROS on PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Results: Although SB203580 suppressed PGA2-induced HO-1 expression, genetic activation of p38MAPK could not stimulate the transcription of HO-1. Cycloheximide (CHX), an inhibitor of protein translation, almost completely prevented PGA2-induced increase of HO-1 transcription, but it did not prevent the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, which suggests that both de novo protein synthesis and p38MAPK activity are required to induce the transcription of HO-1 in response to PGA2 treatment. In addition, PGA2 increased the level of both Nrf2 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Nrf2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. The PGA2-induced transcription of Nrf2 was prevented by ROS scavengers such as n-acetyl-l-cysteine and tempol but not CHX. Furthermore, siRNA against p38MAPK did not change the level of nuclear Nrf2 protein. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PGA2 induces HO-1 transcription via an increase in Nrf2 protein, the transcription of which is initiated by an accumulation of ROS that is independent of the p38MAPK activation pathway.

      • KCI등재SCIE

        PGA2 induces the expression of HO-1 by activating p53 in HCT116 cells

        Hyein,Lee,Sang-Sun,Lee,Ji-Young,Park,Yun-Jeong,Choe,이선영,Ho-Shik,Kim,H.-S.,Kim 대한독성 유전단백체 학회 2017 Molecular & cellular toxicology Vol.13 No.2

        Prostaglandin (PG) A2 which is a cytotoxic PG, was reported to induce the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 via activation of p38MAPK to keep U2OS cells from cell cycle arrest in G2M phase. The expression of HO-1 is primarily regulated at the level of transcription. But the transcription factors that are responsible for PGA2-induced HO-1 expression were not clarified yet. Here, we report that PGA2-induced transcription of HO-1 is mediated by p53, a tumor suppressive transcription factor. In HCT116 cells, PGA2 treatment led to the phosphorylation of p53 and an increase of p21WAF1 transcription as well as the activation of HO-1 transcription. Knocking p53 down via RNA interference or inhibiting the p53's transcriptional activity by pifithrin-α treatment led to suppression of the increase in the level of both HO-1 expression and activity of HO-1 promoter. Pretreatment of NU- 7441, a chemical inhibitor of DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK), prevented both the PGA2-induced phosphorylation of p53 and an increase of HO-1 transcription. In addition, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), also mimicked the effect of NU-7441 on the PGA2-induced activation of p53 and HO-1 transcription. Collectively, these results suggest that PGA2 induces the expression of HO-1 via activation of p53, which is mediated by the ROSDNA- PK pathway.

      • KCI등재후보

        임진왜란과 17세기 조선 사회의 기억 : 元豪의 戰功과 조선 사회의 褒?을 중심으로

        정호훈(Jeong Ho-hun) 역사실학회 2009 역사와실학 Vol.39 No.-

        After ending Joseon-japan war in 1592, the government and the ruling class of Joseon make public recognition of the war dead who was sacrificed. The reward of Joseon government for Won-ho(元豪) was an instance in that effort. The Won-ho(元豪)'s life is characterized as follows. First, he was a decent family in wonju district. Second, he was seriously affected by Sein(西人, western-factioner) in academic traditions and politics. He was taught neo-confucianism by Kim-deoksu (金德秀) who was son of Kim sik(金湜), a victim of Kimyo-sahwa(己卯士禍). Won-ho's friends were Yun-Geonsoo, Yun-Dusoo, Lee-Haisoo who were schoolfellow. They were of the same seoin faction. So, he, his sons and grandsons played a prominent part in Seoin faction. Third, he was a military officer. He was on duty an officer for a long time, and he lost his life in fighting an enemy. After his loyal death, the government and the intellectual of Joseon praised him of his behavior in many ways. The Joseon government confer posthumous honors of Pyeong-jo-pan-seo (兵曹判書) after a reasonable period of time, grant a posthumous epithet of Chungjang(忠壯) in the mid-seventeenth century, and gave a religious service. Besides, his friends put his loyal death into verses. Sin-gyeong(申炅) made a record his death and his sprit in Jae-jo-beon-bang-ji(再造藩邦志). These works aimed to remember him for long time. The effort of Joseon government to remember loyal death of Joseon-japan war in 1592 was to reconstruct Korea.

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        Effects of Herbal Extracts Used in Oriental Medicines on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression

        Jeong,,Gil-Saeng,Oh,,Seung-Hwan,Kang,,Dae-Gill,Lee,,Ho-Sub,Kim,,Youn-Chul The Physiological Society of Korean Medicine 2006 동의생리병리학회지 Vol.20 No.5

        Effects of twenty-three aqueous herbal extracts used in oriental medicines on heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression were estimated in a mouse hippocampal cell line, HT22. HO-1 is one of the cytoprotective enzymes activated various stimuli, and Western blot analysis was used for evaluated HO-1 expression. Six aqueous extracts such as Rhei Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix, Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus, Theae Folium, Prunellae Spica, and Coptidis Rhizoma significantly increased HO-1 expression in HT22 cells at the concentration of 300 ${\mu}$g/ml. In Addition, four aqueous extracts including Eucommiae Cortex, Moutan Cortex Radicis, Ginseng Radix Rubra, and Scutellariae Radix moderately increased HO-1 expression. These results would be usefulfor the isolation and identification of their neuroprotective principles.

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