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      • 十五一言에 對하여

        李正浩 서경대학교 1977 論文集 Vol.4-5 No.-

        "The Words of Ten and Five Accorded with One"(十五一言) may sound strange to those not acquainted with Jeong Yeok (正易). It is a condensed expression of three principles, namely, Ten the Illimitable(無極 Mu-geuk), Five the Central Ultimate(皇極 Hwang-geuk), and One the Great Ultimate(太極 Tae-geuk). Ten(Mu-geuk) and Five(Hwang-geuk) are the central numbers of the Yellow River Map (河圖). And One the Great Ultimate, when accompanied by Ten the Illimitable, makes "Ten and One Rendered to the Same Body"(十一歸體) as was noted as the Illimitable (being) the Great Ultimate(無極而太極). It is the point of departure and arrival of all the things dead and alive, and is represented to be the very middle of Five the Central Ultimate. Many crucial facts of Jeong-Yeok―e.g., Ban-go(盤古)'s transformation(盤古化), the origin of the Orthodox Learnings(道學) and its successors, and the arrangement and realization of the Jeong Yeok's Map of Trigrams (正易八卦圖), etc.―are derived from the principle of "The Words of Ten and Five Accorded with One." The general scheme of the observations the author made is as follows: 1. The problems of 'Ban-go'(盤古) In I Ching(or the Book of Changes 周易) it is noted that He (Pao Hsi 伏羲, 포희) proceeded directly from the human body and indirectly from natural objects" (近取諸身, 遠取諸物). In accordance with this the author analyzed both human birth and universal creation into four embryological steps, namely, Fertilization, Pregnancy, Nourishment and Birth(胞胎養生). These four steps were contrasted with the numbers of changing features of heavenly bodies (i.e., Heaven, Earth, Sun, Moon). And it was explained why they have their causes in the activities of Ban-go with special emphasis on the meaning of the Ban-go's transformation(盤古化) and the Ban-go's fifth transformation(盤古五化). 2. The origin of the Orthodox Learnings(道學) The principle of Stagnation and Communication(否泰) which is characteristic of the Yellow Rive Map(河圖) and of the River Lo Writing(洛書) gives some light to the understanding of the origin of the Orthodox Learnings. One passage which may account for the Learnings of Jeong Yeok is that Suppressing Yin and Elevating Yang is the main theme of the learning in the former Heaven and Harmonizing Yang and Rythmizing Yin is the Way of the latter Heaven. (抑陰尊陽先天心法之學, 調陽律音後天性理之道) As the Orthodox Learnings has it origin "The Words of Ten and Five Accorded with One" in the Yellow River Map and the River Lo Writing, so have the fifteen sages who have been the successors of the Learnings. Fourteen of them are sages of the former Heaven whose missions are to be eventually fulfilled by Il Bu(literally 'One Man', the sage of the latter Heaven. This is what the following line implies: All movements under Heaven become One in due course. (天下之動 貞夫一者) 3. The problem of the Jeong Yeok posited to the Golden Mean(中位正易) The Jeong Yeok posited to the Golden Mean implies the accomplishment of Jeong Yeok as Heaven and Earth receive their deserved positions, Thunder and Wind do not act contrary to each other, Water and Fire attain together and Mountain and Lake interchange their infuences. (天地正位, 雷風不相悖, 水火相逮, 山澤通氣) Some points are made here: 1) According to the theory of Thunder and Wind posited to the Golden Mean, Ten the Thunder (Che^n 震) and Five the Wind (Sun 巽), having accomplished the role of directors in the former Heaven in the title of Ch'ien(乾) and K'un(坤), recede to the positions of One and Six. Thus to the positions of Ten and Five come the deserved members of Ch'ien and K'un and their administrative authority and musical virtuosity are conceded to "Ten and One rendered to the same body(十一歸體)" of Mountain and Lake. Now the principle that the filial son doesn't contradict (his parents) (孝子不相悖) is observed and way of humility (Ch'ien 謙) is followed. 2) From the theory of Water and Fire attaining together the following points are made. The changes meant by I Ching are changes of the Sun and the Moon. The phase of the Moon is ceaselessly changing while constancy is characteristic of the Sun. The changes of the Moon especially noted in Jeong Yeok are the changes in months and years. A month (lunar) in the former Heaven begins on the day Mu Jin(戊辰), and that in the latter Heaven on the day Kye Mi(癸未). Hence the calendar without intercalation is to be used in the latter Heaven, which means a year consisted of 360 days net. To keep pace with this astronomical change which is simply beyond man's reach everyone should become a man of complete virtue by ever changing his inner self―this is what is emphasized in the hexagram Ko(Molting 革). The Great Man changes himself like a tiger. The Superior Man changes himself like a panther. (大人虎豹, 君子豹變) 3) As is shown in the treatise on "Moutain and Lake Interchanging their Influences" (山澤通氣) there are two levels on which the Wei Chi(Before Completion 未濟) of the former Heaven changes into the Chi Chi(After Completion 旣濟) of the latter Heaven. On the personal level a harmonious marital life and domestic courteousness lead to the production of men of complete virtue and harmony, and on the social level Union of Ken (Moutain) and Tui (Lake) (艮兌合德) and the Administration of Ten and One(十一用政) make for the construction of the New World Illimitable(无量世界). The way to it is―to enhance and enlarge human love to the extent that One makes one's fellowship in the open(同人于野) and One bears with the uncultured in gentleness(包荒). 4) The theory of Ch'ien and K'un posited to the deserved positions(乾坤正位論) is that Ten the Thunder (Che^n 辰) and Five the Wind(Sun 巽) recede to the positions of One and Six from the positions of Ten and Five, and to the positions Ten and Five come Ch'ien(乾) and K'un(坤). Now Ch'ien and K'un are at the blank position(空位) as the result of Sublimation(of Ch'ien and K'un to the blank positions 乾坤尊空). Everything comes to be in order. Filial piety in the latter Heaven firmly takes root, and all the mischievous disappear. Besides, modest Che^n(震) and Sun(巽) concede their administration to Ke^n(艮) and Tui(兌) (i.e., Mountain and Lake that interchange their influences) a penetrating brotherly love is fulfilled. Thus filial piety and brotherly love are fulfilled all over the world. As Ch'ien and K'un are posited to their deserved positions, the Jeong Yeok's year arrives―a year consisting of 360 days with every season and month ever mild and fresh. All the people become peace-lovers. In this way the Rule of the Being Himself(己位親政) and the construction of the New World Illimitable become inevitable. 4. On the hexagram Ch'ien (Modesty 謙) According to the Sequence of Hexagrams(序卦), Ch'ien(謙) is the 15th hexagram of I Ching. Generally specking the orderly sequence displayed in the Sequence has some specific meaning. In the former part of I Ching it is closely related with the phasic changes of the Moon such as Obscure, New Moon, Quarters, and Full Moon. Why is the hexagram Ch'ien(謙) at the fifteenth of this Sequence while the hexagram of the full moon (namely, Ta Yu, 大有, Possession in Great Measure) comes to the fourteenth? The answer we find in I Ching: He who keeps to be modest in spite of his possession in great measure, carries things through(有大而能謙…君子有終). Ten and Five are numbers of Che^n(震) and Sun(巽) as well as of Ch'ien(乾) and K'un(坤). As are shown by the Jeong Yeok's Map of Trigrams, Thunder and Wind recede ro the positions of One and Six to sublimate Ch'ien(乾) and K'un(坤) to the blank positions(乾坤尊空) and to make Mountain(山) and Lake(澤) do their administration of Ten and One in the East and West. This is the realization of the proposition that Thunder and Wind do not act contrary to each other, and is the true reason why "Thunder and Wind" becomes the Master of the hexagram Ch'ien(謙). With no danger of exaggeration we affirm it is there that we can find the gist of Jeong Yeok. The theory above also constitutes a part of "Words of Ten and Five Accorded with One." 5. The problem of the Complication by Three and Five(三五錯綜) In I Ching the passage The three and five operations are undertaken in order to obtain a change. Divisions and combinations of numbers are made. (參伍以變 錯綜其數) discusses the process of manipulating stalks to obtain the hexagram. But in the context of Jeong Yeok the Complication by Three and Five is suggestive of complication by three and five in the Former Heaven. They are the numbers of the ultimate change(至變度數), a change from Kap Jin(甲辰) to Mu Jin(戊辰) in sexagenery cyclic(六甲) terms, or a change from the Yellow River Map to the River Lo Wrting. From it comes Before Kap(甲), three days. After Kap(甲), three days. (先甲三日, 後甲三日) The same logic is found in the diagram of basic initial sounds of Hun-Min Jeong-Eum(訓民正音). In Jeong Yeok the complication by Three and Five implies the Three Cardinal Numbers in the system of the former Heaven, where Kap Ja is brought forth in the midnight of Kap and Ki(甲己夜半生甲子). Besides in the relationship of the Three Abilities(三才) and the Five Primary Currents(五行), mutually functioning as the fundamental(體) and the practical(用) for each other, we find another example of the complication by Three and Five. The same may be said of Five and Central Ultimate(皇極 ??) of the Yellow River Map. From the above observation it is clear: the Jeong Yeok of the Golden Mean(中位正易) is the Jeong Yeok of Thunder and Wind(雷風正易), which is the same thing as the Jeong Yeok of Il Bu(一夫正易). It is "the Jeong Yeok of the initial Ban-go(盤古一元)" "Words of Ten and Five accorded with One" is the structure, essence and the function of Ban-go.

      • KCI등재

        정지용의 ‘民謠風詩篇’과 초기시의 다양한 형식에 나타나는 비근대적 사유의 양상

        정용호(Jeong, Yong-Ho) 한국어문학회 2015 語文學 Vol.0 No.127

        Considerable numbers of traditional elements can be found in Jeong Ji-Yong’s early poetry. One of the most significant implications in Jeong Ji-Yong’s early poetry is its folk style, which has been discussed in quite a few times. Surprisingly, discussions on Folk Style Poem Collection, of its term ‘Folk Style’ has been denominated by Jeong Ji-Yong himself, however, would not seem to be placed quite actively. In addition, it has been concluded that previous discussions on Jeong Ji-Yong’s poetry was only focused on his borrowing of folk style, which resulted in lack of detailed discussion on emotional contexts of folk style, Thus, this paper will review the format of Jeong Ji-Yong’s Folk Style Poem Collection and his mental orientation based on its format. Presumably, the main format of Jeong Ji-Yong’s Folk Style Poem Collection is closely connected with the principle of folk style’s extended edition. The insertion, which takes place in folk song’s oral transmission site, can be processed by adding performer’s own lyrics into its original lyrics and making it extended edition. In this process, individual songs can be affected as a whole component with overall organic characteristics. The process of putting four pieces of poetry into one collection under the same category of Folk Style Poem Collection has a similar aspect of folk song’s style of extended edition. This feature shows in the formal characteristics of symbols, functioning as a ring phrase and nonformal word spacing. Jeong Ji-Yong also made it clear of the value of his words (languages) in his thought. This rather has dynamic and fluid forms, which is totally different from the words that produce stereotype and fixed structure and value, The image of the words, which Jeong ji-Yong pursued had constantly shown in his works from Folk Style Poem Collection to Nostalgia. Words in his work pieces represent dynamics and openness, which embraces various things.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Nutlin-3 induces HO-1 expression by activating JNK in a transcription-independent manner of p53

        CHOE, YUN-JEONG,LEE, SUN-YOUNG,KO, KYUNG WON,SHIN, SEOK JOON,KIM, HO-SHIK Spandidos Publications 2014 International journal of oncology Vol.44 No.3

        A recent study reported that p53 can induce HO-1 by directly binding to the putative p53 responsive element in the HO-1 promoter. In this study, we report that nutlin-3, a small molecule antagonist of HDM2, induces the transcription of HO-1 in a transcription-independent manner of p53. Nutlin-3 induced HO-1 expression at the level of transcription in human cancer cells such as U2OS and RKO cells. This induction of HO-1 did not occur in SAOS cells in which p53 was mutated and was prevented by knocking down the p53 protein using p53 siRNA transfection, but not by PFT-alpha, an inhibitor of the transcriptional activity of p53. Accompanying HO-1 expression, nutlin-3 stimulated the accumulation of ROS and the phosphorylation of MAPKs such as JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. Nutlin-3-induced HO-1 expression was suppressed by TEMPO, a ROS scavenger, and chemical inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK but not ERK1/2. In addition, nutlin-3-induced phosphorylation of JNK but not p38 MAPK was inhibited by TEMPO. Notably, the levels of nutlin-3-induced ROS were correlated with the mitochondrial translocation of p53 and this induction was prevented by PFT-beta, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial translocation of p53. Consistent with the effect of the ROS scavenger and MAPK inhibitors, PFT-beta reduced HO-1 expression and the phosphorylation of JNK induced by nutlin-3. In the experiments of analyzing cell death, the knockdown of HO-1 augmented nutlin-3-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that nutlin-3 induces HO-1 expression via the activation of both JNK which is dependent on ROS generated by p53 translocated to the mitochondria and p38 MAPK which appears to be stimulated by a ROS-independent mechanism, and this HO-1 induction may inhibit nutlin-3-induced apoptosis, constituting a negative feedback loop of p53-induced apoptosis.

      • KCI등재

        PGA2-induced expression of HO-1 is mediated by transcriptional upregulation of Nrf2

        Sang-sun Lee,Yun-Jeong Choe,Hyein Lee,Sun-Young Lee,Ho-Shik Kim 대한독성 유전단백체 학회 2019 Molecular & cellular toxicology Vol.15 No.2

        Backgrounds: Prostaglandin (PG) A2 reportedly stimulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 at the level of transcription via the activation of p38MAPK. Details of the mechanism, however, have not been provided, and this includes identification of the transcription factors responsible for PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Herein is described an analysis of the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and how PGA2 increases the activity of Nrf2 during PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Methods: Expressions of HO-1 and Nrf2 were analyzed at the levels of both mRNA and protein. Nrf2 siRNA, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38MAPK, and scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used to identify the effects of Nrf2, p38MAPK and ROS on PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Results: Although SB203580 suppressed PGA2-induced HO-1 expression, genetic activation of p38MAPK could not stimulate the transcription of HO-1. Cycloheximide (CHX), an inhibitor of protein translation, almost completely prevented PGA2-induced increase of HO-1 transcription, but it did not prevent the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, which suggests that both de novo protein synthesis and p38MAPK activity are required to induce the transcription of HO-1 in response to PGA2 treatment. In addition, PGA2 increased the level of both Nrf2 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Nrf2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. The PGA2-induced transcription of Nrf2 was prevented by ROS scavengers such as n-acetyl-l-cysteine and tempol but not CHX. Furthermore, siRNA against p38MAPK did not change the level of nuclear Nrf2 protein. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PGA2 induces HO-1 transcription via an increase in Nrf2 protein, the transcription of which is initiated by an accumulation of ROS that is independent of the p38MAPK activation pathway.

      • KCI등재

        PGA2 induces the expression of HO-1 by activating p53 in HCT116 cells

        Hyein Lee,Sang-Sun Lee,Ji-Young Park,Yun-Jeong Choe,이선영,Ho-Shik Kim,H.-S. Kim 대한독성 유전단백체 학회 2017 Molecular & cellular toxicology Vol.13 No.2

        Prostaglandin (PG) A2 which is a cytotoxic PG, was reported to induce the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 via activation of p38MAPK to keep U2OS cells from cell cycle arrest in G2M phase. The expression of HO-1 is primarily regulated at the level of transcription. But the transcription factors that are responsible for PGA2-induced HO-1 expression were not clarified yet. Here, we report that PGA2-induced transcription of HO-1 is mediated by p53, a tumor suppressive transcription factor. In HCT116 cells, PGA2 treatment led to the phosphorylation of p53 and an increase of p21WAF1 transcription as well as the activation of HO-1 transcription. Knocking p53 down via RNA interference or inhibiting the p53’s transcriptional activity by pifithrin-α treatment led to suppression of the increase in the level of both HO-1 expression and activity of HO-1 promoter. Pretreatment of NU- 7441, a chemical inhibitor of DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK), prevented both the PGA2-induced phosphorylation of p53 and an increase of HO-1 transcription. In addition, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), also mimicked the effect of NU-7441 on the PGA2-induced activation of p53 and HO-1 transcription. Collectively, these results suggest that PGA2 induces the expression of HO-1 via activation of p53, which is mediated by the ROSDNA- PK pathway.

      • KCI등재

        Effects of Herbal Extracts Used in Oriental Medicines on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression

        Jeong, Gil-Saeng,Oh, Seung-Hwan,Kang, Dae-Gill,Lee, Ho-Sub,Kim, Youn-Chul The Physiological Society of Korean Medicine and T 2006 동의생리병리학회지 Vol.20 No.5

        Effects of twenty-three aqueous herbal extracts used in oriental medicines on heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression were estimated in a mouse hippocampal cell line, HT22. HO-1 is one of the cytoprotective enzymes activated various stimuli, and Western blot analysis was used for evaluated HO-1 expression. Six aqueous extracts such as Rhei Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix, Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus, Theae Folium, Prunellae Spica, and Coptidis Rhizoma significantly increased HO-1 expression in HT22 cells at the concentration of 300 ${\mu}$g/ml. In Addition, four aqueous extracts including Eucommiae Cortex, Moutan Cortex Radicis, Ginseng Radix Rubra, and Scutellariae Radix moderately increased HO-1 expression. These results would be usefulfor the isolation and identification of their neuroprotective principles.

      • Ho-166 부착풍선도자를 이용한 방사선 조사의 돼지 관상동맥 스텐트 재협착 예방 효과

        김원 ( Kim Won ),정명호 ( Jeong Myeong Ho ),박옥영 ( Park Og Yeong ),정우곤 ( Jeong U Gon ),박우석 ( Park U Seog ),김주한 ( Kim Ju Han ),안영근 ( An Yeong Geun ),조정관 ( Jo Jeong Gwan ),박종춘 ( Park Jong Chun ),강정채 ( Kang Je 한국지질동맥경화학회 ( 구 한국지질학회 ) 2002 韓國脂質學會誌 Vol.12 No.1

        배경 : 국내에서 개발된 방사선 동위원소 Holmium-166 (166Ho)은 주로 베타선을 방출하며, 166Ho을 부착한 풍선도자를 이용하여 돼지 관상동맥 재협착 모형에서 풍선확장술 후 신생내막 증식을 전신적 부작용 없이 안전하고 효과적으로 억제하였음을 보고한 바 있다. 본 연구에서는 돼지 관상동맥 스텐트 재협착 모형에서 스텐트 시술 후 신생내막 증식에 의한 재협착 병변을 166Ho 부착 풍선도자를 이용하여 치료하여 그 효과를 관찰하고자 하였다. 방법

      • KCI등재

        PGA2-induced HO-1 attenuates G2M arrest by modulating GADD45α expression

        Yun-Jeong Choe,고경원,Hyein Lee,이선영,Byung-Chul Kim,Ho-Shik Kim,Ho-Shik Kim 대한독성 유전단백체 학회 2015 Molecular & cellular toxicology Vol.11 No.4

        Prostaglandin (PG) A2, a cyclopentenone PG, arrested the growth of U2OS cells in the G2M phase. While inducing G2M arrest, PGA2 increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) at the level of transcription along with the accumulation of ROS and the activation of MAPKs including JNK, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2. Among the MAPKs, the inhibition of p38MAPK by a specific chemical inhibitor SB203580, or by RNA interference, but not JNK or ERK1/2, attenuated the PGA2-induced transcription of HO-1. Nacetylcysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, prevented PGA2-induced G2M arrest, p38MAPK activation and transcriptional induction of HO-1. PGA2 also stimulated GADD45α expression at the level of transcription, and the knockdown of GADD45α repressed PGA2- induced G2M arrest. Finally, the knockdown of the HO-1 protein elevated PGA2-induced GADD45α expression as well as G2M arrest. Collectively, these results suggest that PGA2 causes an increase in ROS accumulation which initiates both HO-1 transcription via p38MAPK, and G2M arrest via GADD45α transcription, and HO-1 attenuates G2M arrest by modulating the expression of GADD45α.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

        N-acetyl cysteine inhibits H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-mediated reduction in the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells by down-regulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

        Lee, Daewoo,Kook, Sung-Ho,Ji, Hyeok,Lee, Seung-Ah,Choi, Ki-Choon,Lee, Kyung-Yeol,Lee, Jeong-Chae Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biol 2015 BMB Reports Vol.48 No.11

        There are controversial findings regarding the roles of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway on bone metabolism under oxidative stress. We investigated how Nrf2/HO-1 pathway affects osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in response to hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), or both. Exposing the cells to H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> decreased the alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium accumulation, and expression of osteoblast markers, such as osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor-2. In contrast, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> treatment increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the cells. Treatment with hemin, a chemical HO-1 inducer, mimicked the inhibitory effect of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> on osteoblast differentiation by increasing the HO-1 expression and decreasing the osteogenic marker genes. Pretreatment with NAC restored all changes induced by H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> to near normal levels in the cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-mediated activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway negatively regulates the osteoblast differentiation, which is inhibited by NAC.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재후보

        N-acetyl cysteine inhibits H2O2-mediated reduction in the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells by down-regulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

        ( Daewoo Lee ),( Sung Ho Kook ),( Hyeok Ji ),( Seung Ah Lee ),( Ki Choon Choi ),( Kyung Yeol Lee ),( Jeong Chae Lee ) 생화학분자생물학회(구 한국생화학분자생물학회) 2015 BMB Reports Vol.48 No.11

        There are controversial findings regarding the roles of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway on bone metabolism under oxidative stress. We investigated how Nrf2/HO-1 pathway affects osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), or both. Exposing the cells to H2O2 decreased the alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium accumulation, and expression of osteoblast markers, such as osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor-2. In contrast, H2O2 treatment increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the cells. Treatment with hemin, a chemical HO-1 inducer, mimicked the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on osteoblast differentiation by increasing the HO-1 expression and decreasing the osteogenic marker genes. Pretreatment with NAC restored all changes induced by H2O2 to near normal levels in the cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that H2O2-mediated activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway negatively regulates the osteoblast differentiation, which is inhibited by NAC. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(11): 636-641]

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