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서형수 ( Hyung Soo Seo ),신영섭 ( Young Seob Shin ),이경은 ( Kyung Eun Lee ),김윤미 ( Yoon Mi Kim ),전미나 ( Mina Jeon ),남택우 ( Taek Woo Nam ),한성용 ( Sung Yong Han ),정연숙 ( Yeonsook Choung ) 한국하천호수학회(구 한국육수학회) 2014 생태와 환경 Vol.47 No.special
In order to determine whether vegetation would be one of the factors for the selection of otter home range, vegetation structure and other potential factors were studied in Hwacheon, Korea. Thirteen sites, otter’s activity found and not found, were investigated in North Han River and connected tributary streams of Hwacheon-gun. Three types of vegetation were classified by cluster analysis, which is short grass, tall grass and shrub type. Vegetation zone of each channel is composed of either one type, or mosaic of tall grass and shrub type. Short grass type is common in Lake Paro and upper North Han-river where water level is highly variable throughout a year. Therefore, annual species such as Persicaria nodosa, Fimbristylis dichotomam and Chenopodium ficifolium are the most dominant. Shrub type is common at the downstream sites of Jichon stream and along mainstream of North Han River down Lake Paro. A shrub species, Salix koreensis, is the most common. Tall grass type is dominant occupying the most vegetation zone of the tributary channels. Phragmites japonica is absolutely dominant. Due to its dense cover, a few plant species are co-existed. Otter activity was found in all three vegetation types and no marked activity was found at some sites of tall grass type. There is no difference in species composition and physiognomy between tall grass sites with and without otter activity, while it shows significant difference in fish availability between two groups. Overall we found that home range of otters in the region is along the mainstream and downstream of tributary streams with high fish availability in all vegetation types and in various human activity levels.
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This study aims to inquire into strategies for promoting export by investigating the real Korean Wave products of K-Beauty through approaching closer to the formation process of Korean Wave and Korean Wave products. In the first place, this study chose classification method of Korean Wave products from K-Beauty products by examining and reviewing general situations and various factors of Korean Wave. After this process, this study inquired into the strategies for promoting export of K-Beauty products. In the last place, the implications of the study were clarified. The items which benefited most from Korean Wave by the recent Korean Wave fever correspond to cosmetics, accessories, women s wear, cellular phones, confectionery, beverages and cigarettes. In addition to K-Beauty, it will be required to expand the area in a more diversified way toward K-Food, K-Health and K-Town, aiming at sustainable development of Korean Wave.
This survey is to study the corresponding degree of water pollution of the Kum river areas, covering the eight places of main stream of the river from the Daechung dam to Kangkyung county, and two trivutary streams of Kap stream, and Miho stream. Besides, the heavy metal content of the fishes, shellfish, moss, and soil in the main stream of Kum river is investigated, whose results are as follows: 1. The water quality The water quality of the area from the Daechung dam to the Sintanjin county is first grade for the standard of drinking water in terms of BOD, COD values, that of both Kap stream and Miho stream is third or fourth grade respectively, and the other areas are turned out to be second grade. The water of the Daechung dam to the Sintanjin has little NO₂-N and ??, which can be said to be possible for the drinking water. The quantity of ?? and ?? in the water of all the areas is below the standard for the available drinking water, but, that of Kap stream and Miho stream is about two or three times higher than other areas. 2. Heavy metal The content of Cd, Cu, Mn, and Zn are shown to be comparatively less than that of Co, Fe, Ni, and Pb. And the content of Cu, Mn, Zn are less than the possible standard value for the drinking water. The relationship of the heavy metal content of the fish and shellfish were in order of Co>Zn>Cu>Cd, for the moss, Zn>Pb>Co>Cu>Cd, and for the soil, Zn>Pb>Cu>Co>Cd. The most of collecting samples in the Kumnam area have lots of heavy metals, and Pb is well contained in shells than fishes. When summarize the above result, the water in the Daechung dam and Sintanjin area is comparatively favorable for the drinking water, and the water quality below the Kumnam areas appears to be wores because of influx of Kap stream and Miho stream. In short, the necessary counter measure is to be required for the good preservation of water of fine quality in Kum River.
세계적으로 에틸렌 생산공장에서 배출되는 이산화탄소의 양은 매년 141백만 톤에 이르며, 석유화학산업에서 소비되는 전체 에너지 중 약 40%는 나프타 스팀크래킹에 사용된다. 이로인한 지구 온난화를 막기 위하여 에너지 효율 증대를 통하여 이산화탄소 배출양을 최소화할 수 있는 나프타 크래킹 기술개발이 시급하다. 또한 천연가스로부터 얻어지는 에틸렌의 양이 점점 증가하기 때문에 프로필렌/에틸렌 비를 증대하기 위한 연구가 필요한 실정이다. 그러므로 에틸렌과 프로필렌 수요를 맞추기 위한 thermal cracking의 대안으로 촉매를 이용한 크래킹기술이 시도되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 나프타로부터 에틸렌, 프로필렌 등과 같은 경질 올레핀 제조에 관하여 지난 수 년간 공개된 특허와 실용화 가능한 공정 기술을 소개하고자 한다. In the whole world, the amount of CO₂ emission from the ethylene plant is about 141 million tons per year, and currently about 40% of the energy in petrochemical industry is used for steam cracking of naphtha. So, global warming issues have stimulated the development of new cracking process of naphtha which can minimize CO₂ emission through the increase of energy efficiency. Also there is an effort to increase the ratio of propylene/ethylene in naphtha cracking since the natural gas cracker which can produce ethylene preferentially increases more and more. Therefore, catalytic cracking of naphtha has been studied as an alternative of thermal cracking to balance ethylene and propylene demand and to reduce CO₂ emission. This paper will review the various routes which have been investigated and applied over the past years, hut will focus particularly on the recently patented and commercially demonstrated processes for the production of lower olefins from naphtha.
A 80 year-old man ingested hydrochloric acid as suicidal purpose and as a result developed an epigastric fullness and pain. Marked stricture of esophagogastric junction and gastric outlet were found by endoscopic examination after 20 days of admission. A total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy was performed. Grossly, resected stomach revealed redness and erosion especially over antrum and pylorus. On cross section, a flat elvated lesion measuring 0.7×0.5 cm was incidentally found on high body along lesser curvature. On microscopic examination, the mass consisted of atypical epithelial glands having increased cellularity and round hyperchromatic nuclei without invasive foci. The lesion was diagnosed with ‘epithelial dysplasia, high grade’. Corrosive gastritis and submucosal epithelial heterotopia were found in surrounding mucosa also.
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Objectives : Using 3-stimulus auditory "oddball" paradigm reflecting fronto/central and temporo/parietal functions Simultaneously, we examined patients with schizophrenia. Methods : fifteen patients with schizophrenia from outpatient clinic and fifteen normal controls from hospital staffs were recruited for the study. To elicit P3a and P3b, 3-stimulus auditory oddball paradigm was employed. The 3-stimulus auditory oddball paradigm was composed of standard tone (1,000 Hz, 75 dB, 80%), target tone (2,000 Hz, 75 dB, 10%) and distracter (White noise, 95 dB, 10%). Results : P3a and P3b were prominent in fronto/central and temporo/parietal areas, respectively, in both schizophrenics and normal controls. The P300 amplitude in patients with schizophrenia was reduced across P3a and P3b (p<0.01). The P300latency in patients with schizophrenia was delayed across P3a and P3b (p<0.01). Conclusion : These results were consistent with frontal and temporo-parietal lobe dysfunctions in schizophrenics. The 3-stimulus auditory paradigm could be applied for patients with schizophrenia and useful for further exploration the disorder.
A past monthly data is not faithful so much for a short term. But, the stochastic generation technique was provide of a long-term data. Thus this study is used a data which generated a monthly inflow amounts data by Thomas-Fiering model. This model is needed a certain process which determination of distribution, decision of continuous durability, etc. It was generated a inflow data every one month as Thomas-Fiering method. The generated inflow data was used input data for a monthly cumulative analysis. This analysis obtained a storage capacities which would be required during droughts having various return periods. It was presented a equation of fitting regression that carried out regression analysis of 5,10, 20, 50 years period.
Anaerobic digestion is commonly used in wastewater treatment plants to stabilize sludge produced in primary and secondary treatment, to produce renewable energy as methane, and to reduce the volume of solids for ultimate disposal. Previous studies on anaerobic digestibility of primary and secondary sludge present that secondary sludge showed poor anaerobic digestibility and less gas production. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of pulse power pretreatment on anaerobic digestibility of waste activated sludge. These objectives were achieved through operation of carefully-controlled laboratory digesters under various conditions. The conclusion made from this study are as follows: 1) To maximize the efficiency of pulse power pretreatment for waste activated sludge, the optimum operation conditions for coaxial reactor with 7 rings are decided as follows; a) optimum pulse repetition rate : 110㎐, b)feeding service : once-through mode, c) optimum hydraulic retention time : 1.0-1.5sec 2) Pretreated WAS by pulse power system showed increase of SCOD, ECP, and V.A by 13.6, 4.6, and 7.1 times. 3) From the results from operation of lab scaled anaerobic digester, pulse power sludge pretreatment increased GPR from 0.39㎥gas/㎏VS_add · day to 0.66㎥gas/㎏VS_add · day and methane content from 43.9% to 87.9%. Thus, increase of methane production rate was increased by 3.4times. 4) During the steady state operation of anaerobic digester, the removal efficiency of TCOD and VS were improved by 44.6% and 31.5% respectively after pulse power pretreatment of waste activated sludge.
Since the residential load is an AC load and the output of solar cell is a DC power, the photovoltaic system needs the DC/AC converter to utilize solar cell. In case of driving to interact with utility line, in order to operate at unity power factor, converter must provide the sinusoidal wave current and voltage with same phase of utility line. Since output of solar cell is greatly fluctuated by insolation, it is necessary that the operation of solar cell output in the range of the vicinity of maximum power point. In this paper, DC/AC converter is three phase PWM converter with smoothing reactor. And then, feedforward control used to obtain a superior characteristic for current control and digital PLL circuit used to detect the phase of utility line.