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This paper aims at finding a relationship between Oh Jang-hwan's poetry and Baek Seok's poetry, clarifying Oh Jang-hwan poetry's thematic consciousness, and characterizing the inner logic of Oh Jang-hwan's early poetry. This kind of work helps finding out the logical reasons for the complex aspects of Oh Jang-hwan's early poetry. A desirable poem for Oh Jang-hwan is the one that reveals a poet's emotion, opinions, and visions. The 'sentimentalism' for him is the emotion that a true person has to feel when he confronts with the real life and the natural effect of the contents over the forms. On the one hand, Oh Jang-hwan's criticism for Baek, Seok is caused by this kind of reason. On the other hand, Oh tries to find Baek Seok poetry's good points, the characteristics of returning family and hometown and refinding a value of the present reality and the future directionality. The thematic tendency of Oh Jang-hwan's early poetry is perceiving the past with the present perspective and narrating the past with the vision for future. This kind of tendency is embodied in <Jongga [the head family]>. However, Oh Jang-hwan does not reveal his commentary and critical attitude in the poems depicting the low class whom he empathizes or feels sympathy. This kind of tendency proves that Oh Jang-hwan's critical voice is not his own voice but an intentional one resulted by his poetic theory. The reason why he shows a critical attitude in his many poems in spite of this tendency is that he thinks criticizing the old customs, the false consciousness and the deceptive attitude of the Yangban [the upper class], human alineation of the capitalistic society, and the small businessmen is more important than sympathizing with the lower class. This kind of attitude tells that Oh Jang-hwan does not deny all aspects of the contemporary reality and tradition but negate them selectively differentiating between the objects of negation and the objects of empathy. The reason why the critical poems are more visible than the empathizing poems is that the object of denial is the structure of reality itself.
Oh, Jang-Hwan is the poet who demonstrated the contemporary social reality and its contradictions obviously through his literary practice living through the Japanese colonial period, the emancipation and the division. Oh, Jang-Hwan’s perspective covers such a broad range as the denial of old customs, a firm belief in progress, the criticism on the capitalistic modern urban civilization, a decadent experience of sailing, an ambivalent emotion on his hometown, which is regarded as an exceptionally broad spectrum comparing his contemporary poets. This paper aims at grasping an inner logic that can explain Oh, Jang-Hwan poetry’s heterogeneous and contradictory characteristics, which are produced by its complex and various aspects. The inner logic is the doubleness of Oh, Jang-Hwan’s consciousness of denial, in other words, an irony emergedby negating both reality and self and the attitude of romantic disillusionment. First of all, this paper analyzes that Oh, Jang-Hwan’s consciousness of denial is expressed with the double aspects. Oh, Jang-Hwan is the poet who revealed a strong interest on the social reality. While he wrote poems that sympathize the lives of the low-class, he also created the poems that criticize the social reality. They negate tradition and old customs and criticize their fakeness. When this consciousness of the denial is toward his interiority, Oh, Jang-Hwan’s poems reveal the artificial pose and the decadent aspects. This paper regards the double negation and the contradictory attitude as the conspicuous characteristics of Oh, Jang-Hwan’s early poetry and named it as ‘the Irony of Denial.’ Second, this paper analyzes the characteristics of Oh, Jang-Hwan’s early poetry as the transformation from the romantic disillusionment to lyricism. This paper named this character as the ‘Romantic Disillusionment’ in that the emotions of self disillusionment are expressed with the romantic spaces. The frequent expressions in this early period such as ‘tears,’ ‘regret’, ‘sorrow’, and ‘death’ are the results of the lyric attitude that poetic subject inevitably had to arrive after getting through the disillusionment.
이 논문은 오장환의 해방기 시문학에 관한 연구이다. 해방 후 발간된 『病든 서울』을 중심으로 한 해방기 시편들과 필자가 새롭게 발굴한 월북 이후 오장환의 시를 통해 해방에서 월북에 이르는 오장환의 시적 이력과 정치적 행보 사이의 연관성을 파악하고자 하였다. 특히 필자가 찾아낸 오장환의 시 「탑」과 번역시 「튀스터-氏」, 한효의 오장환 관련 평문은 해방을 맞이한 순간부터 월북에 걸친 시기의 오장환의 시를 이해하는 데 새로운 시각을 제공할 것으로 기대한다. 오장환은 식민지 시기의 행적에 대한 철저한 자기반성을 일회성의 차원에서가 아니라 지속적으로 수행하고 있었고 이 점에서 오장환의 자기반성은 새롭게 조명될 필요가 있다고 판단된다. 그의 해방기 시편들은 피식민의 역사를 건너 온 한 시인의 자기반성과 머뭇거림을 당대 어느 시인보다 선명하게 보여주고 있으며, 이를 바탕으로 한 ``개아적(個我的) 진정성``을 보여주고 있었다. 월북 후 오장환은 「탑」을 발표하는데 이 시는 식민지 시기 「絶頂의 노래」와 상호 참조적인 성격을 보여주고 있다. 그는 「탑」을 통해 새로운 세계에 대한 희망과 다짐을 노래하였지만 북한 내에서 이 시는 봉건적이며 재래적인 시라는 비판을 받게 된다. 두 시의 대상인 ``탑``의 거리는 오장환 개인에게 있어 피식민의 억압으로부터 새로운 세상을 기약하고자 한 바람의 거리였지만, 해방기 시문학사로 보면 해방기 남과 북, 또는 정치와 시의 거리를 보여주는 것이기도 하다. This paper examines the relationship between Oh, Jang-hwan`s career as a poet and political practices from the liberation to detection to North Korea through his poems of the liberation period in ``Byeong-deun Seoul``(Diseased Seoul) published after the liberation and poems written after his detection to North Korea, newly unearthed by the author. Especially, his poem ``T`ap``(Pagoda) and translated poem ``Mister Twister`` newly unearthed and Han, Hyo`s criticism related to Oh, Jang-hwan are expected to offer new perspectives on the understanding of Oh`s poems. It seems that Oh, Jang-hwan had been thoroughly and consistently reflecting on his whereabouts in the colonial period not as a one-off thing and in this respect, we needs to shed new light on Oh`s self-reflection. His poems in the liberation period much more clearly showed self-reflection and hesitation of a poet who had passed the history of colonized nation than any other poets in that period and displayed ``individual sincerity`` based on this. After detection to North Korea, Oh wrote ``Pagoda``, which showed the cross-referential characteristics with poem ``Song of Zenith`` written in the colonial period. He expressed his hope and promise for a new world in poem ``Pagoda``, however, it was criticized as feudal and conventional in North Korea. To Oh, Jang-hwan, the distance between two ``Pagodas``, objects of poems, was the distance of his hope and promise for a new world, free from the suppression due to the colonization, but it also showed the distance between South and North Korean, or politics and poetry in the liberation period from the perspective of poetic history back then.
이 연구는 외적으로 敬堂 張興孝(1564~1633)의 삶과 사상을 중심으로 하여 17세기 경북 북부 지역 성리학의 특징을 해명하는 것이 주된 목표이다. 그리고 내적으로는 영남학파 특히 퇴계학파가 지닌 이론적 특징과 실천적 관심을 장흥효와 경북 북부지역의 성리학자들을 통해 확인해 보려는 것이다. 장흥효는 17세기 경북 북부지역 성리학계의 최대 학자이다. 그는 여러 면에서 퇴계학파의 중심에 있으며, 또한 그 자신이 직·간접적으로 퇴계학파의 형성에 큰 영향을 미쳤다. 그의 학문 관심은 이론 논변에만 머물지 않고 근본적으로 실천수양의 방면을 지향하였다. 그러나 종래 학계에서 장흥효에 관한 연구는 거의 이루어지지 않았다. 이 글에서는 퇴계학파의 이론적 標識를 염두에 두고 경당의 기본 성리이론과 실천적 삶의 특징을 그려보고자 한다. 경당의 성리이론에서 가장 주목되는 것은 體用論이다. 그는 體用의 구조로써 성리이론의 전모를 체계적으로 설명해 내고자 하였다. 그리고 경당은 인간과 만물을 理氣妙合의 존재로 보나, 퇴계와 마찬가지로 오직 인간만이 유일한 윤리적 존재일 수 있는 근거를 理에서 찾는다. 경당의 이러한 이론은 퇴계학파의 기본 이론을 이루는 標識 중 하나이다. 한편 경당은 성리학적 이론을 삶 속에 구체화하고 실현하기 위해서는 반드시 持敬의 삶을 살아가야 한다는 점을 강조하였다. 이러한 持敬論은 퇴계의 입장을 기본적으로 계승한 것이기는 하나, 경당에 이르러 더욱 구체적 삶의 모습으로 體現되며 이후 퇴계학파의 학자들에게서 공통적으로 찾아볼 수 있는 하나의 특징이 되었다. 이러한 점에서 경당은 퇴계학을 思辨的 이론뿐만 아니라 실천의 영역에서도 균형 있게 발전시켰다고 평가할 수 있다. 우리는 이 연구를 통해 종래 거의 주목받지 못했던 17세기 경북 북부지역의 성리학적 전통에 대한 새로운 이해의 계기가 마련되기를 기대하며, 특히 퇴계학파의 형성에 관한 이론적 토대가 보다 선명하게 그려질 수 있기 바란다. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Neo-Confucianism in northern Kyeong-Buk Province in the 17th century in terms of Jang-Heung-Hyo"s (1564∼1633) life as a scholar and his thoughts. This study also compares Jang-Heung-Hyo and other scholars with Toe-Gye School in terms of theoretical characteristics and practical concerns of Neo-Confucianism. Jang-Heung-Hyo was one of the most famous scholars of Neo-Confucianism in northern Kyeong-Buk Province through the 17th century. His concerns had not been limited to theoretical arguments. He also emphasized practical and moral cultivation of the human mind. His main concerns were Yi-Hak(理學), Gyeong-Ron(敬論) and Sim-Hak(心學). These concerns had led him to pursue a society in which those fields are realized through cultivation and practice. He could become a key person of Neo-Confucianism in the 17th century by educating young students in northern areas of Kyeong-Buk Province. The Neo-Confucian traditions in northern Kyeong-buk Province has not been shed a proper light. Hopefully, this study can lead to a better understanding of the Neo-Confucian traditions in north areas of Kyeong-buk and the spread of Toe-Gye School.
We investigated the flora of Jang-do (Isl.), an island of the Heuksan archipelago, located in Heuksan-myeon, Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do and discussed the remarkable plants found there. Thirteen-field trips (total 27 days) were completed from May of 2004 to May of 2013. As a result, we identified the distribution of 423 taxa in Jang-do (Isl.), comprising 104 families, 285 genera, 335 species, 78 varieties and 10 forms. There are a total of 95 taxa of floristic regional indicator plants. The floristic regional indicators are as follows; four taxa of level V such as Impatiens furcillata, four taxa of level IV such as Hosta yingeri, 14 taxa of level III such as Ophioglossum vulgatum, 5 taxa of level II, and 58 taxa of level I. In addition 10 red data plants, 2 vulnerable species (VU) including Calanthe striata for. sieboldii, and 4 least concern species (LC) like Ardisia crenata, 2 not evaluated species (NE) such as Hosta yingeri, were found in the investigated area. An unrecorded species, Fragaria (Rosaceae), was found in a forest of Jang-do (Isl.) for the first time in Korea.
이 연구는 敬堂 張興孝(1564~1633)의 日記(敬堂日記)를 통해 장홍효 자신의 삶과 사상을 해명하고, 그리고 장홍효 學團이 중심이 된 17세기 경북 북부지역 성리학계의 地形圖를 그려내고 그 성리학적 문제의식과 이론적 특징을 재구성해보는 것이 주된 목표이다.’장홍효는 17세기 경북 북부지역 성리학계의 최대 학자이다. 그는 여러 면에서 퇴계학파의 중심에 있으며, 또한 그 자신이 직·간접적으로 퇴계학파의 형성에 큰 영향을 미쳤다. 그의 학문 관심은 이론 논변에만 머물지 않고 근본적으로 실천수양의 방면을 지향하였다.’退溪學脈의 중심에 있는 장홍효는 退溪의 경우처럼 칠십 평생을 持敬의 삶으로 일관했다. 그리고 자신의 삶을 돌아보고 추스르는 일환으로 日記를 썼는데, 成人이 된 이후 거의 평생을 써갔다. 그의 日記는 무엇보다 자신의 수양과정을 기록해나간 工夫錄이라는 점이 특색이며, 門下生들과의 학업과정도 충실하게 기록해두고 있어서 17세기 경북 북부지역 성리학계의 동향을 파악하는 데 대단히 귀중한 자료이다.’종래 학계에서 장홍효에 관한 연구는 거의 이루어지지 않았다. 필자는 이 연구를 통해 종래 거의 주목받지 못했던 장홍효의 성리사상 뿐만 아니라, 17세기 경북 북부 지역의 성리학적 전통에 대한 이해를 도모해 보고자 하였다. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Gyeong-Dang-Diary and Neo-Confucian in the District of Kyeong-Buk North in the 17th Century. Jang-Heung-Hyo(1564~1633) was one of the most famous scholars of Neo-Confucianism in northern Kyeong-Buk Province through the 17th century. His concerns had not been limited to theoretical arguments. He also emphasized practical and moral cultivation of the human mind. These concerns had led him to pursue a society in which those fields are realized through cultivation and practice. He could become a key person of Neo-Confucianism in the 17th century by educating young students in northern areas of Kyeong-Buk Province. Jang-Heung-Hyo kept a diary to reflect on own life. After he became a adult, he wrote a diary almost all life. He accounted for class process faithfully with disciples in a diary. First of all, his diary is study journal that account for own moral culture process. Therefore, His diary is a very important literature to understand the Neo-Confucian in the District of Kyeong-Buk North in the 17th Century. Hopefully, this study can lead to a better understanding of the Neo-Confucian traditions in north areas of Kyeong-Buk and the spread of Toe-Gye School.
In the 1930s, one of the significant feature in Korean modern poetry is presentation of Kyung-sung that a city has surfaced about the capitalism. In accordance with the capitalism in the city of Kyung-sung, it has been frequently mentioned by the poems of Kim Ki-rim, Lee Sang and Oh Jang-hwan. This study tries to identify the methods of presentation of the city of Kyung-sung and the interactive relationship between these methods and the contents. Kim Ki-rim presents Kyung-sung through the juxtaposition with the poetic objects, which are fragmentary. The poetic subject, as a observer at a distance of the object, is de-perspective. Therefore, these objects in Kim ki-rim`s poetry have their own individuality by this method of presentation and Kyung-sung is presented by these objects. By this process, Kim`s poetic subject exists as a poetic object in the poetic space. Consequently, the poetic subject and the poetic object have an equal relationship. However, Kyung-sung in Lee Sang`s poetry is mediation of the self-consciousness of poetic subject. Lee presents Kyung-sung by the repeated variation of a specific verse. In his poems, the poetic objects are unintentional, whereas the poetic speaker`s voice is maximized. At that point, these poetic objects are subordinate to the self-consciousness of poetic subject. The self-consciousness of poetic subject in Lee Sang`s poetry is mediated by his body, and that body is represented the capitalistic attribute in Kyung-sung. This presentation is completely distinguished from the previous poetry`s presentation that concentrates on the facts of reality. Besides, the self-consciousness of poetic subject has its hidden interiority, Because it is presented through the momentary manifestation. Accordingly, the body and the properties of Kyung-sung that are mixed with the self-consciousness of poetic subject also have their hidden interiority. Oh Jang-hwan demonstrates an attribute of Kyung-sung as in determined way in his poems. In Oh`s poetry, Kyung-sung is presented by the capitalistic attribute that is identified with the subjectivity of poetic subject. His poetry reifies the Kyung-sung`s negative elements through the dichotomous statement structure. In addition, Oh Jang-hwan`s poems concentrate on these negative elements. This statement structure can more effectively demonstrate that these negative elements of Kyung-sung correspond with the reality, unlike previous KAPF`s statement structure.
Jangseoksun(張錫純), a noted doctor of China in the early 20th century, has influenced the establishment of Contemporary Chinese Medicine greatly. <Uihakchungjungchamseorok(醫學衷中參書錄)>, which is an accumulation of Jang's lectures and publications, contains the essence of his medical spirit to fuse his theory and experience of Traditional Medicine and the newly imported Western Medicine knowledge of his time. <Sanghanrongang-ui(傷寒論講義)> is especially important, presenting the core of Jang's academic theory. In this book he gives full play of his unique experience of treating the Eum(陰, Yin) Deficiency Syndrome which is presented as excess in the upper and deficiency in the lower[上盛下虛]. He also shows the importance of merging theory and practice, the pliability to collaborate the Sanghan(傷寒, Damage from Cold) theory and Onbyeong(溫病, Epidemic Febrile Disease) theory and the study of the blended affect of external and internal pathogens.
In this study, a scientific inquiry program was developed to allow elementary school students to practice self-directed inquiry, as scientists do, in untact online exploration. This study examined the main characteristics of student exploration that appeared in online scientific inquiry and investigated how students perceived it. For this study, 167 elementary school students from all over Korea participated in an untact online scientific inquiry program. The students explored a total of seven inquiry topics, including ‘Making a strong and beautiful bridge,’ read activity guidance, and conducted inquiry activities for three weeks. As a result of the study, it was found that students positively and actively experience the process of conducting scientific inquiry just ‘like scientists.’ However, many students also expressed frustration and failure to solve a given inquiry problem. The students showed a variety of exploratory processes. Some students tried to explain scientifically why these results and phenomena appear while other students simply repeated trial and error—rather than going through the process of building evidence and justifying their findings by explaining reasonably, they did not think of a better way to solve the problem. Furthermore, the students expressed the deficiencies of the untact online inquiry situation and their regret or difficulty with it. Educational implications for science education are discussed to promote effective online scientific inquiry in untact mode.
본 연구에서는 2005년에 Jang과 Shimizu가 개발한 2차원 수치모형을 적용하여 복잡한 흐름 특성 뿐만 아니라, 사주 및 하천의 상호작용을 고려하여 충적 선상지의 발달과정을 조사하였다. 본 수치모형은 경계가 복잡한 하천을 모의하는데 적합하도록 이동경계좌표계에서 흐름 및 하상변동을 계산하며, 수치해석 기법으로는 CIP법과 중앙차분법을 이용하였다. 본 모형은 선상지 델타의 발달 과정, 즉, 퇴적 저면에서 선상지 정상부 굴착과 유로 형성, 상류에서 퇴적면적의 이동, 유사의 공급에 의한 하천의 되채움, 충적 선상지 정상부에서 하상경사의 증가, 유로(流路)의 방향 전환 및 이동 등 특징을 잘 모의하였다. 상류단에서 유입되는 유사량의 증가에 따라, 하상고의 지속적인 상승을 일으키며, 선상지의 면적을 증가시킨다. 또한 선상지의 종방향 및 횡방향의 하상경사를 증가시키고, 이로 인하여 유로의 분할이 가속된다. 따라서 상류에서 유입되는 유사 유입량의 증가에 의한 하상고의 상승은 유로(流路)의 분할을 일으키는 중요한 인자임을 보여주었다. This study is to analyse the development of alluvial fans, using the 2-D numerical model to simulate complex flow and the relation between bars and channels, proposed by Jang and Shimizu in 2005. As a numerical scheme, CIP method and central difference method was used in the moving boundary-fitted coordinate system. The numerical model captured well the characteristics of alluvial fans, e.g., fan-head entrenchment and channel formation in depositional area, expansion of depositional area downstream, channel backfill by sediment inflow, increase of channel slopes, channel avulsion and migration in alluvial fans. As the sediment inflow increased upstream, the averaged elevation and area of alluvial fans were increased, the longitudinal and transverse slopes of the fans steepened, and then channel avulsion in fans was accelerated. Therefore, sediment inflow in alluvial fans upstream was the crucial factor to channel avulsion, one of important features of alluvial fans.