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Recent advancement of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) technique makes it possible to predict the wind flows around a building and a structure under the wind-induced conditions very close to the actual state. Therefore the practical use of CFD even for wind-resistant design becomes almost realized now. Due to the trend of applicability of CFD, the computed wind-induced pressure distribution on hemispherical domes is estimated. Pressure coefficients, referenced to freestream static pressure, were investigated for domes with height to diameter ratios of 1, 1/2, and 1/3. The results of numerical simulation were compared with tthe experimental data. Based on the results of the numerical simulation obtained in a good agreement with the experimental data. The numerical simulations are used to predict the pressure coefficients on the surfaces of the structure and to evaluate the wind environment. This paper suggests the applicability of the numerical simulation in the field of wind engineering.
Urban development was spearheaded by modern architecture, which caused many problems since the late 20th century. Environmental issues, in particular, have emerged as one of the most serious problems. So this study is an interdisciplinary research that aims to seek the interrelationship between environmental discourses, typology of environment-friendly architecture and urban space. This study undertook a broad range of case studies including office buildings, residential-commercial mixed use buildings and housing in Britain, Germany, Japan, Australia and South Korea in order to analyse a broad range of environmwntally friendly architecture. These case studies were first analysed in terms of three main environmental theoretical approaches such as technocentrism, ecocentrism and anthropocentrism (or eco-socialism as it is better known). This result was mapped on the urban hierarchy, technocentric typological buildings mainly being office buildings were located in or near the city centre. Anthropocentric type buildings that eccentuates the need for community and social sustainability were found in the general urban to suburban urban areas In the meanwhile, cases of biocentrism largely featured in the outskirts of cities and countryside as they need more land for self-sufficiency for food and treating waste organically with emphasis on small commune type developments. Environmental discourses such as technocentrism, biocentrism and anthropocentrism, which proposes different visions of future settlements should not be regarded as opposing political solutions but should be used as different spatial strategies. This study suggests that three approaches are all relevant environmental strategies in different locations, ie each approach are spatial strategies in different urban hierarchy. The technocentrism and its architectural types are ecological solution for urban core, whereas anthropocentrist approach a solution for social sustainability in general residential areas in urban and suburban locations and biocentrist solution being appropriate for the rural areas. The necessity of economic sustainability of cities dictate the differentiated locational factors of ecological techniques as well as density of developments. And, therefore, appropriate adoption of differentiated types of ecological approaches and related buildings in accordance with the hierarchy of urban spaces are needed in order to address the sustainability of human environment.
In contemporary society, the importance of communities is becoming more crucial, and the youth centers, which play fundamental role in youth development, are significant in that they contribute to enhancing local communities. In Korea, with the enactment of the Youth Act, youth facilities were built by local governments as youth issues became important both socially and politically. The role of youth centers has recently become more important as five-day school week was implemented leaving youth with more spare time. With the recognition of the importance of youth centers, this paper examined the distribution of youth centers in Korea and particularly in Seoul. Due to institutional regulations, the distribution of youth training centers is fixed to one youth center to one district in general. What is means is that it is not the function of these facilities as a community space for youths but rather the equitable distribution of supply over space as a "regional" community facility when they decide its scale and location. The research showed that the location neither corresponds to urban hierarchy nor to residential distribution in terms of access, leaving many youths without a facility close to them to use. This paper also conducted a comparative study of the characteristics of youth facilities in Seoul and Vancouver in terms of their location, operation and accessibility. While youth centers were distributed by administrative convenience, Vancouver"s youth centers were located in smaller community district units with walking access in mind. This also had implication to scale of facilities. Korean youth centers were large scale facilities whereas Vancouver youth centers were mainly smaller with some strategic facilities with extended functions such as swimming pools and ice rinks. Vancouver youth centers were also found that are they were close to schools and residential areas, and were easily reached by younger youths. Due to these characteristics, the role of youth centers are very different in Korea and Vancouver City. From the differences in the two cities approach as found in this paper, we can suggest some policy improvements in Korea such as institutional set up, locational factors and facilities so that youth centers can play a greater social role in community building.
본 연구는 지속가능한 개발을 위한 컴팩트시티형 도시개발의 기본전략과 계획요소를 도출하여 개발제한구역 내 도시들의 개발사업들을 분석하고자 하였다. 분석을 통해 얻은 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 20세기 후반부터 선진국 들은 컴팩트시티를 지속가능한 도시개발의 기준으로 삼고, 세부적인 도시개발계획을 추진하였다. 둘째, 이와 같은 지 속가능한 컴팩트시티형 도시개발은 지속가능한 개발과 컴팩트시티 이론을 바탕으로 하며, 이 개발계획을 도시공간, 도시환경, 도시커뮤니티, 도시관리로 구분하여 계획요소를 도출하였다. 이를 바탕으로 개발제한구역 내 적용가능한 요 소를 산정하고 컴팩트시티와의 관련 유형으로 분류하였다. 셋째, 과천, 의왕, 하남의 개발제한구역 내 다수의 개발계 획들을 지속가능한 컴팩트시티형 도시개발과 비교해본 결과 유사점과 한계를 볼 수 있다. 이에 본 연구에서 분석한 바를 고려하여, 앞으로 개발제한구역 내 도시개발사업에 있어서 지속가능한 컴팩트시티형 도시개발의 정책적인 반영 이 필요하다. This study suggests Compact City type urban development strategies and planning elements with the purpose of sustainable development. The suggestions are based on analysis of the development projects promoted in the cities within Green-Belt. Following are the findings of this study: First, in the late 20th century, Compact-City has been suggested as standard of sustainable urban development in the developed countries, and this promoted urban development plans were presented in detail. Second, The development plans are suggested plan elements by urban environment, space, community, and management. It was classified as an applicable element in Green belt and Compact City type. Finally, after comparing several city development projects (Gwacheon, Uiwang, Hanam), differences and Limitations between the Compact-City type urban development. Considering analysis of this study, urban development projects in Green Belt should be prepared to sustainable Compact city type urban development.
UNESCO has continued to work in Africa, especially in the six southern sub-Saharan countries, and Asia, where international cooperation is needed. The CLC (Rwanda Community Learning Center) covered in this study aims to create a regional learning center in Rwanda and to recover local communities and provide learning environment. During the course of this study, we conducted field trips for actual planning and reviewed the current state of educational and cultural facilities that recently opened and are operated, and found implications. In consultation with the Rwandan Educational Commission, the site for CLC was decided, the building was designed, and the construction is about to start. The results of this study are as follows. First, in addition to the efforts of the activists in the village, which can be considered the smallest unit of a local community, the approach for establishing an architectural space and active education and community environment can be evaluated as a result of experimental efforts. Second, we can pay attention to the attempts to realize local communities. The bridge business is based on the multi-purposes such as early childhood education, technical education for adults, and community restoration of local residents and it reflects space and program plans for this purposes. It also reflects detailed plans such as differentiating the flow planning depending on users’ time of use. Third, we can explain the characteristics of architectural planning considering local characteristics such as active use of local materials. Due to the characteristics of a developing country, there were significant considerations on maintenance, and to this end, the plan included plans for the environment and use of materials that are easily maintained. In addition, the participation of local residents in the process of establishment was suggested as a possibility to serve an educational role.
As the significance of a historic cities become more and more important in this age, necessity to clarify the characteristics of it through close investigation and analysis upon historic environment and to conduct foundational research for enhancing its value is raised. Therefore, the study conducted a spot survey and analysis through data analysis such as (old)maps, literatures and pictures as well as field investigation targeting Korean representative historic cities Gyengju, Gongju, and Buyeo. Through this, the study was conducted to look into changing aspects and characteristics of historic environment centering on urban organizations of Korean historic cities. Results gained from this research are as below. Centering around the spatial structure and organization of three historic cities from the Three Kingdoms Period till today, this study has examined how the historic environment has changed and the formation of historic environment and the characteristics of value particularly based on the regions maintaining their central functions of economy, politics, and life. From the analysis of the subject regions, this paper has verified that historic environment reflects the historicity and periodic trend of each of the cities and tends to change within mutual relations. Therefore, it is necessary to grope for various methods to preserve, manage, and utilize systematically historic environment in the dimension of cities as studied in this article.
다양한 도시재개발사업으로 인해 전통적으로 가지고 있는 구릉지 도시조직이 소실되고 지형적 특성이 반영되지 못하는 개발양상은 도시공간을 단편적이고 획일적으로 변화하게 하는 주요 요인으로 작용하고 있으며, 도심 구릉지 주거지역 또한 이와 같은 문제의 가능성을 가지고 있어 이를 개선하여 도시설계적 가치를 제고하기 위한 노력이 필요하다. 이에 본 연구에서 대상지로 하고 있는 3개 구릉지 주거지역의 가로, 블록, 필지 및 건축물 등 형태학적 측면에서 가치특성을 분석할 수 있는 도시조직을 중심으로 건축 및 도시적 차원의 분석을 실시하여 구릉지 주거의 보전방안을 제안하기 위한 기초연구를 목적으로 하며, 본 연구를 통해 도출한 결론은 다음과 같다. 대상지역은 근대화 과정에서 자생적으로 형성된 주거지로서 특성을 가지고 있으며, 구릉지형의 환경적 특성은 가로, 블록, 필지 및 건축유형 등 도시조직과 관계를 갖고 경관을 형성해 왔다. 대상지역은 이와 같은 특성을 바탕으로 지속적인 발전을 거듭해 왔으며, 지역만의 고유한 특성이 가시적으로 나타나고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서 분석한 바와 같이 다양한 가치특성 요소에 부합할 수 있도록 가치를 차등화하고, 지역의 환경적 특성을 보전 및 활용할 수 있는 접근 방안이 필요하다. 그리고 구릉지 주거지를 효율적으로 보전 및 관리하여 지역의 경관을 확보하고, 도시조직을 보전하기 위한 다양한 접근방안이 필요하다. Due to various city redevelopment projects, traditional urban fabrics on the hills have disappeared and development aspects have evolved in a way which does not to reflect the topographic features, tus transforming the city space uniformly and fragmentarily. In particular, it became necessary to study the downtown hillside residential areas, which was first formed during the industrialization period and evolved together with the society, in this metropolitan city where various types of residences have been developed and disappeared as well. City organizations that have played essential roles in determining values of residential areas on hills include streets, blocks, lots and building. Such city environmental factors convey the phases of the times and together form the visual aspects of city landscape today. Three residential areas on hills, the subjects of this study , were formed in the course of modernization of Seoul and are considered to be sufficient potential of preservation and worth preservation from social, environmental and historical aspects. Following conclusions were deduced through examination on old maps and land registration map of the times, photos and literatures as well as field trips on the target areas. Case study areas were formed naturally in the course of modernization. Environmental features of hilly districts have continuously changed and developed in relation to city organizations such as streets, blocks, lots and building types and show unique feature of each area. As analyzed in this study, it is required to have approaches to differentiate the value in accordance with various elements of value features, to preserve and utilize environmental features of the region. In addition, various approaches should be prepared to effectively preserve and manage the residential areas on the hills.