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The objective of this study was to estimate the investment limit in equipment capital by Capital Recovery Method. The data used was collected from 23 Hanwoo(Korean Native Cattle) farms in 1994. The necessary time for herd size expansion was average 5 years from opening(9.7 heads) to 50 heads, 4 years from 50 to 100heads, 3 years from 100 to 150 heads, and 2 years from 150 to 200 heads, respectively. It took 14 years from opening to 200 heads of herd size. The debts for fattening cattle farms were 15.2million won for the size of 50 heads, 37.1 million won for the size of 100 heads and 89.0 million won for the size 200 heads, respectively. Average rates of debt interest were 5.1 % 7.2 and 10.8, correspendingly. As the hear size increased, debt interest rates also increased due to government funds limit. The investment limits in equipment capital perfarm household were 77.7 million won for 50 heads, 135.1 for 100 heads, and 294.3 for 200 heads for 5,500 won per kg liveweight, 70.7 million won for 50 heads, 122.6 for 100 heads and 269.3 for 200 heads for 5,000 won per kg liveweight, 63.6 million won for 50 heads 110.0 for 100 heads and 244.2 for 200 heads for 4,500 won per kg liveweight.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the economic impact of sports event as a part of sports marketing strategies of local city. To reach the purpose, Index of S city for 6 years - number of the sports events, public investment, survey for consumption, and Input-Output analysis. - were researched. S city held most sports event with 8 in 2001 and invested 14.8 million won. The most investment was 39.6 million won with 4 Sports events in 2003. The Production inducing effect reached 2,019 million won in 2001, 3,054 million won in 2002, 3,091 million won in 2003, 538 million won in 2004, 542 million won in 2005 and 1,548 million won in 2006. The highest income inducing effect was 862 million won in 2002 with 7 sports events, the employment inducing effect was calculated to 95 persons in 2002 and 94 persons in 2003, and the valued-added inducing effect was 1,738 million won in 2002. The most economic effects were higher than the average effects of whole other industries in Gangwondo which imply that the in S city held sports events contribute to regional development and more regional sports marketing.
Three acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) were identified from the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Sequence comparison with known AChEs in conjunction with three-dimensional structure analysis suggested that all BxAChEs share typical characteristics of AChE at the major catalytic structures. BgAChE3 was most predominantly transcribed and then followed by AChE1 and AChE2. Immunohistochemistry using anti-BxAChEs antibodies revealed that BxAChE1 is most widely distributed whereas BxAChE2 exhibits more localized distribution in neuronal tissues. BxAChE3 was detected from entire body together with some limited tissues, including mouth parts and alimentary lining, and determined to be the only soluble AChE, suggesting its localization in hemolymph or/and extracellular space. Kinetic analysis of in vitro expressed BxAChEs revealed that BxAChE1 has the highest substrate specificity whereas BxAChE2 has the highest catalytic efficiency with BxAChE3 having the lowest catalytic efficiency. Interestingly, presence of BxAChE3 in the pool of BxAChEs significantly reduced the inhibition of BxAChE1 and BxAChE2 by inhibitors. Knockout of BxAChE3 by RNAi significantly increased the toxicity of nematicides, suggesting the protective role of BxAChE3 against these toxicants. Based on several features, including tissue distribution, expression level, substrate kinetics and inhibition property, it appeared that BxAChE1 is the major AChE with the function of postsynaptic transmission whereas BxAChE3 has been evolved to acquire the function of chemical defense, perhaps intrinsically against secondary toxic compounds from host pine trees, such as α-pinene and limonene. BxAChE2 appears to play a role in post-synaptic transmission in specialized neurons but its detailed physiological function still remains to be elucidated.
An algorithm for fault detection and classification method for wide-area protection in Korean transmission systems is proposed. The modeling of 345-kV and 765-kV Korean power system transmission networks using the Electro Magnetic Transient Program - Restructured Version (EMTPRV) is presented and the algorithm for fault detection and classification in transmission lines is developed. The proposed algorithm uses the Wavelet Transform (WT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The Singular value of Approximation coefficient (SA) and part Sum of Detail coefficient (SD) are introduced. The characteristics of the SA and SD at the fault conditions are analyzed and used in the algorithm for fault detection and classification. The validation of the proposed algorithm is verified by various simulation results.
( Won Jae Choi ), ( Jong Jae Park ), ( Jain Park ), ( Eun Hye Lim ), ( Moon Kyung Joo ), ( Jae Won Yun ), ( Hyejin Noh ), ( Sung Ho Kim ), ( Woo Seok Choi ), ( Beom Jae Lee ), ( Ji Hoon Kim ), ( Jong Eun Yeon ), ) 대한소화기학회 2013 Gut and Liver Vol.7 No.4
Background/Aims: The use of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is an established palliative treatment for malignant stenosis in the gastrointestinal tract; therefore, its application to benign stenosis is expected to be beneficial because of the more gradual and sustained dilatation in the stenotic portion. We aimed in this prospective observational study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of temporary SEMS placement in benign pyloric stenosis. Methods: Twenty-two patients with benign stenosis of the prepylorus, pylorus, and duodenal bulb were enrolled and underwent SEMS placement. We assessed symptom improvement, defined as an increase of at least 1 degree in the gastric-outlet-obstruction scoring system after stent insertion. Results: No major complications were observed during the procedures. After stent placement, early symptom improvement was achieved in 18 of 22 patients (81.8%). During the follow-up period (mean 10.2 months), the stents remained in place successfully for 6 to 8 weeks in seven patients (31.8%). Among the 15 patients (62.5%) with stent migration, seven (46.6%) showed continued symptomatic improvement without recurrence of obstructive symptoms. Conclusions: Despite the symptomatic improvement, temporary SEMS placement is premature as an effective therapeutic tool for benign pyloric stenosis unless a novel stent is developed to prevent migration. (Gut Liver 2013; 7:417-422)
Background: Previous study suggested the feasibility of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a prognostic marker in patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type. Immunohistochemical detection of VEGF protein expression in tumour tissue of ENKTL has not been evaluated. Objectives: Herein, we investigated VEGF protein expression, as well as their prognostic value for cutaneous ENKTL. Methods: Forty-three cases with cutaneous ENKTL were examined in the present study. The pathological diagnosis of ENKTL was based on the detection of the following immunophenotypical characteristics: cytoplasmic CD3 positivity; CD56 and cytotoxic granule-associated protein positivity and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity. Results: The mean percentage of VEGF immunopositive cells was 38% and the median value was 35%. After establishing a cut-off at 30% of positive tumour cells, VEGF was immunopositive in 21 of 43 cases. There was no significant difference in positivity for VEGF between primary and secondary cutaneous ENKTL. Conclusion: Presenting study is the first to explore the correlation between VEGF expression and prognosis in patients with cutaneous ENKTL. Presenting study provide rationale to consider drugs of monoclonal antibody to target VEGF (bevacizumab) in treatment of cutaneous ENKTL.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is known as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the neurons of the central nervous system. However, its detailed action mechanisms in the rostral gustatory zone of the nucleus tractus solitarius (rNTS) have not been established. The present study was aimed to investigate the distribution, role and action mechanisms of GABA in rNTS. Membrane potentials were recorded by whole cell recordings in isolated brain slices of the rat medulla. Superfusion of GABA resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in input resistance in the neurons in rNTS. The change in input resistance ws accompanied by response to a depolarizing pulse were diminished by GABA. Superfusion of the slices with either GABAд agonist, muscimol, GABAв agonist, baclofen or GABAс agonist, TACA, decreased input resistance and reduced the nerve activity in association with membrane hyperpolarization. It is suggested that inhibitory signals playa role in sensory processing by the rNTS, in that GABA actions occur through activation of GABAд,GABAв and GABAс receptor. These results suggest that GABA has an inhibitory effect on the rNTS through an activation of GABAд ,GABAв and GABAсreceptors and that the GABAergic inhibition probably plays an important role in sensory processing by the rNTS.
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Purpose: This study is to investigate the effect of captopril when combined with irradiation. Materials and Methods: 4T1 (mouse mammary carcinoma) cells were injected in the right hind leg of Balb/c mice. Mice were randomized to four groups; control (group 1), captopril-treated (group 2), irradiated (group 3), irradiated and captopril-treated concurrently (group 4). Captopril was administered by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg) daily and irradiation was delivered on the tumor-bearing leg for 15 Gy in 3 fractions. Surface markers of splenic neutrophils (G-MDSCs) and intratumoral neutrophils (tumorassociated neutrophils [TANs]) were assessed using flow cytometry and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) of tumor was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Results: The mean tumor volumes (±standard error) at the 15th day after randomization were 1,382.0 (±201.2) mm3 (group 1), 559.9 (±67.8) mm3 (group 3), and 370.5 (± 48.1) mm3 (group 4), respectively. For G-MDSCs, irradiation reversed decreased expression of CD101 from tumor-bearing mice, and additional increase of CD101 expression was induced by captopril administration. Similar tendency was observed in TANs. The expression of tumor-necrosis factor-associated molecules, CD120 and CD137, are increased by irradiation in both G-MDSCs and TANs. Further increment was observed by captopril except CD120 in TANs. For IHC staining, VEGF and HIF-1α positivity in tumor cells were decreased when treated with captopril. Conclusion: Captopril is suggested to have additional effect when combined to irradiation in a murine tumor model by modulation of MDSCs and angiogenesis.
Background: Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ionized gas produced at room temperature, has become extremely attractive for biological applications, due to its potential in disinfection, wound healing and cancer treatment. CAP is gaining ground as a promising new oncological modality since it appears to be more potent against tumor cells rather than non-neoplastic cells. Namely, very low doses affect cellular motility, integrin expression and membrane lipid peroxidation; higher doses induce stress-related apoptosis; and very high doses cause necrosis Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effects of CAP in the in-vivo mouse model. Methods: Temperature of CAPJ-treated target was 23˚-36˚ C, and was dependent on the voltage applied. MC38 colon cancer cells of 2 x 10^6 were subcutaneously injected into the right flank of C57BL6 mice. MC38 tumors were treated with cold plasma once they were approximately 3mm in maximum diameter. Results: Tumor volume was significantly decreased in CAP treated tumors relatively to controls, and the longer exposure (5 min.) was more effective than the short exposure (2 min.). Importantly, pathologic examination revealed that normal skin was not harmed by CAP treatment. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates the efficacy of room temperature CAP against melanoma progression in-vivo. Considering its biological mechanism, it is envisioned that adaptation of CAP technology may provide a new modality for the treatment of various solid tumors.