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학생의 과학 지식 성취도에 대한 장기간의 경향성은 과학 교육 정책의 효율성을 점검하는데 매우 중요한 요인이다. 그러나 지금까지 우리 나라 학생들의 학업 성취도의 경향성을 이해해보려는 진지한 노력이 현실적으로 거의 없었다. 최근까지 한국교원대학교 과학교육연구소에서는 전국에 있는 초·중·고 학생들을 대상으로 학생들의 과학 지식 성취도를 알아보기 위한 연구를 진행시켜왔다. 연구의 첫 단계에서는 평가 문항을 개발하였다. 두 번째 단계에서는 개발된 문항을 전국적으로 투입하고 그 결과를 수집하여 2년간의 변화를 분석하는 것으로써, 이 논문은 두 번째 단계에 관한 내용을 담고있다. 이 연구에서는 권재술 등(1998)이 개발한 국가 수준의 과학 지식 평가 도구를 일부 수정하여 사용하였다. 1997년에는 전국적으로 8,766명의 학생을, 1999년에는 4,398명의 학생을 조사 대상으로 하였다. 조사 대상은 지역별, 성별 등을 고려하여 우리 나라 전체 학생의 모집단을 대표할 수 있는 표본으로 선정되었다. 연구 결과, 2년 동안 초·중·고 학생들의 과학 지식 성취 수준의 서로 다른 변화를 확인할 수 있었다. 초등학생의 경우는 성취도가 감소하였으나, 고등학생의 경우는 증가하였고 중학생의 경우는 두 시기에 의미 있는 차이가 없었다. 과학 지식 영역의 하위 영역별 분석 결과를 보면, 초등학생의 경우 개념 체계에 대한 지식 수준을 유의미하게 향상되었으나, 사실과 원리에 관한 지식 수준은 낮아졌다. 반면 고등학생의 경우는 지식 수준이 향상되었으며 특히, 사실 영역에서 크게 향상 되었다. 연구에서는 이 자료를 성별, 지역별, 행동 목표 수준 그리고 검사 문항의 상황 등으로도 나누어서 분석하였다. 한국교원대학교 과학교육연구소에서 개발한 과학 성취 수준 점검 시스템은 국가 수준에서 학생들의 과학성취도를 점검하는데 효과적인 도구가 될 것이다. The long term trend of studensts' science achievement is a very important factor to check the effectiveness of science educational policy. However, up to date no such effort to understand the trend of Korean students' science achievement has been put into action. Recently, the Science Education Center in Korea National University of Education has been attempted to collect nation wide data for students' science achievement. The first part of the effort was to develop item pools. This study was the second part to collect nation wide data and to check any change during the two year time interval. In this study, the item pools developed by Kwon et. al.(1998) were used with some modification. The data were collected two times; February 1997 and March 1999. The subjects collected nationally were 8,766 students in 1997 and were 4,398 in 1999. The subjects were collected randomly but stratified by region and sex. As the results, the trends of achievement change during the two years were different from elementary to high school. The achievement scores were decreased in elementary schools and increased in high school. In case of middle schools, the change was not significant. However, even in elementary schools the knowledge on theory was increased significantly while knowledge on facts and principles were decreased. In contrast, the knowledge on fact showed the most increase in high schools. In this study, the data were analysed in light of region, sex, behavioral objective levels(ability) and context of test items. The science achievement monitoring system developed by the Science Education Center in Korea National University of Education can be an effective tool for monitoring students' achievement on the national level.
Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the organism Orientia tsutsugamushi. Clinical manifestations are fever, skin rash, eschar and varying degree of respiratory distress. The pleural effusion in scrub typhus is rare and secondary to the destruction of vascular endothelium. Because the respiratory symptoms are generally mild and the pleural effusion in scmb typhus is rare than in interstitial pneumonia, there are few comments about the characteristics of scmb typhus with pleural effusion. So we made the comparative study of scmb typhus patients between with pleural effusion and without pleural effusion. 연구배경 치명적일 수 있는 감염질환 중 하나인 쯔쯔가무시중(Scrub typhus)에서 드문 흉막삼출을 동반한 환자에 대한 고찰은 다른 문헌에서도 자주 언급되지 않았다. 따라서 본 저자들은 흉막삼출이 있는 경우와 없는 경우에 따른 쯔쯔가무시중 환자들을 비교하고자 하였다. 방법 2003년에서 2006년까지 조선대학교 병원 내과에 입원중인 환자 중 쯔쯔가무시중 진단을 받은 총 109명의 환자를 대상으로 하여 흉부 X선 검사 및 혈청학적 검사(CPK, LDH, ESR, CRP, AST, ALT, ADA), 혈액학적 검사(WBC, PLT) 및 백분율 검사등을 실시하였다. 결과 흉막삼출이 있는 환자들의 경우 흉막 삼출이 없는 환자들에 비해 ESR 수치가 통계학적으로 의의있게 높았다(p-vaule < 0.05). 결론 흉막삼출 유무에 따른 쯔쯔가무시중 환자간의 비교에 있어 ESR 수치가 통계학적인 의의를 가졌다.
In this study, five learning models were compared and discussed in terms of their learning procedures and learning strateies. After a brief introduction of each model, the author discussed the differences and similarities among the five learning models. As a result, Kwon's procedual learning (Kwon, 1989) seemed to encompass almost all the learning models proposed by the other four author. All the models emphasized the importance of cognitive conflict. However, I.K.Kim(1991), Park(1992) and Y.M.Kim(1991) seemed to be concentrated their attention on the cognitive conflict between concepts; while Hashweh and Kwon emphasized cognitive conflict between cognitive structure and environment. The study also suggested more study on the empirical evidence of the three kinds of the cognitive conflicts proposed by Kwon(1989) and on the development of learning strategies to induce and overcome the cognitive conflicts.
Electron microscopy of the oocyte-cumulus complex and immuncytochemistry on the distribution of fibronectin, tenascin, and laminin Yu-Il Lee, M.D., Ph.D., Ju-Eun Cho M.D., Hyun-Jeong Park, M.S. Young-Sook Kwon, M.S., Jae-Hyuk Lee, M.D. Ph.D. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pathology, Chonnam University Medical school, Kwangju, Korea Objective: Immunofluorescence microscopy including confocal laser scanning microscopy and eletron microscopy were used to study the production of fibronectin, tenascin, and laminin in the cumulus-corona (CC) cells surrounding mature, unfertilized oocytes after ovulation in view of their presumptive importance in the coordination of the processes leading to fretilization and early embryo cleavage, including the final maturation of the ovum, the sperm-egg interaction, and the complex biochemical mechanism between the ovum and the oviduct. Methods: Mature oocyte-cumulus complex (OCC) was cultured for 24 and 48 hour and fixed in 3.7% formaldehyde. Specimens were incubated with a mixture of primary monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of fibronectin, tenascin, and laminin, and then with a mixture of secondary antibodies containing FTTC, TRITC, and Cy-5 conjugated antibodies,. Observation was made by confocal laser scanning microscope equipped with epifluorescece optics. Transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the OCC at 24 and 48 hours after cultrue. Results: The immunocytochemical date demonstrated that CC masses are capable of producing fibronectin and tenascin but their production is heterogeneous in the CC population. Immunoreacivity to fibronectin and tenascin was shown mostly by inner corona cells, and the intensity of immunofluorescence decreased frome the central corona cells to the peripheral cumulus cell. Colocalization of fibronectin and tenascin was evident in most CC cells. Moreover, fibronectin and tenascin immunoreactive material was observed in the intracytoplasmic areas, at the plasma membrane level as well as in the extracellular matrix. Whereas, laminin immunofluorescence was found around plasma membrane and extracellular area, but a intracytoplasmic reaction was rarely observed. The distribution of laminin immunofluorescence was similar to that of fibronectin and tenascin, but in some cumulus cells, colocalization between them was not found. Ultrastructurally, cumulus cells projected numerous long, thin microvilli into the intercellular are and some micovilli penetrated into zona pellucida. The inner layer of the cumulus mass was loose arrangement of relatively uniform, small cells with widened intercellular spaces, whereas in the outer layer, cumulus cells are rather larger in size and compact arrangement by narrow, irregular spaces. A small and large linear gap junctions were easily found at cell contacts. The sytoplasm of most cells had abundant organelles typical of steroidogenesis: numerous mitochondrias, a well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum, electron dense lipid droplets, and bundles of microtubules and micro filaments. Rudimentary disrupted basal lamina along the cytoplasmic border was rarely seen in a few inner conora cells. Conclusion: Even though the functional role of these extracellular matrix proteins remains still unclear, it is reasonable to suggest that they are necessary in various steps of the reproductive process. Cumulus cells appears to be a heterogeneous and dynamic system for suitable microenviroment of fertilization. And functional differences between corona and cumulus cells during the oocyte denudation may be accounted for particular distribution of these adhesive proteins and steroidogenesis-related organelles.
과학교육학이라는 학문에서 주창하는 이론은 반드시 수업 현장의 실제와 연결되어야만 비로소 이론은 이론대로 수업 효과는 효과대로 제 기능을 다 할 것이다. 그 대표적인 예가 수업모형 연구이다. 본 연구에서는 과학 개념변화 수업모형 중에서, 오개념 교정에 필요한 인지 갈등 전략을 기본으로 만들어진 개념수업 절차 모형(권재술, 1989)을 현장에서 적용해 보았다. 특히 교사 연수에서 효과 검사에 이르기까지 모형의 투입 전후에 일어나는 여러 제반 사항들도 함께 기술하여 그로부터 알게 된 여러 문제점과 효율적인 적용 방안을 알아보았다. 수업의 효과면은, 비교반과 실험반의 수업 전·후 개념검사와 태도검사 점수, 그리고 학교교육과정상 실시되는 전형적인 월례고사 개념성취도 점수를 비교해 보았으며, 수업의 적용면은 수업 준비와 적용 과정에서 교사와 학생의 의견을 조사하였다. 그 결과, 학생에게 적절한 갈등 자료인 R_(2)의 준비가 가장 어려웠으며, 교사에게는 허용적인 수업분위기 유도와 발문 전략 활용의 교수 기술이, 학생에게는 발표 및 토론 훈련이 필요함을 확인할 수 있었다. This study investigated the influences of applying the Cognitive Conflict Process Model (the Procedural Teaching Model using Cognitive Conflict Strategy: Kwon, 1989) upon students' achievement and attitudes in a middle school science concept instruction. For the treatment group, science instruction to apply the Cognitive Conflict Process Model was used. For the control group, traditional instruction was used. Prior to instruction, students' pre-conceptions test and attitudes test related to the science were administered. After instruction, the above two tests and the regular examinations were measured. Also students' perceptions of their teacher's new teaching style was investigated by questionnaire. But, above all, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the principal accompanying matters of general application of the teaching model to science concept instruction rather than conceptual and attitudinal change. Therefore, this study identified necessary conditions of applying the teaching model to science instruction.
A new space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) technique to eliminate common-mode voltage (CMV) is proposed for a dual three-phase inverter fed-dual-winding fault-tolerant permanent magnet motor (FTPMM) drive. In general, since both the PWM module-1 of an inverter-1 drive and the PWM module-2 of an inverter-2 drive adopt the conventional SVPWM (CSVPWM) technique, two identical CMVs are generated in the drives. Each of the CMCs generated by the CMVs flows through the stray capacitances between the stator windings and the motor frame. These currents flow into the ground of the drive, where they are combined. Hence, in the proposed technique, each of the PWM modules adopts the remote-state PWM (RSPWM)2A and RSPWM2B. As a result, two CMVs with same absolute values and opposite polarities are generated at every switching period, and the corresponding generalized total CMV of the dual-winding FTPMM drive always becomes zero. Analytical and experimental results are provided to verify the validity of the proposed technique.
Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) injury of the knee is common and a serious ACL injury leads to ligament reconstruction surgery. Gait analysis is used to identify the result of surgery. The purpose of this study is to numerically evaluate and classify knee condition of patients through the chaos analysis. Experiments were carried out for 13 subjects(8 healthy subjects, 5 ACL deficient patients) walking on a treadmill. Sagittal kinematic data of the right lower extremity were collected by using a 3D motion analysis system. The recorded gait patterns were digitized and then coordinated by KWON3D. The largest Lyapunov exponent from the measured knee angular displacement time series was calculated to quantify local stability. It was found that the Lyapunov exponent becomes larger as the knee condition becomes worse. This study suggested a method of the severity of injury and the level of recovery. The proposed method discerns difference between healthy subjects and patients.
Background:Laboratory animal workers who are in regular contact with furred animals commonly develop laboratory animal allergy (LAA). LAA is one of the most common occupational allergic diseases. Objectives:This study was performed to estimate the prevalence of sensitization and symptoms of LAA, and to determine important host factors for the development of LAA. Method:Sixteen subjects with laboratory animal workers in one medical research center were enrolled in this study. They responded to a questionnaire about work-related symptoms and underwent allergy skin prick test to common inhalant and laboratory animal allergens. Results:The prevalence of sensitization to laboratory animal allergens was 18.8%, and all sensitized workers were atopic (positive skin reactivity to one or more common inhalant allergens). Prevalence rate of allergy symptoms caused by working with laboratory animals was 31.3%. Positive skin prick responses to dog or cat allergens were highly associated with specific sensitization to laboratory animal allergens, and positive skin responses to laboratory animal allergens were associated with laboratory allergy symptoms. Among sixteen subjects, we found out one case of occupational asthma due to mouse allergy and also reported the case here. Conclusion:Some laboratory animal workers showed sensitization to laboratory animal allergens and had allergic symptoms attributed to contact with laboratory animals. Atopy, especially atopy to dogs or cats may be an important host factor for the development of LAA. (J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 23: 515-24, 2003)
다양한 향미를 가진 막걸리의 개발을 위해 전통누룩으로부터 분리한 곰팡이로 입국을 제조한 후 품질특성을 분석하여 입국의 규격에 적합하며 이취가 없고 관능이 우수한 9균주를 입국 제조용 우수균주로 최종 선발하였다. 선발된 균주는 Aspergillus oryzae(C1-5-2-2, C20-7-3, CN1.3.1-4, CN16.19.1-1, N152-1, N220-1), Mycocladus corymbiferus (N162-2), Rhizopus oryzae(N20), Lichtheimia corymbifera (N21)로 동정되었으며, 제조한 입국의 산도는 5.0~6.8, 당화력은 128~241sp이었다. Various koji were prepared by fungi isolated from traditional nuruk and their quality characteristics were investigated. Acidity and saccharification power of their koji were ranged in 5.0~6.8 and 128sp~241sp. Nine fungi which were showed good quality and sensory evaluation were identified by analysis of their nucleotide sequences with PCR-amplified 18S rDNA internal transcribed spacer-1(ITS-1) and ITS-4 genes. Among them, six strains were identified as Aspergillus oryzae and the other strains were identified as Mycocladus corymbiferus, Rhizopus oryzae, Lichtheimia corymbifera.