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옛 부안 관아(官衙)터 반석(磐石)위에,19세기 초 현감 박시수가 쓴 초대형 초서체 바위글씨 ``봉래동천(蓬萊洞天)·주림(珠林)·옥천(玉泉)``의 의미는 혜천지역의 바위글씨와 맞물려 이 일대가 곧 신선의 세계임을 반증하고 있다. 바위글씨가 집중된 상소산 아래 서림(西林)과 금대(琴臺)그리고 혜천(惠泉)등 경물 지칭의 바위글씨는 이 고장출신으로 여류시인이자 관기(官妓)였던 이매창이 교우했던 인물들과 밀접한 관련성을 보이며,이곳이 부안의 풍류와 선비정신이 교융(交融)된 지역 명소이자 정원 후원으로서의 역사성을 배태한 장소임을 상징한다.이 지역바위글씨의 대부분은 19세기부터 20세기 초반에 걸쳐 각자된 것으로,총 34건 중 경물(景物)관련 4건,경색(景色)관련 8건,인명(人名)관련 5건 그리고 시문(詩文)15건,기타 2건 등으로 분류되었고,전체적으로 시문의 비율이 월등히 높았으며,시문 속 주제어의 중심에는 ``상소산``과 ``혜천``이 자리 잡고 있다.``봉래동천``은 물론 ``소산사호(蘇山四皓)``의 표현이나 연단로에서 제조된 신선의 단약에 비견되는 ``혜천의 샘물``은 신선사상의 영향이 강하게 누적되고 관성화되어 착근된 장소정체성의 단면을 보여주는 경관어휘이자 봉래동천,주림과 옥천 바위글씨의 조합과 조응하는것으로 이 일대가 ``신선의 세계``임을 상징화하고 있다. 헌종11년(1845년)현감 조연명의 인위적인 식수 이후,체계적으로 가꾸어온 숲인 서림과 그 숲에 조성된 정각서림정과 주변에 산재한 ``혜천·금대``등 바위글씨가 새겨진 암반 등은 신선사상이 깃든 관아(官衙)의 후원이자 임천정원(林泉庭苑)으로서의 성격과 면모를 보여주는 흔적이며,이곳에 깃든 장소정체성의 핵심이다.또한 낙토(樂土),부안의 중심인 관아지역과 풍류 시회처(詩會處)로서 후원 혜천지역은 선계 동경적 아취와 상상력을 바탕으로 생활 속의 공간으로 구현 정착되어 왔음을 볼 때,``상소산과 서림``그리고 ``동천과 혜천``의 관련성과 상징성이야말로 이곳 장소정체성의 본질이라 할 만하다. 내변산과 격포지역이 부안관광의 중심인 현실을 볼 때,서림공원 일대의 바위글씨를 중심으로 한 문화유적은 부안의 대표적인 관광명소이자 부안 읍치를 대표하는 역사문화경관으로 자리매김하기를 기대한다. This study aimed at learning the characteristics of place identity of the Buan county hall garden and Sangsosan(上蘇山) by looking over the pattern and content of letter-engraved rocks and nearby facilities and history. Especially, we focused on the meaning and contents of the letters in Sangsosan and a Government Office of Buan engraved on rocks in order to learn what the place means. The results of our study are as follows. Buan-hyun(扶安縣) in the Joseon dynasty period blossomed literary culture of enjoying poetry and melody, and this was faithful realization of the concept of "Rakto(樂土)" of ``Saengubuan(生居扶安).`` The grand scale letters written by Si-Soo Park(朴蓍壽: 1767~1876), head of the office in the early 19th century, in the cursive style on the basis stone of the garden of Buan county building, which was the site of the office of Buan-hyun in the Joseon dynasty period, such as ``Bongraedongcheon(蓬萊洞天)``, ``Jurim(珠林)``, and ``Okcheon(玉泉)`` mean that "``Bongrae``, the another name of Buan``, is a place where Taoist hermits would live because the spring water of Seorim flows down to be Okcheon.", showing his pride of living Buan. The regions like Seorimjeong, Geumdae(琴臺), and Hyecheon(惠泉) where letters engraved on rocks are located intensively are closely related with those who communicated with Mae-Chang Lee(李梅窓: 1573~1610), the slave of the government, and are local attractions and garden traces where the literary culture and scholar`s spirit of Buan are well-harmonized. Most of the letters were written from the 19th century to the early 20th century, showing that 4 for landscapes, 8 for Kyungseck(景色: imaginary scenry), 5 for figures, 15 for poems and 2 for others. The ratio of poems is much higher than that of poems in other regions` letters on rocks, and the keyword of the letters is Haecheon. A piece of the place identity heavily influenced by the Taoist hermit ideology is revealed by the expressions of ``Bongraedongcheon``, ``Sosansaho(蘇山四皓)`` or ``the spring water of Haecheon`` that was considered as an elixir of Taoist hermits. Seorim the forest, which had been managed after Yeon-Myeong Cho(趙然明: 1797~?), head of the office, planted trees in the 11th year of the reign of King Heonjong(1845), Seorimjeong in the forest, and rocks with engraved letters on them are proof of literary culture and the garden traces showing the characteristics and aspect of Imcheon(林泉) Garden of the office heavily influenced by the Taoist hermit ideology. Along with Naebyeon-san national park and Kyeokpo region, the center of Buan tourism, we hope that cultural heritages including rocks with engraved letters over Seorim park would become a representative cultural heritage and attraction of Buan.
Telomerase Activity In Human Placenta Tissues: Comparison Between Preeclampsia With and Without Fetal Growth Restriction Young Nae Jung, M.D., Sei Kwang Kim, M.D. Hyun Cheol Chung, M.D., Kyu Hyun Park, Ph.D. Chang Han Kim, Ph.D., Hyun Jung Cho, M.D. Jae Sung Cho, M.D., Yong Won Park, M.D., In Kyu Kim, M.D. Young Ho Yang, M.D., Jae Wook Kim, M.D. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cancer REsearch Institute Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Animal Resources REsearch Center, Konkuk University Seoul, Korea Objectives: To analyze telomerase activity(TA) in human placenta tissues and to compare TA in preeclampsia with or without fetal growth restriction(FGR) Methods: Fourty-six placenta specimens were obtained from pregnant women between 29 and 41 weeks' gestation. TA of each specimen was analyzed including 21 specimens without either preeclampsia or FGR(Group 1), 9 specimens with preeclampsia but without FGR(Group 2), and 16 specimens with both preeclampsia and FGR(Group 3). TA was analysed by radioisotope PCR based telomeric repeat amplification protocol(TRAP) assay. Ta was calculated and translated into arbitrary units by computer-assisted densitometry with the control of TA in 293 cell lines. Results: TA was expressed in 16 of 21(76.1%) in group 1, and in 3 of 9(33.3%) in group 2. In contrast, only 4 patients(25%) in group 3 expressed TA. Thus, TA was expressed significantly more often in group 1 than in group 2 and group 3(p=0.003). However, compared with group 2, expression of telomerase activity in group 3 was not reduced significantly(p>0.05). Conclusion: TA was minimal in placenta from preeclamptic women with and without FGR, suggesting placental senescence and apoptosis may be associated with FGR and severe preeclampsia.
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In this study, we aimed to determine the antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory effect of Bang-Poong (BP, Radix Ledebouriellae) on Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Traditionally, BP has been used to treat several inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. Whole BP is extracted into two fractions that were ethylacetate and hexane-soluble fractions. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30, 130-150 g) were subcutaneously administered by the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) into the plantar surface of right hindpaw. Twelve days after the injection of FCA, the rats initially showed typical inflammatory edema and arthritis-related symptoms on the contralateral side (i.e. left hindpaw). Both antinociceptive (evaluation of mechanical, thermal pain threshold and analysis of spinal Fos expression) and anti- inflammatory (evaluation of paw edema, serum interleukin-6 level and x-ray analysis) effect of BP extracts were examined. The ethylacetate fraction of BP (BPE) significantly suppressed the FCA-induced paw edema as well as the serum level of interleukin-6 and it alleviated the radiological changes. Moreover, both mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were attenuated by the treatment of BPE. In addition, spinal Fos expression that was increased by FCA- injection was suppressed in BPE group. Therefore, this study showed that BPE produced significant both antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on FCA- induced arthritis in rats, while hexane fraction of BP did not show these effects. In conclusion, it is suggested that the ethylacetate fraction of BP is recommended to alleviate the arthritis-related symptoms in human according to the results of this study.
Mothers`` labor market participation has increased significantly in Korea. This article explores how working mothers in Korea with children under the age of six allocate their time in order to spend time with children, and what substitutes they rely on when they are unable to provide childcare. Mothers who participate in the labor market have begun to narrow the gap in child-care time between themselves and mothers who are full-time homemakers; they often compensate for insufficient care time during the week by increasing care time on weekends and increasing the quality of time spent with their children. Substitute caregivers include grandparents and, to a much lesser extent, fathers, but the burden of childcare has not been effectively shared within the family, and working mothers continue to face significant time pressure.
The leptin receptor (LEPR) is a crucial regulatory protein that interacts with Leptin. In our analysis of LEPR, novel AluJb-derived alternative transcripts were identified in the genome of the rhesus monkey. In order to investigate the occurrence of AluJb-derived alternative transcripts and the mechanism underlying exonization events, we conducted analyses using a number of primate genomic DNAs and adipose RNAs of tissue and primary cells derived from the crab-eating monkey. Our results demonstrate that the AluJb element has been integrated into our common ancestor genome prior to the divergence of simians and prosimians. The lineage-specific exonization event of the LEPR gene in chimpanzees, orangutans, and Old World monkeys appear to have been accomplished via transition mutations of the 5′ splicing site (second position of C to T). However, in New World monkeys and prosimians, the AluJb-related LEPR transcript should be silenced by the additional transversion mutation (fourth position of T to G). The AluJb-related transcript of human LEPR should also be silenced by a mutation of the 5′ splicing site (first position of G to A) and the insertion of one nucleotide sequence (minus fourth position of A). Our data suggests that lineage-specific exonization events should be determined by the combination event of the formation of splicing sites and protection against site-specific mutation pressures. These evolutionary mechanisms could be major sources for primate diversification
An analysis and design method for reducing aerodynamic noise in high-speed trains based on biomimetics of noiseless flight of owl is proposed. Five factors related to the morphology of the flight feather have been selected, and the candidate optimal shape of the flight feather is determined. The turbulent flow field analysis demonstrates that the optimal shape leads to diminished vortex formation by causing separation of the flow as well as allowing the fluid to climb up along the surface of the flight feather. To determine the effect of scaling of the owl"s flight feather on the noise reduction, a two-fold and a four-fold scaled up model of the feather are constructed, and the numerical simulations are carried out to obtain the aerodynamic noise levels for each scale. Original model is found to reduce the noise level by 10 dBA, while two-fold increase in length dimensions reduces the noise by 12 dBA. Validation of numerical solution using wind tunnel experimental measurements is presented as well.
( Hyun Yang ), ( Pil Soo Sung ), ( Jae Jun Lee ), ( Soon Kyu Lee ), ( Hee Chul Nam ), ( Jeong Won Jang ), ( Jong Young Choi ), ( Seung Kew Yoon ), ( Eun Sun Jung ), ( Si Hyun Bae ) 대한간학회 2020 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2020 No.1
Aims: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is caused by the interplay between drugs, their metabolites and host immune response. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenotypes of the infiltrating immune cells in DILI and the role of steroid treatment in DILI. Methods: From January 2017 to February 2020, 41 consecutive patients with DILI who underwent liver biopsy were enrolled prospectively in this study. Diagnosis of DILI was based on patient medication history after exclusion of the other etiologies. Liver biopsy was performed, and immunohistochemical stain and multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis were done with the biopsy specimen. Experienced pathologist confirmed the pathologic and immunohistochemical findings. Results: Median RUCAM score was 9 (5-14). Patients with positive for anti-nuclear antibody, smooth muscle antibody, and liver-kidney microsomal antibody were 28 (70%), 3 (7.5%), and 0, respectively. The number of intrahepatic T cells (CD3+ cells) showed positive correlation with serum levels of total bilirubin, AST, ALT, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (r=0.353, 0.353, 0.381, and 0.352, respectively, P<0.05). The number of intrahepatic macrophages (CD68+ cells), also showed positive correlation with serum levels of total bilirubin, AST, ALT, and MELD score (r=0.441, 0.508, 0.505, and 0.404, respectively, P<0.05). The frequency of activated CD8+ T cells (CD38+HLA-DR+) among the liver-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in DILI livers, was significantly higher than that in healthy livers (P<0.01). Importantly, the percentage of CD38+HLA-DR+ cells among intrahepatic CD8+ T cells in DILI livers showed positive correlation with ALT (r=0.593, P=0.04). Thirty patients (73.2%) were treated with steroid. Among them, 22 patients (78.6%) showed more than 50% of reduction of ALT level after 1 week of steroid treatment and 2 patients progressed to hepatic failure, but recovered after steroid treatment. Conclusions: In conclusion, we found the positive correlation between the number of intrahepatic macrophages, T cells, CD8+ T cells and activated CD8+ T cells infiltrations and the degree of liver injury in patients with DILI. We suggest that T cells and macrophage play critical roles in DILI. Therefore, steroid can be a treatment option for patient with DILI. This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (2020R1A2C3011569). This study was also supported by the Research Fund from Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital.