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Through the modalparticles ja/JA. the speaker delivers speech intentions to the listener by referring to `previous knowledge`. As emotional expressions are described in strong, emphatic tones, intonations can serve the same function. The use of JA. therefore, can lend a sense of friendliness and warmth to a conversation. Thus, the use of modal particles can carry more persuasion in communication. For successful communication, the speaker considers different styles of language use. For instance, by using `ja` in an exclamatory tone, the speaker expresses surprise about a situation. To the same effect, the speaker can express a sense of surprise to the hearer using other forms of language, but modal particles can create a conversational cohesion and friendliness with emotional impact. When used in the form of `JA`, the speaker can deliver emotional impact to convey that the action required of the listener is `previous knowledge` and is important. Thus, a message that the listener will be penalized or endangered if the instruction is not followed can be sent. Warning, alarming and emphasizing functions can be fulfilled, with `ja` used as part of a response to the speech of the other person and with `JA` used in the process of structuring the speaker`s speech.
Objectives: Boo-ja and Cheon-o are not commonly prescribed, but are necessary for some clinical conditions, dispite the fact that some negative effects have been known to occur with these medicines. Hence, consequences for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT) due to herbal medicines, including boo-ja and cheon-o are here reported. Methods: From January 2005 to July 2005, iresults were analyzed for 40 inpatients belonging to the sixth internal medicine department of Dongeui Oriental Medical Hospital who took herbal medicine, including boo-ja and cheon-o, over 20 days. The study is about the comparison and the investigation of LFT, and all results were taken upon their hospitalization and upon their departure. The standard of liver injury was used as a standard for their examinations. Results : 1. No Change in normal limit . 34 of the 40 2. Increased AST. ALT from when they were hospitalized : 2 of 40 Normalized AST, ALT from when they were hospitalized with results higher than normal : 6 of 40 3. These results show no side-effects, therefore suggest that these herbal medicines, including boo-ja and cheon-o. do not cause adverse side-effectsfor patients of this kind if administered as was done in this study.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
현재 대한불교조계종은 단일계단(單一戒壇)에서 구족계를 수계하고 있다. 단일계단이란 이전 각 본사나 사찰별로 율사들의 자의로 시행하였던 수계산림을 단일화하여 종단 차원에서 실행하는 것으로, 종래의 수계법회를 율장에 근거하여 보완ㆍ수정한 것이다. 단일계단은 1981년 2월 17일 양산 통도사에서 자운(慈雲)율사를 초대 단일계단 전계사로 추대하여 열린 제1회 사미ㆍ사미니계 수계산림 법회를 시작으로 지난 해(2014) 3월 20-28일에 제34회 단일계단 구족계 수계산림이 직지사에서 열렸다. 단일계단의 정비와 더불어 율장에 따라 비구니 이부승수계 제도 및 식차마나계도 복원되었다. 이 제도는 아마도 고려시대 이후로 끊긴 것으로 보이는데, 1982년 10월 15-20일까지 범어사에서 자운율사를 전계사로 열린 구족계 제2회, 사미(니)계 제3회 수계산림 법회에서 비구니 이부승수계가 복원되면서 지금에 이르고 있다. 이와 같이 조계종의 수계의식이 지금과 같이 정비된 것은 불과 35년 정도 전의 일이다. 암울한 조선시대를 거치며 한국에서 계맥은 거의 끊길 위험에 처하였다. 하지만 1826년 대은낭오가 서상수계를 하고, 1892년에 만하승림이 중국에서 계맥을 전수해 오는 등, 극한 상황에서도 계맥을 이어가고자 하는 수많은 고승들의 신념과 활약으로 일제강점기나 정화 등의 혼란을 겪으면서도 계맥을 이어왔다. 그러나 정작 계단은 정비되지 못한 채, 특정 율사 및 사찰 중심으로 독자적으로 수계식이 이루어져 어디에서 누가 어떤 방법으로 비구가 되고 있는지, 종단은 새로운 구성원에 대한 파악이나 관리에서 많은 어려움을 겪었다. 이를 해결하기 위해 자운은 조계종 전체를 하나로 묶는 거대한 계단을 설립하였다. 이것이 단일계단이다. 그리고 자운은 단일계단의 정비와 실행을 철저하게 『사분율』에 근거하여 원칙을 지키며 실현해 갔다. 단일계단의 정비라는 대 사건이 없었다면, 조계종은 언제까지나 승적을 둘러싼 논란을 반복하였을 것이다. 본고에서는 근현대불교사에 있어 크게 주목할 만한 사건 가운데 하나인 1981년의 '단일계단' 확립 및 '이부승수계제도' 복원을 중심으로 조계종 계단의 역사를 살펴보고 있다. 단, 단일계단 내지 이부승수계제도 실행의 의미를 제대로 파악하기 위해서는 이러한 제도들이 실행되기 이전의 한국불교의 수계 상황도 고려되어야 하므로, 근대기에 이루어진 조계종의 주요 계맥인 대은파와 만하파의 성립과 발전, 그리고 통합종단의 계단법 등 종합적으로 조계종 계단의 역사를 고찰하며, 이러한 상황 속에서 탄생한 단일계단이 어떤 내용과 의미를 지니는지 생각해 보고자 한다. Daehan Pulgyo Jogye Order (大韓佛敎曹溪宗) is currently receiving the full precepts from a single ordination platform (單一戒壇). A single ordination platform refers to the precept reception that is unified to be performed at the level of the order, different from the previous case where it was voluntarily performed by preceptors in head temple or each branch temple. It supplements and modifies the original Buddhist ceremony according to Vinayapiṭaka. The single ordination platform began with the first Buddhist precept reception ceremony for novices that was held in Tongdo Temple in Yangsan on February 17th in 1982 where Preceptor Ja-un was selected as the first teacher to confer the precepts in the single ordination platform. Last year, the 34th single platform precept reception ceremony for full precepts was held in Jikji Temple during March 20th to 28th. In addition to organizing the single ordination platform, Buddhist monk dual ordination system and sikkhamānās' precepts were also restored according to Vinayapiṭaka. The dual ordination, which is conjecture to be ceased after the Koryŏ Dyanasty, was restored at the second precept reception ceremony for full precepts where Preceptor Ja-un was selected as the first teacher to confer the precepts and the third precept reception ceremony for novices held in Pŏmŏ Temple during October 15th to 20th in 1982. There stored system lasted up to this day. As such, no longer than 35 years have passed since the precept reception ceremony of the Jogye Order was organized to take the current form. Lineage of the transmission of the precepts in Korea faced risk of extinction passing the grim period under the Chosŏn Dynasty. Despite turbulent era such as Japanese colonial period and purification, the lineage continued thanks to the strong belief and action by a number of high priests in severe situations, such as Daeŭn-nango (大隱朗旿)'s to reception of Sŏsang precepts (瑞祥受戒) in 1826 and Manha-seunglim (萬下勝林)'s transmission of precept lineage from China in 1892. However, precept receiving ceremonies were still being performed independently by a certain preceptor or temple, as the platform was yet to be organized. As a result, the order had difficulties in grasping and managing new members, being unable to know who became a Buddhist monk in where. For the purpose of solving this problem, Ja-un established an immense platform that can embrace the whole Jogye Order. This is the very single ordination platform. Ja-un conducted alignment and implementation of the single ordination platform by strictly following the principles based on the Four Part Vinaya. If it were not for the big affair of single ordination platform alignment, the Jogye Order must have been trapped in endless dispute over the register of monks. This study examines the history of ordination platform of the Jogye Order, focusing on the establishment of 'the single ordination platform' and restoration of 'the system of dual ordination' in 1981, which are two of the most notable events in modern Buddhism history. Meanwhile, in order to completely understand the meaning of the single ordination platform or implementation of the system of dual ordination, precept reception situation in Korean Buddhism prior to such events should also be considered. Hence, the paper comprehensively examines the history of the Jogye Order platform, including establishment and development of Daeŭn's branch and Manha's branch, which are the major lineages of the transmission of the precepts of the Jogye Order in modern era, as well as the ordination platform rule of an integrated order. Through this, the paper contemplates the contents and meaning of the single ordination platform that emerged from such circumstances.
Objectives : Boo-ja and Cheon-o are not commonly prescribed, but are necessary for some clinical conditions, dispite the fact that some negative effects have been known to occur with these medicines. Hence, consequences for aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT) due to herbal medicines, including boo-ja and cheon-o are here reported. Methods : From January 2005 to July 2005, results were analyzed for 36 inpatients belonging to the sixth internal medicine department of Dongeui Oriental Medical Hospital who took herbal medicine, including boo-ja and cheon-o, over 20 days. The study is about the comparison and the investigation of LFT, and all results were taken upon their hospitalization and upon their departure. The standard of liver injury was used as a standard for their examinations. Results were as follows : No Change in normal limit : 28 of the 36 Increased AST. ALT from when they were hospitalized : 2 of 36 Normalized AST. ALT from when they were hospitalized with results higher than normal : 6 of 36 These results show no side-effects, therefore suggest that these herbal medicines, including boo-ja and cheon-o, do not cause adverse side-effects for patients of this kind if administered as was done in this study.
Previously existing studies about Korean womans poetry, being made mostly from the male-centric viewpoint, failed to properly and correctly evaluate the elements of deviation appeared in womans poetry such as discourse strategy, consciousness of confinement, female image, cutting body off, esc. In this situation, this study aims at reading these characteristics of the womans poetry from the feministic and pluralistic viewpoint. The poems of No Chun-Myung, in which both of female persona and male persona are used for the first time in Korean womans poetry, have an important meaning with that trial itself. Eventhough her poems show strong doubt on feminity and even envy at the masculine characteristics, she is the first poet who raised an objection to the concept of feminity. Then after, Korean womans poetry have developed in two contrasting directions : sentimental and traditional one, intellectual and speculative one. The poems of Hong Yoon-sook, Heo Young-Ja and Kim Nam-Jo belong to the category of the traditional lyric poetry. Their poetry, using the passive female persona, sentimental image like crime, tear, and lover, exclamational tone, and the themes of love, yearning and repentance, elevated the level of lyric poetry. But their consciousness on women still remains in the state of closed passiveness. In 70s and 80s, this passive consciousness is moved to active and participant one. The motive of female death shown in the poetry of Kang Eun-Kyeo is succeeded to the poetry of Choi Seung-Ja and Kim Hae-Soon. They use the extreme diction and the motive of female death through the dissolution of body as a poetic method to dissolve the oppressive reality. The grotesque realism of their poetry, trying to find the source of new power among the negative values, pursues the rebirth of the new world through destruction and negative. The central poetic dictions used by female poets revealed the consciousness of self-contempt, feeling of estrangement and isolation, hostility in mutual relations, and sadism. In the poetry of No Cheon-Myung, skeptistic view on powerless and passive feminity is revealed. The female personas in Kim Nam-Jos poetry are always connected with the word of winter, wind, tear, and coldness. This reflects her consciousness that endurance and waiting are indispensable for unification with lover. The central poetic words of Heo Young-Ja are crime and blood indicating shame and guilty conscience. The motives of death in Kang Eun-Kyeos poetry, expressing the consciousness of confinement and the feeling of futility, imply the possibility of rebirth through female death. Ko Jeong-Hee uses the word of hearted reed to express hearted feminity. The characteristics of Choi Seung-Jas poetry are founded in the images of dark room, cutting body off, orphan, night-soil, and female persona with stinging tone, and the extreme usage of diction. Kim Hye-Soon, using the word of kitchen and dish-washing as a image of female space and acting, shows that women become to lose their self-identity among the routine of daily life. Peeling and cutting body off are the image to express rebirth through destruction. In the poetry of Kim Seung-Hee, the images of closed space are related with lifelessness, loss of identity, and death. This reflects the isolated and closed world of female experience. Female death is a kind of drama of rebirth to bring for the new life. Many kinds of deviation devices in womans poetry ultimately pursue the harmonious and peaceful world in which there is no separation and discrimination between man and woman. This desire is revealed as inclination for bisexual world doesnt mean the loose reconciliation without the solution of contradiction but the inclusive integration beyond the dualistic opposition of sex. Bisexuality is the essential element in literature. It is a motive power to make our life peaceful by unifying and harmonizing mind. Many great poets like Kim So-Woel, Han Yong-Woon, Hwang Dong-Kyum, Jeong Hyun-Jong, and Lee Sung-Bok have written poems with this bisexual mind. Freely and adaptably using male persona and female persona, they have shown the far excellent poetic elements. This evokes us the pursuit of unification and the principle of inclusion inherent in literary imagination.
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One can define 'tea' as a beverage made from a processed tea leaf with water, and it is believed that the tea history was started right after the eating and drinking was started. The method of processing and boiling tea has been developed in various ways. Also the terms used for the boiling tea have been changed by periods, and adopted differently according to the kind of tea and the method of boiling tea. In this dissertation, the terms and methods of boiling tea in Korea and China are considered according to dynasty time line by comparing Shinla and Dang Main discussions are based on the excerpts from old documents in each periods with reference to Dasi(茶詩-tea poetry) and other materials related to the tea. Main theme of this dissertation is terms and methods of boiling tea through this discussion we try to achieve right understanding and profundity of tea culture. Moreover, we discuss the method of boiling Ddukcha that the people in the age of Three states used by doing so giving new light to the succession and development of future Korean Ddekcha culture. In ancient times people boiled the tea in the same way that they made a soup(羹) and greens but it had its limitations on transportation and storage. So they started to form the tea into Dduk and drink the dried and ground tea in hot water. The terms used for boiling tea are numerous but in korea ‘pang(烹)', ‘jun(煎)', ‘ja(煮)', ‘si(試)' etc. and in China they used ‘am(庵)', ‘ok(沃)', ‘ja(煮)', ‘jum(點)', ‘pang(烹)', ‘jun(煎)'etc. were mostly used and the method of boiling tea has been changed by periods. In Shinla dynasty, they boiled Ddukcha in the water or boiled the powder of Ddukcha and drank it. In Dang dynasty, Byungcha was ground in the way of Yookwoo Jada(煮茶法) and was boiled in an iron pot and they drank mal · bal(沫 · 餑). However, in any times and dynasties various ways of beverage can mainly divide into two ways. one is to form the tea leaf Dduk and grind it, the other is putting Ipcha in the water and infuse it. No matter hoe history, culture and specially to make tea have been changed, 'Tea' becomes a popular and indispensable beverage.