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The effect of deaeration, Cl−ion content and strong oxidizer on the active behavior of the high phosphorus pig iron (HPPI)samples was studied in 3.5% NaCl and 1 N HNO3solutions. Deaerating the 3.5% NaCl solution could effectively shift thecorrosion potential of the HPPI below the protective potential of the steel in seawater [− 0.778 V vs saturated calomelelectrode (SCE)], which has not been observed in the freely aerated 3.5% NaCl solution. Both the Cl−ion content and thedeaerated conditions restrict the formation of the stable iron phosphate on the surface and promote the dissolution of the pigiron as soluble iron phosphate hydrate (FePO4·2H2O). However, in the case of the freely aerated nitric acid solution, evenwith deaeration, the HPPI samples have shown more noble behavior as compared to the mild steel due to the strong oxidizingnature of nitric acid and the formation of a stable iron phosphate on the surface.
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A study on water-based epoxy coated on mild steel using the electroplating method was conducted to optimize the process parameters for dry film thickness to achieve superior paint quality at optimal cost in an automotive plant. The regression model was used to adjust various parameters such as electrode voltage, bath temperature, processing time, non-volatile matter, and surface area to optimize the dry film thickness. The average dry film thickness computed using the model was in the range of 15 - 35 ㎛. The error in the computed dry film thickness with reference to the experimentally measured dry film thickness value was - 0.5809%, which was well within the acceptable limits of all paint shop standards. Our study showed that the dry film thickness on mild steel was more sensitive to electrode voltage and bath temperature than processing time. Further, the presence of non-volatile matter was found to have the maximum impact on dry film thickness.
In this paper, we generalize the notion of comparable set-valued mappings by introducing two types of R-closed set-valued mappings and utilize these to obtain an analogue of celebrated Mizoguchi and Takahashi fixed point theorem in relational metric spaces. To annotate the claims and usefulness of such findings, we prove fixed point results for both set-valued and single-valued mappings and validate the assertions with the help of examples. In this way, these investigations extend, modify and generalize some prominent recent fixed point results obtained by Tiammee and Suantai , Amini-Harandi and Emami , Prasad and Dimri  and several others in the settings of relational metric spaces.
In Nepal, about 73% of the vegetable production area is estimated to be covered by hybrid varieties. Most of the hybrid seeds in vegetable crops are imported from abroad. Considering the demand for hybrid vegetable varieties, the National Horticulture Research Centre (NHRC), Khumaltar, Lalitpur has started hybrid breeding of vegetables using a conventional approach since the fiscal year 2003/04. With this effort, the tomato hybrid ‘Srijana’ was developed and registered in 2010. This variety was estimated to cover about 35% of the total tomato cultivated area. Two tomato hybrids, namely ‘Khumal Hybrid Tomato-2 (HRA14 × HRD7) and ‘Khumal Hybrid Tomato-3’ (HRA20 × HRD2), showed good performance and were released in the National Seed Board in 2021. It was found that the heterosis for the yield was 87% in ‘Khumal Hybrid Tomato-2’ and 95% in ‘Khumal Hybrid Tomato-3’ with a potential yield of 70 MT/ha and 60 MT/ha, respectively, under open field conditions. Similarly, a comparative study of 7 tomato hybrids at different research stations was carried out and it showed that F1 (HRA13 × HRD7) could be a potential hybrid for the western region with a potential productivity of 116.8 MT/ha under a protected cultivation system. Hybrid breeding of cucumber was also initiated in the fiscal year 2007/08. A total of 12 crosses in cucumber were performed and two hybrids F1 (HRDCUC004 x RDCUC001), 107 MT/ha and F1 (HRDCUC009 × HRDCUC003) 150 MT/ha were found promising. Hybrid breeding in brinjal, hot pepper and bitter gourd has also been started. Furthermore, key problems and way forward to strengthen hybrid vegetable breeding in Nepal were also discussed.
Birds are considered as ecological indicators and most sensitive health indicators of an ecosystem. Wetlands are used by birds for various purposes such as breeding, nesting, roosting, and foraging. Thisstudy was designed to fulfill this research gap on avian diversity comparison of different wetlands invarious habitats. The objective of the study was to generate information on avian diversity with seasonalvariability of different wetlands of various habitats. Sampling was done in eight different wetlands fromdifferent districts of Odisha. The study was carried out during October 2015 to September 2018, and thepoint count method was used. A total number of 109 species of birds covering 16 order and 42 familieswere recorded. Maximum waterbird richness was found at Chilika (62%, N¼68) and minimum speciesrichness (15%, N¼17) found at Talcher. Six species were recorded under Near Threatened category accordingto International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN 2020). The reason behind this occurrenceof more numbers species in Chilika, Hirakud, and Koraput may be because of the habitat suitabilityand low anthropogenic pressure. The Talcher sampling site had the lowest species richness because ofthe highly polluted mining area with high anthropogenic pressure. Conservation of these small wetlandsis also required to conserve the declining native avifauna.
Fruits of Cucumis callosus (Rottl.) Cogn. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) plant, are commonly known as “bitter cucumber” (English) and “Kachri” (Hindi) in India and have been traditionally used for antioxidant, rich source of vitamin C, antidiabetic and anticancer actions. Tribal peoples of Odissa and West-Bengal are using these fruits during worship and as a vegetable. In vitro cytotoxicity of methanolic seed extract of C. callosus (MSCC) at different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400) μg/ ml and methanolic pericarp extract of C. callosus (MPCC) at (30, 60, 120, 240, 360) μg/ml on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell line, has been evaluated by using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and Trypan blue dye exclusion assay for a period of 3 h treatment. Acute toxicity and in vivo teratotoxicity of both extracts were also evaluated using the Zebrafish embryo developmental assay. The MSCC and MPCC showed the direct cytotoxic effect on EAC cells in a dose-dependent manner with IG50 value 273.17 and 235.08 μg/ml respectively. The MPCC in 240 and 360 μg/ml showed a strong teratotoxic effect on Zebrafish embryo in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity and teratotoxicity of MPCC were due to overexpressed CYP450 mediated apoptosis in μthe tissue.
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Melatonin or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, the fascinating molecule secreted by the pineal gland. Melatonin has a close interaction with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In non-seasonal breeders like rat its exact role in reproduction is controvertible. So it is worth to explore the possible role of melatonin on the onset of puberty in male albino rats. Two groups of male rats aged 5 and 10 days were used for the study. In each group, there were three subgroups, each receiving melatonin for 5 days, 10 days or till the day of descent of testes. Similar subgroups were used as controls. Without handling, animals were observed daily for the onset of puberty. On the day of descent of testes, body weight of the animal was noted, blood was collected, serum was separated and used for radio immunoassay. For histomorphometric analysis, all morphometric measurements were done using an occular micrometer. Volume fraction of seminiferous tubules, intertubular connective tissue of testes, cortex and medulla of thymus were estimated by point count method. In both the age groups melatonin advanced the age on descent of testes, increased the body weight, organ weight. It also increased the serum hormone levels. So, in conclusion this study indicates that exogenous melatonin advances the onset of puberty in male albino wistar rats and this effect is more pronounced in the younger animals.
Herein, we proposed, for thefirst time, a novel activated carbon (AC) material synthesized from Wisteriasinensis (WS) seeds biomass. Characterizations of the material were carried out by Field-emissionscanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy,Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area analysis. As-synthesized AC was employed as an electrode material to evaluateits applicability in energy storage devices. Results showed enhanced capacitive performance in an acidicelectrolyte compared to the neutral electrolyte at similar current density. Thus, as-synthesized AC couldbe a suitable material for energy storage applications.