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      • On Plural Anaphora

        ( Kiyoshi Ishikawa ) 한국언어정보학회 1998 국제 워크샵 Vol.1998 No.-

        In order to formulate truth-conditionally satisfactory semantics in a compost-tional manner, model-theoretic semanticists sometimes posit morphology-semantics mismatches. Among them are Kamp and Reyle (1993), who occasionally ignore English plural morphology in constructing their analysis of anaphora. Our goal in this paper is to demonstrate that natural language morphology is a better guide for a compositional semantics than Kamp and Ryle assume. By refining the semantics of plurality put forth in Ishikawa (1995a), we construct an analysis of plural anaphora in a way that respects English plural morphology. Our results suggest that natural language morphology is not as redundant as usually assumed.

      • KCI등재

        韓国学習者の日本語動詞獲得モデル: 学習者総体モデルとの比較 ― 「多言語母語の日本語学習者横断コーパス」の絵描写作文を用いた検証 ―

        石川慎一郎 ( Shin’ichiro¸ Ishikawa ) 한국일어교육학회 2021 일본어교육연구 Vol.- No.56

        本論文では「多言語母語の日本語学習者横断コーパス」(I-JAS)に含まれる韓国学習者(KLJ)による絵描写作文を習熟度レベルごとに分析し、KLJの動詞獲得過程のモデル化を試みた。分析結果は、同コーパスに含まれる海外日本語学習者の総体(WLJ)データを分析した石川(2021)と比較された。RQ1(動詞使用量)については、習熟度別に見た場合、KLJとWLJともに逆U字型のパタンを示すことが確認された。RQ2(マーカー動詞)に関して、母語話者との比較の結果、KLJが使用できない動詞には(a)複合動詞,(b)慣用動詞、(c)否定的ニュアンスを含む動詞など、KLJのみが使用する動詞には(d)意思·意図に関する誤用、(e)文脈の不適合、(f)複合動詞要素の誤用、(g)不要な内容の言語化などが含まれ、いずれもWLJと同じパタンを示すことが確認された。RQ3(習熟度分類)については、KLJの動詞獲得がⅠ(存在動詞·移動動詞など)→Ⅱ(動詞の拡張)→Ⅲ(複合動詞成分·アスペクト成分·サ変動詞など)→Ⅳ(高度な複合動詞成分·変化動詞など)の4段階に区分され、ほぼWLJに重なることが示された。RQ4(習熟度推定)については、7種の動詞(入る·為る·見る·仕舞う·知る·来る·入れる)の使用頻度によって習熟度を63%の精度で予測できるが、予測モデルに含まれる動詞はWLJの場合とは異なることが示された。動詞獲得におけるKLJの固有特性は限定的で、KLJの特徴の大部分は日本語学習者全般の特徴であると言える。この点をふまえれば、日本語学習者コーパス研究においては、L1差よりもL2習熟度差を優先した分析が必要だと考えられる。 Using the International Corpus of Japanese as a Second Language (I-JAS), this study analyzed the picture description essays written by Korean learners of Japanese (KLJ) at different L2 proficiency levels to explore the process of their acquisition of L2 Japanese verbs. The results were compared to the verb acquisition process of the whole learners of Japanese (WLJ) reported in Ishikawa (2021). The corpus-based analyses showed that (1) an inverted U pattern existed in terms of the number of tokens/ types of the verbs used in the essays for both KLJ and WLJ, (2) when compared to the verb usage of Japanese native-speakers (JNS), some verbs were used only by JNS and others only by KLJ, and these “marker” verbs were almost the same for KLJ and WLJ, (3) KLJ’s verb acquisition process could be subdivided into four stages: 1 (existential verbs/ verbs of moving), 2 (a greater variety of verbs), 3 (composite verbs and aspectual verbs), and 4 (complex composite verbs and verbs of change), which were almost identical to the patterns for WLJ, and (4) KLJ’s L2 proficiency could be explained by the frequency of seven types of verbs (hairu, suru, miru, shimau, shiru, kuru, ireru) with 63% accuracy, though these verbs were different from a set of verbs adopted in the regression model for WLJ. These findings corroborated that KLJ’s verb acquisition pattern did not differ much from the pattern for WLJ, which may suggest the need for the Japanese learner corpus studies focusing on learners’ L2 proficiency rather than on their L1 types.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Soft Magnetic Properties of Ring-Shaped Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb Bulk Metallic Glasses

        Ishikawa, Takayuki,Tsubota, Takahiro,Bitoh, Teruo The Korean Magnetics Society 2011 Journal of Magnetics Vol.16 No.4

        The reduction of the Nb content in the $(Fe_{0.75}B_{0.20}Si_{0.05})_{96}Nb_4$ bulk metallic glass (BMG) has been studied. The glass-forming ability (GFA) is reduced by decreasing the Nb content, but it can be enhanced by replacing partially Fe by Co. Furthermore, the saturation magnetization of the $(Fe_{0.8}Co_{0.2})_{76}B_{18}Si_3Nb_3$ BMG is 1.35 T, being with 13% larger than that of the base alloy $(Fe_{0.75}B_{0.20}Si_{0.05})_{96}Nb_4$. $(Fe_{0.8}Co_{0.2})_{76}B_{18}Si_3Nb_3$ BMG exhibits slightly larger $B_{800}$ (the magnetic flux density at 800 A/m) and smaller core losses (20%-30%) compared with the commercial Fe-6.5 mass% Si steel.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Growth and Photosynthetic Responses of One C<sub>3</sub> and Two C<sub>4</sub> Chenopodiaceae Plants to Three CO<sub>2</sub> Concentration Conditions

        Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi The Ecological Society of Korea 2008 Journal of Ecology and Environment Vol.31 No.4

        Growth and photosynthetic responses of one $C_3$ and two $C_4$ plants in the family Chenopodiaceae in three $CO_2$ concentration $([CO_2])$ conditions-low (about $243{\mu}mol\;mol^{-1}$, LC), present (about 378, PC), and high (about 465, HC)-were investigated in open top chambers. The relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate in the $C_3$ plant, Chenopodium album, increased with increasing $[CO_2]$, though the RGR was not enhanced significantly in the HC condition. The leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio of the $C_3$ plant drastically decreased with increasing $[CO_2]$, suggesting that the $C_3$ plant invests more biomass to leaves in lower $[CO_2]$ conditions. The two $C_4$ plants, Atriplex glauca and A. lentiformis, showed relatively small changes in those growth parameters. These photosynthetic-pathway-dependent responses suggest that growth patterns of $C_3$ and $C_4$ plants have been altered by past increases in atmospheric $[CO_2]$ but that there will be relatively little further alteration in the future high-$CO_2$ world.

      • The Role of a Developmental Agency in Peacebuilding: Trace One-and-a-Half Mediation in Mindanao

        Ishikawa, Sachiko 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 2014 Asian Journal of Peacebuilding Vol.2 No.1

        Japan’s development assistance to conflict-affected areas in Mindanao, southern Philippines, opened new pathways for the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to support multilateral peacebuilding efforts. JICA, in collaboration with Universiti Sains Malaysia, organized a series of Consolidation for Peace Seminars as Track One-and-a-Half mediations. Two aspects of Japan’s assistance to Mindanao enabled JICA to engage in peacemaking. First, Japan’s assistance to Mindanao formed a unique tripartite cooperation mechanism consisting of the International Monitoring Team, Mindanao Task Force, and Japan-Bangsamoro Initiative for Reconstruction and Development. JICA took part in all three modes of assistance. Second, providing assistance under a volatile cease-fire agreement in Mindanao motivated JICA to become involved in peacemaking outside the traditional function of development assistance.

      • Situated Groups

        ( Ishikawa Kiyoshi ) 한국언어정보학회 1994 국제 워크샵 Vol.1994 No.-

        The referents of plural NP`s denote groups, by their nature, but at the same time, we want to say that they denote atomic individuals in some cases. By analyzing such dual nature of plural NP`s in Situation Semanties, we offer a straightforward and unified analysis which accoumts not only for various readings of plural NP`s but also for the so-ealled Committee and Judge/Hangman Puzzles.

      • KCI등재

        Growth and Photosynthetic Responses of One C₃and Two C₄Chenopodiaceae Plants to Three CO₂Concentration Conditions

        Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi 한국생태학회 2008 Journal of Ecology and Environment Vol.31 No.4

        Growth and photosynthetic responses of one C₃and two C₄plants in the family Chenopodiaceae in three CO₂concentration ([CO₂]) conditions-low (about 243 μmol mol-1, LC), present (about 378, PC), and high (about 465, HC)-were investigated in open top chambers. The relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate in the C₃plant, Chenopodium album, increased with increasing [CO₂], though the RGR was not enhanced significantly in the HC condition. The leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio of the C₃plant drastically decreased with increasing [CO₂], suggesting that the C₃plant invests more biomass to leaves in lower [CO₂] conditions. The two C₄plants, Atriplex glauca and A. lentiformis, showed relatively small changes in those growth parameters. These photosynthetic-pathway-dependent responses suggest that growth patterns of C₃and C₄plants have been altered by past increases in atmospheric [CO₂] but that there will be relatively little further alteration in the future high-CO₂world. Growth and photosynthetic responses of one C₃and two C₄plants in the family Chenopodiaceae in three CO₂concentration ([CO₂]) conditions-low (about 243 μmol mol-1, LC), present (about 378, PC), and high (about 465, HC)-were investigated in open top chambers. The relative growth rate (RGR) and net assimilation rate in the C₃plant, Chenopodium album, increased with increasing [CO₂], though the RGR was not enhanced significantly in the HC condition. The leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio of the C₃plant drastically decreased with increasing [CO₂], suggesting that the C₃plant invests more biomass to leaves in lower [CO₂] conditions. The two C₄plants, Atriplex glauca and A. lentiformis, showed relatively small changes in those growth parameters. These photosynthetic-pathway-dependent responses suggest that growth patterns of C₃and C₄plants have been altered by past increases in atmospheric [CO₂] but that there will be relatively little further alteration in the future high-CO₂world.

      • KCI등재

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