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      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Optimally Sizing Small Hydropower Project Under Future Projected Flows

        Irfan,Yousuf,Abdul,Razzaq,Ghumman,Hashim,Nisar,Hashmi 대한토목학회 2017 KSCE JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Vol.21 No.5

        The global climate change trend is resulting in change in precipitation and temperature. This change is impacting water resources and flow patterns in rivers and streams world-wide. Due to this, it is becoming difficult to optimally size small hydropower plants and predict their performance during operations. This paper has endeavored to investigate a solution to this problem. Chitral River in the Kabul Basin in Upper Indus Region, Pakistan was selected as study area. Observed climatic data of Chitral for period 1984-2013 was obtained from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD), observed flow data of Chitral River for period 1989-2013 was obtained from Water and Power Development Authority (SWH-WAPDA) and future predicted climatic data (including temperature and precipitation) was downscaled from MEPH5 Global Circulation Model (GCM) using LARS WG 5 for period up to 2099 under A1B, A2 and B1 Emission Scenario. HEC-HMS was used to determine future river flow trends for periods 2014-30, 2046-65 and 2080-99. The historic and future river flows were used to size small hydropower plant using RETScreen 4.1 model. Multiple Objective Decision Making Methodology (MODM) was used to decide upon the most optimum size of the hydropower plant. This paper has determined that there will be 16.83% reduction in river flows simulated for 2011-30, 25.03% for 2046-65 and 22.02% for 2080-99 as compared to historical flows during 1989-2013. Consequently there will be 0.36% impact on yearly power generation due to river flow changes simulated for 2014-30, 6.25% for 2046-65 and 4.08% for 2080-99. It is concluded that optimal sizing of the small hydropower plants and better performance under variable flows due to climate changes can be ensured by taking into account the future river flows predicted through hydrological models in addition to historical flows. The results concluded that 49.64 MW will be the most optimal size of the small hydropower plant that will produce maximum electricity under future projected flows at the study area.

      • KCI등재

        One-stage Hip Reconstruction for Developmental Hip Dysplasia in Children over 8 Years of Age

        Irfan,Qadir,Saeed,Ahmad,Atiq,uz,Zaman,Chirag,Muhammad,Khan,Shahzad,Ahmad,Amer,Aziz 대한고관절학회 2018 Hip and Pelvis Vol.30 No.4

        Purpose: This study was performed to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes following one-stage hip reconstruction, consisting of open reduction femoral shortening and pelvic osteotomy, for neglected developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH). Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 77 hips in 65 patients (46 females and 19 males; 12 had bilateral dislocations), operated at a Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital in Pakistan between 2013 and 2015. The average age at surgery was 11.02±3.43 years. According to the Tönnis classification, there were 10, 14, 22, and 31 patients in grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The pelvic procedure utilized in this study was triple osteotomy (47 hips) followed by double and Salter osteotomy (18 and 12 hips, respectively). Postoperative evaluations were conducted using the modified MacKay's scoring system (functional outcomes) and Severin's scoring method (radiological assessment). Results: Postoperatively, there were 38 (49.4%), 19 (24.7%), 14 (18.2%), and 6 (7.8%) hips in Severin grade I, II, III and IV, respectively. According to the modified McKay criteria, there were 22 hips (28.6%) in excellent condition, 44 (57.1%) in good condition, 9 (11.7%) in fair condition and 2 (2.6%) in poor condition. Both patients with poor outcomes had an unstable, painful hip with evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Conclusion: Based on the results presented here, we recommend the single stage procedure of open reduction, femoral shortening and pelvic osteotomy for treatment of DDH in older children with good to excellent functional and radiological outcomes.

      • KCI등재

        Component Alignment in Simultaneous Bilateral versus Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

        Irfan,Qadir,Bahar,Shah,Muhammad,Waqas,Umair,Ahmad,Shahzad,Javed,Amer,Aziz 대한슬관절학회 2019 대한슬관절학회지 Vol.31 No.1

        Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in component alignment between first and second knees in simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SBTKA) and unilateral TKA (UTKA).Materials and Methods: 274 SBTKAs and 198 UTKAs were included in study. Patients were divided into three groups as SBTKA on the right knee (group A), SBTKA on the left knee (group B) and UTKA (group C). Femoral and tibial component alignment was checked in both coronal plane (alpha [α] and beta [β] angles) and sagittal plane (gamma [γ] and delta [δ] angles) radiographs.Results: There were no statistically significant differences among groups in the preoperative anatomical varus angle and Kellgren–Lawrence gonarthrosis classification grade (p=0.139 and p=0.329, respectively). In the coronal plane, the alignment of femoral component (α angle) and tibial component (β angle) was similar in all three groups (α angle, 95.01 vs. 95.14 vs. 94.9, p=0.945; β angle, 90.03 vs. 89.67 vs. 89.98, p=0.483). The sagittal plane alignment of femoral component (γ angle) and tibial component (δ angle) did not show significant differences (γ angle, 7.04 vs. 6.98 vs. 7.00, p=0.132; δ angle, 86.56 vs. 87.41 vs. 86.73, p=0.610).Conclusions: The angular alignment of components was similar between SBTKA and UTKA.

      • Text Mining : Extraction of Interesting Association Rule with Frequent Itemsets Mining for Korean Language from Unstructured Data

        Irfan,Ajmal,Khan,Junghyun,Woo,Ji-Hoon,Seo,Jin-Tak,Choi 보안공학연구지원센터 2015 International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Vol.10 No.11

        Text mining is a specific method to extract knowledge from structured and unstructured data. This extracted knowledge from text mining process can be used for further usage and discovery. This paper presents the method for extraction information from unstructured text data and the importance of Association Rules Mining, specifically for of Korean language (text) and also, NLP (Natural Language Processing) tools are explained. Association Rules Mining (ARM) can also be used for mining association between itemsets from unstructured data with some modifications. Which can then, help for generating statistical thesaurus, to mine grammatical rules and to search large data efficiently. Although various association rules mining techniques have successfully used for market basket analysis but very few has applied on Korean text. A proposed Korean language mining method calculates and extracts meaningful patterns (association rules) between words and presents the hidden knowledge. First it cleans and integrates data, select relevant data then transform into transactional database. Then data mining techniques are used on data source to extract hidden patterns. These patterns are evaluated by specific rules until we get the valid and satisfactory result. We have tested on Korean news corpus and results have shown that it has worked well, and the results were adequate enough to research further.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Evaluating the Performance of Remotely Sensed Precipitation Estimates against In-Situ Observations during the September 2014 Mega-Flood in the Kashmir Valley

        Irfan,Rashid,Ajaz,Ahmad,Parray,Shakil,Ahmad,Romshoo 한국기상학회 2019 Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences Vol.55 No.2

        In the present study, 4 gridded satellite precipitation data products for September 2014 flood, IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM), GSMaP (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation), TRMM-3B42 (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and INSAT-3D-IMR (INSAT Multispectral Rain), were evaluated against the Indian Meteorological Department rain-gauge data from Sep-1st to Sep-7th 2014. Three evaluation indices; Correlation coefficient (CC), the Relative bias (RB) and the Nash- Sutcliffe coefficient (NSC), were used to evaluate the robustness of satellite precipitation estimates with actual rainfall measurements. IMERG precipitation product has a near perfect positive CC and NSC values of 0.94 and 0.99 respectively; while the CC and NSC values are 0.7 and 0.5 for GSMaP_Gauge; 0.69 and 0.05 for INSAT-3D-IMR; and 0.9 and 0.8 for TRMM-3B42 respectively. The RB estimates indicate that IMERG, with a bias of 2%, is a best-fit dataset when compared to the surface raingauge observations. In contrast, TRMM-3B42, GSMaP and INSAT-3D-IMR have underestimation biases of −31%, −58%, and − 86%respectively. Analysis of the indices indicates that IMERG precipitation product performed better than other three satellite precipitation products owing to the closeness of values with surface gauge station data over Kashmir. Owing to scanty observation of rainfall in the region, IMERG has a potential to become a cost effective input data source for designing a flood early warning system (FEWS) for Kashmir. However, it is suggested to evaluate the robustness of different satellite-derived precipitation estimates compared to rain gauge observations by incorporating more extreme events from different mountain regions globally for establishing the best satellite derived precipitation product.

      • KCI등재SCIESCOPUS

        An Outbreak of Oropharyngeal Tularemia with Cervical Adenopathy Predominantly in the Left Side

        Irfan,Sencan,Idris,Sahin,Sukru,Oksuz,Davut,Ozdemir,Oguz,Karabay 연세대학교의과대학 2009 Yonsei medical journal Vol.50 No.1

        Purpose: We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and the efficacy of a delayed initiation to therapy in an oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak in Duzce, Turkey. Materials and Methods: Between March and June 2000, 22 patients with tularemia were diagnosed by microagglutination tests. Results: Oropharyngeal and ulceroglandular forms of the disease were discovered. Most of the cases were oropharyngeal (19 cases). The most common symptoms were sore throat (95.4%) and fever (90.9%). Lymphadenopathy (95.4%) and pharyngeal hyperemia (81.8%) were usually observed signs. The lymphadenopathies were localized especially in the left cervical region (66.7%), a finding that has not been previously reported in the literature. The time between the onset of the symptoms and diagnosis was 40.7±22.8 (10-90) days. The patients were treated with streptomycin plus doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. The patients' recoveries took up to 120 days. Conclusion: This report describes the first outbreak of tularemia in northwest Turkey. Tularemia may occur in any region where appropriate epidemiological conditions are found and should be kept in mind for differential diagnosis in oropharyngeal symptoms. Late initiation of therapy may delay complete recovery. In this outbreak, cervical lymph nodes predominantly localized on the 1eft side were found, which had not been previously reported.

      • KCI등재

        A proposed image stitching method for web-based panoramic virtual reality for Hoseo Cyber Museum

        Irfan Khan(아르판 칸), Hong Song Soo(홍성수) 한국산학기술학회 2013 한국산학기술학회논문지 Vol.14 No.2

        파노라마 가상현실이란 특정 장소의 경험을 재현하는 방식으로, 현실 세계의 장소에 직접 가보지 않고 가상 현실 속의 사물이나 정보를 보다 쉽고 빠르게 탐색하고 습득 할 수 있다. 본 논문에서는, 우리는 이상적인 키 포인트 를 탐지하는 동적 프로그래밍을 사용하여 함께 이 지점과 인접한 이미지를 병합하고, 부드러운 색상 전환을 위해 이 미지를 혼합하는데 사용된다. FAST와 SURF 탐지는 이미지의 확실한 특징을 찾는데 사용되고, 가장 가까운 이웃 알 고리즘은 해당되는 특징을 일치시키는데 사용되며, RANSAC을 사용하여 일치하는 키 포인트를 homography로 판단한 다. 이러한 방법으로 이미지를 자동 선택하여 스티칭하는 방법을 사용한다. It is always a dream to recreate the experience of a particular place, the Panorama Virtual Reality has been interpreted as a kind of technology to create virtual environments and the ability to maneuver angle for and select the path of view in a dynamic scene. In this paper we examined an efficient method for Image registration and stitching of captured imaged. Two approaches are studied in this paper. First, dynamic programming is used to spot the ideal key points, match these points to merge adjacent images together, later image blending is used for smooth color transitions. In second approach, FAST and SURF detection are used to find distinct features in the images and nearest neighbor algorithm is used to match corresponding features, estimate homography with matched key points using RANSAC. The paper also covers the automatically choosing (recognizing, comparing) images to stitching method.

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