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Park, Dae Sung,Bae, In-Ho,Jeong, Myung Ho,Lim, Kyung Seob,Sim, Doo Sun,Hong, Young Joon,Lee, So-Youn,Jang, Eun Jae,Shim, Jae-Won,Park, Jun-Kyu,Lim, Han Chul,Kim, Han Byul Elsevier 2018 Materials Science and Engineering C Vol.91 No.-
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Inflammation and thrombosis are linked to the use of polymer-based drug-eluting stents (DES). The aim of this study was to develop a polymer-free everolimus (EVL)-eluting stent using nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB>) and verify its efficacy by <I>in vitro</I> and <I>in vivo</I> assessment in a porcine coronary model. Various analytical approaches such as scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, electron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and contact angle measurement were employed for the characterization. As a part of biocompatibility assessment, platelet adhesion and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation were examined. Bare metal stent (BMS), N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB> stent, everolimus-eluting N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB> (N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB>-EVL) stent, and commercialized EVL-eluting stent (EES) were randomly placed in forty coronary arteries in twenty pigs. After four weeks of implantation, the stents were subjected to histological and quantitative analysis. The N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB> film used in this study was well coated without any cracks or peeling. Surface hydrophilicity (88.8% of angle decrement) could be associated with the decrease in surface roughness post N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB> deposition (37.0%). The platelet adhesion on the N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB> surfaces was less than that on the BMS surface. The proliferation of SMC was suppressed in the N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB>-EVL group (30.2%) but not in the BMS group. In the animal study, the percent area restenosis was significantly decreased in the N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB>-EVL group compared to that in the BMS group. The results (BMS; 47.0 ± 11.00%, N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB>-EVL; 31.7 ± 10.50%, and EES; 29.1 ± 11.21%, <I>n</I> = 10, <I>p</I> < 0.05) were almost at par with those of the commercialized EVL-eluting stent. The introduction of N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB> deposition during fabrication of polymer-free DES may be an efficient accessorial process for preventing in-stent restenosis and thrombosis.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB> surfaces can help to reduce the platelet adhesion. </LI> <LI> In porcine model, N-TiO<SUB>2</SUB> everolimus decreased in-stent restenosis and fibrin deposition. </LI> </UL> </P>
The author investigated the correlation among physiological factors that could affect the hyperten-sive retinopathy as a line in the chain of basic investigation to prevent and manage the hypertensive disorders. The study group composed of 130 people with arteriosclerotic or hypertensive retinopathy and 260 healthy people. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Grade I was the most common in hypertensive retinopathy as 65.4%, and the distribution by age and sex showed that grade I in 50-59 year old group was the most common in male and female as 20.0% and 15.4%, respectively. 2. Grade I was the most common in arteriosclerotic retinopathy as 66.1%, and the distribution by age and sex showed that grade I in 50-59 year old group was the most common in male and female as 35.0% and 40.0%, respectively. 3. In the realtionship between hypertensive retinopathy and blood pressure, Grade I was the most common n the grade of 150-159㎜Hg, systolic blood pressure and 100-109㎜Hg, diastolic blood pressure as 22.3% and 33.8%, respectively. 4. In the case group, the level of serum cholesterol(211.26±47.53㎜g/㎗), serum triglyceride (184.05±93.3㎜Hg/㎗), low density lipoprotein(125.22±48.98㎜Hg/㎗), atherogenic index 1(3.67±1.85), and atherogenic index 2(2.86±1.64), were higher than those in the control group, however, only the level of high density lipoprotein(51.88±11.95㎜Hg/㎗) was lower. 5. The significant correlation to the grade of hypertensive and arteriosclerotic retinopathy were found in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. 6. The odds ratio between the case group and control group in serum lipid showed the significant difference in more than 200㎎/㎗ of total serum cholestrol and more than 190㎎/㎗ of serum triglyceride as 3.59 and 2.48, respectively. 7. The odds ratio between the case group and control group in atherogenic and obesity index showed the significant difference in more than 3.0 of atherogenic index 1 and more than 30% of obesity index as 2.40 and 3.67, respectively.
Background : The advances in surgical techniques and stabilizing devices have made the off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) popular, and good results have been published. We analyzed the early results of OPCAB performed in our hospital. Materials and Methods : Between January 2004 and December 2004, 23 patients underwent OPCAB. There were 14males and 9 females with mean age of 62.6± 10.3years. Preoperative diagnoses were unstable angina in 13(57%), acute myocardial infarction in 9(39%), and stable angina in 1(4%). Preoperative angiographic diagnoses were three-vessel disease in 12 (52%), two-vessel disease in 8(35%), one-vessel disease in 1(4%), and left main disease in 2(9%). Results : The mean number of grafts was 2.6 ±0.9 per patient. Vessels accessed were left anterior descending artery in 23, diagonal branch in 14, obtuse marginal branch in 9, right coronary artery in 12, and posterior descending artery in 1. Left internal mammary artery were used in 22 patients and bilateral internal mammary arteries were used in 1 patient. There was no operative mortality. Postoperative complications were cerebral vascular accident in 1, postoperative bleeding which required operative management in 2, arrhythmia including atrial fibrillation in 5, and minor operative wound problem in 1. Pre-discharge graft patency was evaluated in 11 patients. One internal mammary artery graft was occluded in 11 internal mammary artery graft evaluated. The patency rate was 91%. Seventeen saphenous vein grafts were patent in 19 saphenous vein grafts and the patency rate was 89%. Conclusion : Our result of OPCAB is promising and OPCAB is suggested to be the ideal technique with less morbidity and mortality.
Purpose The purpose of the study was to identify how informed consent is conceptualized by patients, family members, physicians, and nurses in Korea, and to develop guidelines for clinical practice in Korea. Methods This study employed the hybrid model to define the concept of informed consent through theoretical and fieldwork phases. For the theoretical phase, attributes of informed consent were identified through a review of the literature, and in-depth interviews were conducted for the fieldwork phase to develop attributes from the data and to verify the attributes identified from the literature review. Purposive sampling was done for 48 participants (12 patients, 12 family members, 12 physicians, 12 nurses), who were interviewed from selected units (orthopedics, cardiothoracic surgery, obstetrics/gynecology) from two university hospitals in Seoul and Kwangju, Korea. Attributes and processing issues of informed consent were extracted from both phases. Results Core attributes of informed consent include the patient’s self-directed decision-making, fulfillment of legal responsibility, focusing on forging a trusting relationship, assuming active responsibility for explanations (physicians) and granting consent (patient), factors related to sufficient explanation, and the role of family. Findings were integrated into a set of guidelines for patients and family and health care professionals. Conclusion The guidelines developed in the present study offer empirical parameters for an effective process of obtaining informed consent in Korea by seeking to decrease the gap in perceptions of informed consent among patients, family members, physicians, and nurses. The importance of advocating patients and developing a trusting relationship between health care providers and patients is especially noteworthy. [Asian Nursing Research 2008;2(2):102–112] Purpose The purpose of the study was to identify how informed consent is conceptualized by patients, family members, physicians, and nurses in Korea, and to develop guidelines for clinical practice in Korea. Methods This study employed the hybrid model to define the concept of informed consent through theoretical and fieldwork phases. For the theoretical phase, attributes of informed consent were identified through a review of the literature, and in-depth interviews were conducted for the fieldwork phase to develop attributes from the data and to verify the attributes identified from the literature review. Purposive sampling was done for 48 participants (12 patients, 12 family members, 12 physicians, 12 nurses), who were interviewed from selected units (orthopedics, cardiothoracic surgery, obstetrics/gynecology) from two university hospitals in Seoul and Kwangju, Korea. Attributes and processing issues of informed consent were extracted from both phases. Results Core attributes of informed consent include the patient’s self-directed decision-making, fulfillment of legal responsibility, focusing on forging a trusting relationship, assuming active responsibility for explanations (physicians) and granting consent (patient), factors related to sufficient explanation, and the role of family. Findings were integrated into a set of guidelines for patients and family and health care professionals. Conclusion The guidelines developed in the present study offer empirical parameters for an effective process of obtaining informed consent in Korea by seeking to decrease the gap in perceptions of informed consent among patients, family members, physicians, and nurses. The importance of advocating patients and developing a trusting relationship between health care providers and patients is especially noteworthy. [Asian Nursing Research 2008;2(2):102–112]
Since the 1990s, the electronics industry has experienced a rapid crossover from analogue to digital technologies. Digital wireless telecom was first introduced in Europe in 1992, and has rapidly replaced its analogue predecessor. Digitalization greatly improved the quality of telecom services, and the standardization enabled mass production of handsets. As a result, the number of mobile telecom subscribers in the world has skyrocketed 500 thousand in 1992 to 1.1 billion at end of 2002. Korea also witnessed a surge in subscribers from 40 thousand to 32 million during the same period. China has the largest number of mobile phone-users in the world. and Foreign Firms are localizing their products in China as they strive for as greater share of the world's largest mobile phone market. Sooner or later China's phone market will face oversupply. The over production will lead to a price war and push many companies out of the market altogether. This paper will suggest entry strateiges to China's mobile handset market. The large companies, for example Samsung and LG, have to choose the skimming pricing policy through developing new high-tech products. It is important that the medium and small companies have a price competition through the alliance with excellent domestic parts production firms. World mobile phone market has been rapidly growing due largely to the increase of mobile phone users and the revolution of communication technology. However, in 2001, the economic recession of the United States, the largest importer of mobile phone, with the slow down of world IT industry and the postponement of 3G services has happened and they caused the shrinking of the market and the fall of growth rate. During the last several years, South Korea's export of mobile phone has been remarkably growing and become its seond largest export item ahead automobile. In particular, China, which is South Korea's strong competitor in this sector, now has the largest mobile phone users in the world and marks the highest growth in mobile phone services. Moreover, it is the largest producer of mobile phone in the world. In this sense, China has a Janus faced aspect. It is our export market as well as our production base of mobile phone. On the other hand, our mobile phone producers have to compete vehemently with Chinese local mobile phone producers. The importance of Chinese market has been increasingly growing and since 2003 china has become the largest export market. Among the export items to china, telecom equipments amounts to 17 percent of the total export. In particular, due largely to the abolition of subsidy applied to mobile phone in the Korean domestic market and the decrease of new mobile phone subscribers, Korean mobile phone makers step up their efforts to export to China. However, recently, some 67 percent of Chinese market has been occupied by its local mobile phone makers, which have done business very aggresively. The Chinese government also has supported its local producers, giving them a lot of incentives. This leads to a fierce fighting between Korean mobile phone producers who try to keep the market and Chinese local producers who have strong marketing capabilities. In order for our mobile phone producers to succeed continuously in Chinese market, we have to deeply consider two things. One is that we have to consider the scale of company. For instance, big companies like Samsung Electronics and LG Electronics have to focus on the development of new items, especially expensive ones. In particular, Samsung has to prepare for the lineup for GSM phone and increase its brend power. It has to transform from cheap and reasonable market to expensive market. Moreover, it has to jump on the new market of network equipments. Small and medium companies have to focus on acquiring price competitiveness. In addition to this, they have to cooperate with Korean local part makers and produce reasonable price items with good quality.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in psychological and physiological factors between groups by classifying groups based on the 3km running record of fourth grade Air Force Academy cadets. Among the top 46 Air Force Academy cadets who wanted to participate in the study, the study conducted an open survey of the top 13 and the bottom 15 who wanted to provide the data prior to the study. The subjects of the experiment and in-depth interview were studied by a total of 18 people, 9 of each upper and lower members who wished to participate in the study. Psychological factors were structured through inductive content analysis of data extracted from in-depth interviews, and physiological factors were conducted to verify differences between groups of body composition and cardiopulmonary function. The psychological factors of the upper and lower groups were found to be general areas of performance strategy, achievement motivation, emotional response, military spirit, situation perception, and basic physical strength. In the detailed areas, the subjects were also examined in 15 areas including physical fitness indicators, confidence, condition control, task orientation, and positive self-perception. As a result of comparison between upper and lower groups, the upper group was 2.2 times higher than the lower group and the lower group was 1.7 times higher than the upper group in the military spirit and performance strategy of the general area response rate. In general area response, the ratio of mental strength and confidence was different in the general area of military spirit. In addition, the upper group in the achievement motivation showed a high percentage of task tendency at 47%, while the lower group showed a high rate of zero motivation at 50%. In the emotional response, the upper group showed an equal ratio, while the lower group showed an 81% ratio of negative emotions. In the overall response by sub-region, the negative emotions of the subgroup were high at 28%. In the body composition, BFM showed a statistically significant difference between upper and lower groups, and Weight, FFM, and SMM did not show any significant difference between groups. In cardiopulmonary capacity, VO2max showed a statistically significant difference between upper and lower groups, and VE and LT did not show significant differences between groups.
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1984년 2월 27일 현재 전국 정신과 병·의원의 입원환자를 대상으로 일일시정조사를 시행하였다. 자료분석 때까지 도착한 자료중 ICD-9의 진단기준에 의하여 정신질환의 범주에 속하는 2,895명을 1:1 쌍쌍대응법으로 분석하여 거주지별로 정신분열병군과 대조군간의 사회경제적 특성을 비교하였다. 분석결과는 다음과 같았다. 1. 정신분열병환자의 결혼상태는 두 지역 모두에서 독신이 많았고 odd ratio는 각각 5.33과 3.56이었다. 농ㆍ어촌의 정신분열병환자가 독신이 더 많았다. 2. 교육수준은 양 군에서 뚜렷한 차이는 없었다. 3. 직업은 도시의 정신분열병환자에서 무직이 많았고 odd ratio는 1.90이었다. 4. 경제수준은 도시의 정신분열병환자에서 낮은 층이 많았고 odd ratio는 1.65이었다. 5. 그외 가족구조와 종교, 부모의 결혼상태에서는 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. Aiming at suggestion the possible ways to improve psychiatric care, rehabilitation, and mental health services in Korea, this nation-wide hospital study was intended to explore the socioeconomical status of mental in-patients. This point prevalence study was conducted to patients who were in psychiatric wards at Feb. 27th. 1984 using mailing questionnaire. The number of hospitals and clinics answered was 88 and the patients, 3,300. Among them, we selected the 2,895 patients who were included in mental disorders (290-319) by ICD-9. Finally we compared the socioeconomical status between schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia in rural and urban area with the method of Fleiss. The results were as follows; 1. The relative proportions of single persons in schizophrenia were higher in both areas, and their odds ratios were 5.33 and 3.56, respectively. There were more single schizophrenics in rural than urban. 2. In educational levels, there were no significant differences between schizophrenia and control. 3. In urban area, the jobless persons were more in schizophrenia than control, and its odd ratio was 1.90. 4. The urban schizophrenics were significantly lower than the urban control in economical levels, and its odd ratio was 1.65. 5. About family structure, religion, and marital status of parents, there were no significant differences between schizophrenia and control.
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뇌영상검사상 국소적인 병변을 보이지 않는 경도 외상성 두뇌손상환자를 대상으로 한 신경인지기능검시에서 인지기능결함이 보고되고 있으며 이에 대하여 객관적인 인지기능장애 평가도구가 요구돼 왔다. 본 연구에서는 외상성 두뇌손상환자들을 대상으로 뇌 영상검사를 시행하여 국소적인 병변의 유무에 따라 병변군과 비병변군으로 분류하였으며, 이와 동시에 신경인지기능검사를 시행하여 병변의 유무에 따른 Bender-Gestalt Test, 표준도형검사, 인식력검사. 신호탐지검사 결과를 비교해 보았다. 또한 KWIS 지능지수와 표준도형검사 지능지수간의 상관관계를 조사하여 지능검사도구로 표준도형검사의 유용성을 알아보고자 하였다. 외상성 두뇌손상환자집단의 신경인지기능검사 결과는 다음과 같았다. 1) 신경정신과적 주요 증상 비교에서 병변군은 인지장애 호소가 맡았으며. 비병변군은 신체장애 호소가 많았다. 2) BGT 전체수행오류는 병변군이 비병변군보다 많았다. 3) KWIS 지능검사상 병변군과 비병변군간의 차이는 없었다. 4) 표준도형검사 소항목 검사결과 병변군은 정상대조군이나 비병변군에 비하여 난이도가 높을수록 수행이 낮았다. 5) 인식력검사 결과 병변군은 정상대조군보다 수행이 낮았다. 6) 외상성 두뇌손상환자집단에서 표준도형검사 지능지수는 KWIS 지능지수와 r=0.67의 높은 상관관계를 보였다. . 이와 같은 결과로 외상성 두뇌손상환자 중 병변군은 공간구성능력, 미세운동협응능력. 형태기억능력, 반응속도에서 장애를 보임을 알 수 있었다. 통계적인 의미는 없었으나 인식력검사결과에서 비병변군은 정상대조군과는 다른 반응 경향을 나타내고 있었다. 인식력검사상 비병변군의 이러한 차이는 비병변군이 신체장애를 주로 호소하였고. 경도 외상성 두뇌손상에서 보상과 같은 심리적 요인들이 증상의 유지에 기여할 수 있다는 보고를 고려할 때. 신경인지기능검사의 임상적,인 해석에 주의를 요하고 있다. 그리고 외상성 두뇌손상환자에서 표준도형검사 지능지수와 KWIS 지능지수는 정상대조군보다 높은 상관관계를 보여 표준도형검사는 두뇌손상환자와 같이 지적능력이 저하된 진단에서 KWIS 지능검사를 보완할 수 있는 유용한 지능검사로 임상상황에서 경제적이고 객관적인 지능검사 도구가 될 수 있음을 알 수 있었다. Irrespective of focal lesion in brain imaging study, the deficits in cognitive function have been reported in mild traumatic brain injury patients. Therefore, they have been asked sensitive and objective assessment tools measuring cognitive deficits. In this study, traumatic brain injury patients were classified into lesion group and non-lesion group by presence of focal lesion in brain imaging study At the same time, Results of Bender-Gestalt test, Standard Progressive Matrices, Cognitrone, and Signal Detection were analyzed among the groups. We assessed usefulness of Standard Progressive Matrices as assessment tool of intelligence in traumatic brain injury patients by correlation coefficients between KWIS and Standard Professive Matrices intelligence quotients. 1) Most lesion group showed severe deficits in cognitive function, and most non-lesion group showed severe somatic symptoms. 2) The lesion group showed higher Bender-Gestalt test total error score than non-lesion group. 3) There was no difference in KWIS intelligence quotients between lesion and non-lesion group. 4) The lesion group showed lower performance than normal control and non-lesion group as increasing complexity of Standard Progressive Matrices subset. 5) The lesion group showed poor performance than normal control group in Cognitrone. 6) There were higher correlation coefficients than normal control group between Standard Progressive Matrices intelligence quotients and KWIS intelligence quotients in traumatic brain injury patients. According to the above results, lesion group showed deficits in space-construction ability, fine-motor coordination ability, form-memory ability, and delayed response-time. Although there are no statistical significance, comparing with normal control group, non-lesion group showed different response-trend in Cognitrone. Considering somatic symptoms in most nonlesion group and contribution of psychological factors in maintenance of symptoms in mild traumatic brain injury patients, the differences in Cognitrone must be interpreted carefully. These result suggest than Standard Professive Matrices can be a useful tool for assessment of intelligence in traumatic brain injury patients who showed deficits in cognitive function.
Purpose: In 2000, the American Heart Association and International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation published guidelines for CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation), and these guidelines were revised in 2005. Many physicians perform CPR differently than suggested by these guidelines. We investigated guideline conformation rates for CPR by non-emergency physicians. Methods: From January 1st, 2005, to December 31st, 2005, and from January 1st, 2007, to September 30th, 2007, 103 in-hospital CPR cases were enrolled. We separated the 103 cases into two groups: 2005 patients and 2007 patients. Fifty-two cases in the 2005 group and 51 cases in the 2007 group were enrolled. The defibrillation method, defibrillation energy, epinephrine use, and atropine use were analyzed. Results: Nineteen cases (82.6%) in the 2005 group and three cases (21.4%) in the 2007 group were performed using the appropriate defibrillation method (p=0.0002). Seventeen cases (73.9%) in the 2005 group and four cases (28.6%) in the 2007 group received the appropriate defibrillation energy (p=0.0069). Seven cases (14.0%) in the 2005 group and 16 cases (32.0%) in the 2007 group used the appropriate epinephrine dose (p=0.0325). Fourteen cases (28.0%) in the 2005 patient group and 14 cases (29.2%) in the 2007 patient group used the appropriate atropine dose (p=0.8983). Conclusion: Although CPR guidelines were renewed in 2005, many physicians do not follow these guidelines. We suggest that adequate information, education, feedback, and further study are needed for guideline conformation.