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In this thesis, we argue that pronominalixation in English preposed advervials can best be described and explained in pragmatic rather than purely structural terms. We refer to a pragmatic(discourse-based) property-dominance-which is defined by Erteschik-Shir(1973). We then state our hypothesis concerning pronominalization in English preposed adverbials which we formulate in terms of the notion of dominance. A considerable amount of attention has been devoted by linguists to the problem of characterizing and explaining pronominalization phenomena in English and especially a number of purely syntactic pro-posals have been put forward since Lees and Klima(1963). What is com-mon to the theories suggested by Ross, Langacker, Chomsky, and others is that they seek to treat pronominalization as essentially structural phenomena, in fact, which are defined by the syntactic constraints. However, the purely syntactic approach is not only insufficient to explain pronominalization in English preposed adverbials, but lacking in capturing an important pragmatic function of English preposed adver-bials. In part 2, we critically review purely syntactic theories and discuss some problems under analysis. In the third section, the functional con-straint suggested by Kuno are discussed. Finally, we show that our hypothesis allows us to account for all problematic data which are discuss-ed in the previous sections. In this thesis, it is our belief that English preposed adverbials repre-sent an important pramatic function and that a pragmatic approach is preferable to purely syntactic of Kuno's sense of functional approach in describing pronominalization in English.
KIM,,BYUNG-SOO,JEONG,,SUNG,IN,CHO,,SEUNG-WOO,NIKOLOVSKI,,JANETA,MOONEY,,DAVID,J.,LEE,,SOO,HONG,JEON,,OJU,KIM,,TAE,WAN,LIM,,SANG,HYUN,HONG,,YOO,SUN,CHOI,,CHA,YONG,LEE,,YOUNG,MOO,KIM,,SOO,HYUN,KIM,,YOUN 한국미생물 · 생명공학회 2003 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.13 No.6
In order for engineered tissues to find clinical utility, the engineered tissues must function appropriately. However, smooth muscle (SM) tissues engineered in vitro with a conventional tissue engineering technique may not exhibit contractile functions, because smooth muscle cells (SMCs) cultured in vitro typically revert from a contractile, differentiated phenotype to a synthetic, nondifferentiated phenotype and lose their ability to contract. SMCs in vivo typically reside in mechanically dynamic environments. We hypothesized that cyclic mechanical stretch induces the features of SMCs in in vifro engineered tissues to be similar to those of SMCs in native tissues. To test the hypothesis, aortic SMCs were seeded onto elastic, three-dimensional scaffolds and cultured in vitm under a cyclic mechanical stretching condition for 4 weeks. A significant cell alignment in a direction parallel to the cyclic stretching direction was found in the SM tissues exposed to cyclic stretching. The cellular alignment and alignment direction were consistent with those of native vascular SM tissues, in which SMCs in vivo align in the radial direction (parallel to stretching direction). In control tissues (SM tissues engineered without stretching), cells randomly aligned. The expression of SM a-actin and SM myosin heavy chain, phenotypic markers of SMCs in a contractile state, was upregulated in the stretched tissues by 2.5- and 2.0-fold, respectively, compared to SMCs in the control tissues. The cellular features of alignment and contractile phenotype of SMCs in the SM tissues engineered under a mechanically dynamic environment could allow the engineered SM tissues to exhibit contractile functions.
This paper aims at investigating what Regional University E-Learning Centers (RUECs) has done in promoting e-learning in university education in Korea. First, the e-learning situation in university education in Korea is introduced. Secondly, the background of establishment of RUECs and its functions are explained in detail. Thirdly, a case of RUECs is suggested by using the CNU-University E-Learning Center. In particular, the performance of e-learning is evaluated based on the student satisfaction data, and a paired-t test is implemented to see if there was any difference between ‘before' and ‘after' e-learning. Lastly, some suggestions are made to promote the e-learning in university education.
In the children end stage renal disease (ESRD), the kidney transplantation is the best mode of renal replacement therapy. It is well known that at all ages pediatric kidney transplantation recipients have better survival then do dialysis patients of the same age. Children and adolescents are differ from adults in that they arc growing and developing. So, there are unique factors in technical, metabolic, immunologic and physiologic aspects comparing to adult patients. We reviewed our experiences of children and adolescents kidney transplantations in the Kangnam St. Mary`s HospitaI, Catholic University Medical College (CUMC) by retrospective each patients medical record study. The results were as follows. Total 17 KT`s were done in children and adolescents between Sept. 79` and Nov. 95. The age distribution of the patients was ranged from 10 to 18 years old. The most common age group was 16 -18 years old (11 person). The original kidney disease was primary glomerulopathy in most cases, which were 7 chronic glomerulonephritis, I membrano -proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), l Lupus nephritis, 1 Henoch Schonlein nephritis, and 1 Alports syndrome. The l year and 5 year graft survival were l00% (l7/17), 67% (6/9) and the patient`s 5 years and 10 years survival rate were l00% (16/16), 93.8% (15/l6), respectively. The immunosuppressants consisted of Azathioprine and steroid before introduction of cyclosporine (CyA) in l984 and then changed to CyA + steroid or CyA + steroid + azathioprine triple therapy, We had experienced 5 acute rejections, 5 chronic rejections in 7 patients, 3 herpes infections, 2 pneumonia, 2 viral hepatitis, 1 Tbc peritonitis, during follow up period. Interestingly, we had psychiatric problems in two patients, aged l7 and 18, who showed non-compliance in taking immunosuppressant. There was no surgical complications. The weight gain after KT`s was over 140% in our patient. Wc found that the KT`s in children and adolescents were the favorable treatment modality in the management of children and adolescents with ESRD in aspect of growth and development. But we had limited data about growth and development after transplantation, further clinical study should be followed.
This study reviews concepts and episodes of cottages as an alternative housing choice for older adult. In old times, the cottage presented a poorly constructed housing units. In modern usage, a cottage is usually a modest, often cosy dwelling, typically in a rural or semi-rural location. However there are cottage-style dwellings in cities, and in places such as Canada the term exists with no connotations of size at all (cf. vicarage or hermitage). Later on, "cottage" might also have denoted a smallholding comprising houses, outbuildings, and supporting farmland or woods. A cottage, in this sense, would typically include just a few acres of tilled land. Regional examples of this type included the Welsh Ty unnos or House in a night, built by squatters on a plot of land defined by the throw of an axe from each corner of the property. there are a number of ways we can live in cottage and start new adult life styles. Thus, the cottage is the final solution to monotonous expensive early retirement lives in metropolitan traditional lives. Overall, the cottages are mobile dwelling units offering leisure activity and reduced life costs in early retirement.
( Soo Yong Park ), ( Min Young Rim ), ( In Ku Yo ), ( Min Su Ha Ju ), ( Seung Kim ), ( Ju Won Lee ), ( Young Kul Jung ), ( Oh Sang Kwon ), ( Yun Soo Kim ), ( Duck Joo Choi ), ( Ju Hyun Kim ) 대한간학회 2012 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2012 No.1
Background: Combination therapy that includes both peginterferon and ribavirin is currently the worldwide standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Different therapeutic effects depending on different race have been reported, however, we do not yet have a big study conducted in Korea that could be used to compare with other country or race. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect the studies that have been recently reported in Korea in order to analyze the therapeutic effect and compare it to that of other races from countries in Asia, Europe, and United States of America. Methods: Using PubMed and KoreaMed, papers published from 2006 to 2011 in Korea were searched and the papers were related to the therapeutic effect of combination therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin in patients with CHC in Korea. Eleven papers were selected for pooled analysis. The data from other part of Asia and western countries were searched through Pubmed and sixteen papers were selected for pooled analysis and comparison with Korean data. Results: The analysis for genotype 1 CHC in Korea showed that early virologic response (EVR), end of treatment response (ETR), sustained virologic response (SVR) were found to be 79.6% (125/157), 80.1% (166/207), and 62.7% (341/543) respectively. EVR, ETR, and SVR for genotype 2 and 3 were 89.4% (119/133), 92.2% (203/220), and 84.1% (434/516) respectively. In the Other asian countries data showed that EVR and SVR for genotype 1 were 51.3% (1981/3860) and 42.4% (1798/4231) respectively and 87.7% (350/399), and 77.8% (533/685) for genotype 2 and 3. In case of European and Caucasian, EVR and SVR for genotype 1 were 51.3% (1981/3860) and 42.4% (1798/4231) respectively, and that of genotype 2 and 3 were 87.7% (350/399) and 77.8% (533/685) respectively. Comparing between Korean data and the data of other races, there was no statistical difference in SVR of standard therapy for CHC (p=0.508), however, SVR of Koreans were higher than that of either Caucasians or Europeans (p≤ 0.001). On the other hand, there was no difference in SVR for genotype 2 CHC according to different races. Conclusions: SVR of combination therapy for the Korean CHC patients was similar to that of other Asian race but higher than that of European or Caucasian race. Therefore, Koreans respond well to combination therapy and this is thought to have its reason in genetic factor.
본 연구에서는 GPS/INS 항공사진측량 기술을 이용하여 1/1,000 수준의 대축척 수치지형도를 제작하고 전통적인 항공사진측량과의 차이점, 즉 정확도, 경제성 등을 평가하여 GPS/INS 항측의 효율성을 평가하였다. 연구결과, 지상기준점측량 공정에서 약 40%의 작업량 절감효과가 발생한 것으로 나타났으며, 작업지역의 크기에 따른 작업효율성은 1/5,000 항측의 경우 전통적인 방법과 동일한 정확도를 유지하는 것을 기준으로 할 때 대략 10모델과 20모델블록에서는 55%, 30모델 블록의 경우 60%의 지상기준점이 감소함을 확인하였다. In this study, it was estimated efficiency of GPS/INS photogrammetry by comparison of accuracy and economical efficiency between conventional aerial triangulation and GPS/INS aerial triangulation at the base of large scale digital mapping using GPS/INS aerial survey. The results of aerial triangulation with GPS/INS showed that 40% of working amount was reduced in the process of ground control point survey compared to conventional aerial triangulation. In case of 1/5000 scale aerial triangulation, the results showed that 55% GCP work was reduced in 10 and 20 block size, and 60% GCP work was reduced in 30 block size, under the assumption of keeping the same accuracy.
( Soo In Choi ), ( Joo Hee Son ), ( Nayoung Kim ), ( Yong Sung Kim ), ( Ryoung Hee Nam ), ( Ji Hyun Park ), ( Chin-hee Song ), ( Jeong Eun Yu ), ( Dong Ho Lee ), ( Kichul Yoon ), ( Huitae Min ), ( Yeon-ran Kim ) 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회(구 대한소화관운동학회) 2021 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.27 No.1
Background/Aims The gut microbiota regulates intestinal immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Multiple factors affect the gut microbiota, including age, sex, diet, and use of drugs. In addition, information on gut microbiota differs depending on the samples. The aim of this study is to investigate whether changes in cecal microbiota depend on aging. Methods Gut microbiota in cecal contents of 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old and 2-year-old male Fischer-344 rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans in terms of age) were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA metagenome sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology. Moreover, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level in cecum and inflammation related factors were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results Alpha and beta diversity did not change significantly with age. At the family level, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, which produce SCFAs, showed significant change in 31-week-old rats: Lachnospiraceae significantly increased at 31 weeks of age, compared to other age groups, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. Butyrate levels in cecum were significantly increased in 31-week-old rats, and the expression of inflammation related genes was increased followed aging. Especially, EU622775_s and EU622773_s, which were highly abundance species in 31-week-old rats, showed significant relationship with butyrate concentration. Enzymes required for producing butyrate―acetyl-CoA transferase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and butyrate kinase―were not predicted by PICRUSt. Conclusions Major bacterial taxa in the cecal lumen, such as Lachnospiraceae, well-known SCFAs-producing family, changed in 31-week-old rats. Moreover, unknown species EU622775_s and EU622773_s showed strong association with cecal butyrate level at 31 weeks of age. (J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021;27:134-146)
We examined long-term variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and annual amplitudes of SST around the Korean Peninsula. Two SST data sets with data periods of approximately 51 years and longer than 100 years, respectively, were obtained from the National Institute of Fisheries Science and Japan Meteorological Agency. SST of Korean waters clearly increased during last 51 years (1968-2018), which was 2.5 times higher than the global trend. This significant increasing trend was caused by the dominant increasing SST trend during winter. However, a negative and positive SST anomaly frequently appeared during winter and summer, respectively, in a recent decade. These features of seasonal SST variation have changed the annual amplitude of SST, and resulted in a drastically increasing trend after 2009. Using the longer SST data set, it was revealed that the decreasing SST trend in winter began in the 2000s and the increasing SST trend in summer bagan in the 1990s. During a recent decade, there was a distinctive SST increase in summer, whereas a clear decrease in winter. In summary, the annual amplitude of SST around the Korean Peninsula significantly changed from a decreasing trend to an increasing trend during a recent decade.
Background The extended latissimus dorsi flap is important for breast reconstruction. Unfortunately, donor site seroma is the most common complication of extended latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction. Although using fibrin sealant in the donor site reduces the rate of seroma formation, donor site seroma remains a troublesome complication. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the combination of quilting sutures and fibrin sealant in the latissimus dorsi donor site for the prevention of seroma. Methods Forty-six patients who underwent breast reconstruction with extended latissimus flap were enrolled in the study. The patients received either fibrin sealant (group 1, n=25) or a combination of fibrin sealant and quilting sutures (group 2, n=21) in the extended latissimus dorsi donor site. Outcome measures were obtained from the incidence, volume of postoperative seroma, total drainage amount, indwelling period of drainage, and duration of hospital stay. Results The incidence of seroma was 76% in group 1 and 42.9% in group 2 (P=0.022). We also found significant reductions in seroma volume (P=0.043), total drainage amount (P=0.002),indwelling period of drainage (P=0.01), and frequency of aspiration (P=0.043). The quilting sutures did not affect the rate of drainage, tube reinsertion, or hospital stay. Conclusions The use of quilting sutures combined with fibrin sealant on the latissimus dorsi flap donor site is helpful for reducing the overall seroma volume, frequency of aspiration, and total drainage amount. Background The extended latissimus dorsi flap is important for breast reconstruction. Unfortunately, donor site seroma is the most common complication of extended latissimus dorsi flap for breast reconstruction. Although using fibrin sealant in the donor site reduces the rate of seroma formation, donor site seroma remains a troublesome complication. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the combination of quilting sutures and fibrin sealant in the latissimus dorsi donor site for the prevention of seroma. Methods Forty-six patients who underwent breast reconstruction with extended latissimus flap were enrolled in the study. The patients received either fibrin sealant (group 1, n=25) or a combination of fibrin sealant and quilting sutures (group 2, n=21) in the extended latissimus dorsi donor site. Outcome measures were obtained from the incidence, volume of postoperative seroma, total drainage amount, indwelling period of drainage, and duration of hospital stay. Results The incidence of seroma was 76% in group 1 and 42.9% in group 2 (P=0.022). We also found significant reductions in seroma volume (P=0.043), total drainage amount (P=0.002),indwelling period of drainage (P=0.01), and frequency of aspiration (P=0.043). The quilting sutures did not affect the rate of drainage, tube reinsertion, or hospital stay. Conclusions The use of quilting sutures combined with fibrin sealant on the latissimus dorsi flap donor site is helpful for reducing the overall seroma volume, frequency of aspiration, and total drainage amount.