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Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the relation between recognized risk, consumer knowledge and purchase intention when extention brand of sports products was made according to self image congruity of sports product parent brand image. Method: For this purpose, the population was selected among people in their 20s and 30s in Seoul and Gyeonggi area who purchased and used sports specialized brand products, 511 questionnaire survey sheets were distributed using purposeful sampling. As for questionnaire survey, self-adminstration method was employed, in which the researcher explained details of questionnaire survey to the participants sufficiently in advance and obtained cooperation and permission, The researcher distributed survey sheets directly and collected them right after the completion. Among the collected questionnaire survey sheets, low reliable data auch as double filling-up, non-filling-up or data with consecutive same answers were excluded for an analysis. The answers were codified according to the coding instruction in the questionnaire survey to input in the computer individually. After data cleaning process, the data was analyzed using SPSS/WIN Program. For a specific data processing method, frequency analysis, exploratory analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency reliability, structural equation model, t-test, one-way ANOVA and correlation analysis were carried out. Duncan post-test was excuted as a post-test Result: The results are as following; Firstly, as results of difference analysis on parent brand image according to demographical characteristics, self image congruity, attitude toward extension brand and purchase intention, there was no significant difference in purchase by sex. There was no significant difference in purchase intention, ideal self image congruity and perceived risk by age. There were significant differences in actual self image congruity, idal self image congruity, consumer perception and purchase intention by educational level, but there was no significant difference in perceived risk. There were significant differences in actual self image congruity, comsumer knowledge and purchase intention by occupation. There were significant differences in actual self image congruity, consumer konwledge and purchase intention by monthily income. There were significant differences in other factors except for purchase intention by the marital status. Secondly, after correlation analysis between self image congruity of sports product parent brand image, attitude toward extension brand and purchase intention and goodness of fit of research model, the correlation coefficient values as a result of structural equation model analysis and test of hypothesis were ranged between minimum .171 and maximum .500. Accordingly, as there was no variable that had higher correlation with over .8, it seems not inappropriate to verify the theoretically predetrmined model. Conclusion: The purpose of this project is to elucidate the effects of sports product parent brand image and the self image congruity on both the attitude of extension brand and consumer`s intention to purchase the product. By clarifying such effects, this work focuses on how self image congruity of the parent brand image(whether realistic or ideal) affects the consumer`s decision to purchase the extension brand. Finally, implications of the obtained result is discussed.
In order to evaluate the possible role of lisuride as an alternative to bromocriptine therapy for hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea and infertility, we performed a prospective, comparative study in 62 patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or with prolactin-secreting pituitary tumor. The patients were allocated randomly into two groups, each consisting of 31 patients: by the double-blind procedure, one group received lisuride for 24weeks or until she was pregnant whereas the other was treated with bromocriptine. By this treatment, serum prolactin levels were normalized in twenty-two (71%) of 31 patients in the lisuride group and twenty-four (77%) of 31 patients in the bromocriptine group. Restoration of menses was achieved in eleven (65%) of 17 patients within 14.0±2.4 weeks [±SEM] in the lesuride group (final dosage, 0.41±0.05 mg/d) and in thirteen (65%) of 20 patients within 12.0±2.1 weeks in the bromocriptine group (final dosage, 5.13±0.50 mg/d). And, pregnancies were confirmed in ten (72%) of 14 pat within 11.6±1.9 weeks in the lisuride group (final dosage, 0.35±0.06 mg/d) and in nine (82%) of 11 patients within 11.6±1.6 weeks in the bromocriptine group (final dosafe, 4.50±0.88 mg/d). Side effects, consisting of nausea, drowsiness, headache, vomiting, indigestion, constipation, fatigue, and abdominal cramping, occurred in 18 patients (58%) treated with lisuride and in 17 patients (55%) treated with bromocriptine. And, 3 patients (10%) in the lisuride group and three (10%) in the bromocriptine group stopped medication for this reason. These were no significant differences between the lisuride group and the bromocriptine group in the effect of each dopamine agonist on the restoration of menstruation and fertility or its incidence of side effects. These results indicate that lisuride and bromocriptine are comparable in efficacy and side effects. (J Kor Soc Endocrinol 7:8~15, 1992)
This study was performed to investigate the degree of demand and general features of services required of home visiting physical therapy for chronic ill patients. The study subjects were ambulatory and admitted patients treated with physical therapy at six general and one oriental hospitals, one welfare center, four health centers located in Taejon from March 2, 1999 to March 16. Authors developed structured questionnaire, and distributed it to each physical therapist of study organizations. Total number of distributed questionnaire was 500, and 405 questionnaire were collected and analysed finally. 1. 82.4% of patients and 90.0% of caregivers are showed that home visiting physical therapy was needed(P$lt;0.05) 2. The rate of necessity for home visiting physical therapy by kinds of disease was 94.9% in cerebral palsy, 95.0% in upper spinal cord injury, 83.3% in lower spinal cord injury, 84.5% in cerebral vascular accident, 89.6% in traumatic brain injury, 83.5% in other diseases. 3. In the general features of required service for home visiting physical therapy, 33.7% of patients and 34.4% of caregivers want special isolated physical therapy center, 33.1% of patients and 43.3% of caregivers want 3 times per week in frequency, 46.7% of patients and 45.0% of caregivers want 30-60minutes in treatment duration, and 48.0% of patients and 46.7% of caregivers want more intensive care than general hospitals. 4. In the working place of home visiting physical therapy, 36.1% of patients and 36.2% of caregivers wants physical therapist worked in general hospital. Also, 53.3% of Patients and 52.2% of caregivers answered no interested in physical therapist's gender. The most preferential age of home visiting physical therapist is thirties in 43.2% of patients and 63.4% in caregivers
The system of Kaengsaingboho is the prevention of crime and delinguency, especially the prevention of repetition of an offense, by the excution of probation and prisoner's aid on whom is out of the prison and has some possibility to offense. This is the same system of Anglo-America probation system plus its prisoner's Aid system. Originally in Anglo-America, this has developed from the correction and rehabilitation process for offender in the free society with the effective enforcenment of a kind of probation and parole, the conditional suspension of criminal punishment. Since 1943, Korean authority had carried out passively Japanese Prisoner's Protecton Act enacted in 1939. Since 1961, we have carried out this promulgated Act in 1963. Its aim is to decrease an injurious effect of a short-term confinable purnishment(Frei- heitsstrafe), to reduce accomodation capacity in the correction board and juvnile reform school, to increase economically advantages in criminal administration, to utilize effectively resources in society for anti-criminal struggle(Psychiastric hospital, vocational guidance, church and social welfare institution), to establish the basement to enable anticriminal struggle in the free society. Foreign countries have taken this system to meet the rapid raise in the crimiinal rate, especially the recividism in recently criminal phenomenon. Also Korea has suffered the increasement of offenders and the aggravation of the criminal quality, derived from socio-pathology resulted from hurried modernization. Though this asks to reform and enforce the one kind of punishment system; the Kaengsaingboho, it is very passive and formal in pratice. This operation is often harmful. In order to produce effect, it needs to reform this system as follow: First, in the nowadays Korean adopted voluntary probation and prisoner's aid system, in which civil organization excutives by itself according to discharged prisoner's demand. But Korea must adopts the authorized probation and prisoner's aid system as foreign countries: England, U.S.A., Japan, has been adopting conditional parole and reprive system (mainly authoried probation system). Second, financial stringency brings serious embarassment to the operation of Kaengsaingboho system. In 1973, the total income is ￦87,157,900 which consists of national aid's 22,615,000, properties' income ￦34,008,800 and business' income ￦30,534,100. This income was so poor in comparison with foreign examples and real needed business fund for its operation that it needs a daring reformation. Third, it asks reformation in the Department of Justice. Because, in order to get effect in Kaengsaingboho system and to enforce authorized probation and prisoner's aid system, recently the matters under the Jurisdiction of the Kaengsaingboho Charge, Management Section, the Department of Correction, in The Department of Justice, must be changed into the Department of Kaengsaingboho, Department of Justice like Japan. It is also a problem to strengthen the central committee of Kaengsaingboho, local committee of Kangsaingboho in accordance with a district court of Justice and probation office. Last, they must improve the qualities of its employees and make them to devote themselves to their business only. Recently the employees consist of influential persons in their district who work without recompense and are lack in proffesional knowledge and technique. In future, they must employ salaried persons and train sufficiently their proffesional knowledge and technique.
황인구(In Koo Hwang), 박정훈(Jeong-Hoon Park), 최우제(Woo-Je Choi), 박노진(Noh-Jin Park), 오해수(Hae-Soo Oh), 안성진(Sung Jin An), 박승국(Seung-Kook Park), 윤대근(Dae-Kun Yoon), 이원학(Won-Hak Lee), 강태천(Tae-Cheon Kang), 원무호(Moo Ho Won) 대한해부학회 2002 Anatomy & Cell Biology Vol.35 No.5
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허혈에 대한 연구는 중추신경계통에서 대부분을 차지하고 있다. 그러나 허혈은 중추신경 뿐 아니라, 말초신경에도 많은 영향을 미칠 것으로 생각된다. 특히 머리 부분에 있는 대부분 장기들의 일반감각을 담당하는 삼차신경절은 매우 중요할 것으로 생각한다. 신경전달물질의 분비와 감각의 조절 등에 중요한 칼슘결합단백질은 세포질내 칼슘을 조절하여 감각의 전달에 매우 중요하다. 따라서 본 연구는 Mongolian gerbil의 삼차신경절에서 인위적으로 허혈-재관류를 유발하여 calbindin D-28k (CB)와 calretinin (CR)의 경시적인 변화와 그 의미를 연구해 보고자 하였다. 정상군에서 CB과 CR 면역반응은 큰 크기, 중간 크기, 작은 크기의 신경세포에서 관찰되었다. 허혈-재관류 후 12시간까 지는 면역반응세포 수의 변화에 큰 차이를 관찰할 수 없었다. 허혈-재관류 후 1일 경에는 CB과 CR을 함유한 큰 신경세 포의 수가 급격하게 증가하였으며, 그 이후부터 CB 면역반응세포는 감소하였고, CR 면역반응세포는 허혈-재관류 후 4일 경에 중간 크기 신경세포가 정상군보다 3배 가량 증가하였다. 이상의 연구 결과는 허혈-재관류 후 1일 경에 큰 신경세포에서 CB와 CR 면역반응의 증가가 있었는데, 큰 신경세포들 은 A fibers를 함유하고 있으므로, 이 시기에 CB와 CR이 기계적 자극의 전도에 영향을 줄 것으로 생각이 된다. 또한 허 혈-재관류 후 4일 이후에 중간 크기의 신경세포에서 CR 면역반응 세포의 증가는 이들이 Aδ 또는 C fiber를 함유하고 있 으므로, 이 시기에는 통증이나 온도 감각에 CR이 관여할 것으로 생각된다. Many researches have focused upon temporal changes of neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators in the central nervous system after ischemic insult. In sensory neurons, the spatial and temporal alterations of neurotransmitters have been little studied. Calbindin D-28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) have been suggested to play a role in the transmission of neurotransmitters. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the chronological alteration of CB and CR immunoreactivity in the trigeminal ganglion cells of the Mongolian gerbil after ischemic insult. In the sham operated group, CB and CR immunoreactivities were found in small-, medium- and large-sized neurons. One and two days after ischemia-reperfusion, small and large-sized CB immunoreactive neurons increased significantly. Thereafter, number of the CB immunoreactive neurons decreased markedly. Furthermore, five days after ischemia-reperfusion, CB immunoreactivity was detected in a few neurons, and its immunoreactivity was also very weak in the cytoplasm. Number of the large-sized CR immunoreactive neurons increased significantly one day after ischemia-reperfusion. Thereafter, the number of the large-sized CR immunoreactive neurons decreased. Especially, the number of the medium-sized CR immunoreactive neurons increased dramatically 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion. These results suggest that an increase of CB and CR may play an important role in modulating the mechanoception 1 day after ischemia-reperfusion, because the immunoreactivities increased in large-sized neurons which have the myenlinated A fibers. These results also suggest that significant increase of CR expression in medium-sized neurons 4 and 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion may provoke CR in modulating the nociception or thermoception because the medium-sized neurons which have the myenlinated Aδ or C-fibers.
Objectives: The exercise test is commonly used in conjunction with baseline clinical information to estimate the likelihood that a patient has significant coronary diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if patterns of ST depression or elevation during exercise testing provide reliable information about the location of an underlying coronary lesion. Methods: We reviewed 49patients out of 137 patients who performed treadmill test and coronary angiography at National Medical Center from January, 1984 through August, 1993. All the patients underwent modified Bruce protocol treadmill exercise test and coronary angiography. Exercise ST changes were classified as depression or elevation by lead groups involved(V1-V3, V4-V6, I AVL, II III AVF), Coronary angiography was done in several oblique projections and results were reviewed by at least two senior angiographers. Results: 1) There were significant stenosis in coronary angiography in 22cases(70.9%) among positive 31cases, 0cases(0%) among borderline positive 4cases, 5cases(10.2%) among negative 49cases. 11cases(47.8%) among nondiagnostic 23cases, and 3cases(25%) among pseudonormalization 12cases in exercise treadmill tests. 2) The sensitivity of treadmill exercise electrocardiography was 61.2%, and specificity was 81.8%. The sensitivity of each coronary artery diseases was 6l.7% in Left anterior descending artery disease, 66.6% in Right coronary artery disease, 38.5% in Left circumflex artery disease, 100% in 2-vessel disease, and 100% in 3-vessel disease. 3) ST depression was not useful in predicting the site of coronary artery narrowing. In contrast, ST elevation was correlated with coronary artery disease. 4) ST depression was most often seen in leads V4-V6 and leads II III AVF without correlation between the diseased coronary artery and the leads in which ST depression occurred. Conclusion: The exercise treadmill induced depression of the ST segment is an significant sign for predicting the presence of coronary artery disease and for the decision to perform coronary angiography. But, site of ST depression during exercise is not a good predictor of anatomic site of coronary artery disease. The other noninvasive test and coronary angiography may be necessary to nondiagnostic group which revealed insufficient exercise load or target heart rate during exercise test because the presence of coronary artery disease can't be ruled out.
This study is an empirical attempt to in vestigate the teacher's job satisfaction in secondary schools. Consquently, the main variable in this study is job satisfaction. Therefore the purpose of this study is to examine in relation to sub-variables of job satisfaction. The specific objects of this research are (1) to investigate the relationships among variables in terms of school characteristics and personal characteristics of teachers. In order to accomplish the above objects, four sub-variables have been identified on the basis of a survey of the literature concerned. The sub-variables of job satisfaction consist of administrative support, personnal management, incentive sistem, and social relations. On the basis of the theoretical background, two hypotheses have been formulated for this research purpose. Hypothesis 1. There can be positive significant correlations among job satisfaction sub-variables with one another. Hypothesis 2. There can be significant differences among the variables of this study in terms of school characteristics and personal characteristics of teachers. To test these hypotheses, questionnaires were devised through statistical procedures in order to measure the validity and reliability of the items related to these four variables. The subjects were 380 secondary school teachers randomly sampled out Korea. Data collected were analyzed by the correlation, t- or F-test, specifically following the procedures in SAS, KAIST. From this analysis the following conclusions can be draw : (1) All the sub-variables studied show positive significant correlations. (2) The average differentical analysis of school and personal characteristics reveals that female show higher averages in all variables. Public schools in all variables have higher average than private schools. Teacher groups have not shown significant differences. Urban cases mark higher than rural cases in averages. Teacher groups of middle school show the highest averages in personnal management and social relation while groups of women middle school show the highest averages otherwise. Teacher groups of 40 through 49 age show the highest averages in social relations and groups of over 50 age show the highest averages otherwise.
The present study was intended to provide the fundamental data, available in the field of the elderly health care, from the analysis of the actual conditions of pains among the el r)y in terms of their sociodemographic and life styles. The interviews, performed during the two-month period from June to July of 2000, included 635 individuals aged over 65 who live in Daejeon metropolitan city and contained information about the nature, location, severity, and frequency of their pains. The collected data were statistically processed using SPSSWIN(ver 10.0) according to the subjects` sociodemographic, psychological factors and various life styles. 1. In terms of subjective perception of pain, 76.9% of subjects had pain. Significantly higher pain rate of 86.3% were noticed in women than 64.7% in men (p=0.000), but significant difference was not found among age groups. According to the living conditions, pain rates were 88.4% in older persons living alone, followed in a decreasing order of frequency by 73.9% in those living at their homes, and 72.1% in those in nursing homes, with significant statistical difference (p=0.001). Higher level of education was related with significantly lower rate of pain(p=0.000) and significantly higher rate was found in those without spouses(82.8%) than with spouses(68.2.%) in terms of spouse status(p=0.000). 2. Based on classifications of pain severity, 31.8%, the most frequent, were mild and it was followed in a decreasing order of frequency by 29.7% f certain pain, 25.2% of severe pain, 11.3% of very severe pain, and 2.0% unbearable pain. The pain perception was more severe in women than in men, older aged groups than in younger ones, those living alone and in nursing homes than in those living at their homes. Greater severity was also found in those with lower level of education and without spouses than in their respective counterparts. 3. Based on psychological factors, greater severity was found in the groups who are dissatisfied with the present life situation, who have weak-willed in life, who have sense of isolation, and who have considered themselves as unhealthy than in their respective counterparts. On the basis of various life styles, greater severity was also revealed in the groups who don`t have go-outs, who smoke, who don`t drink, don`t exercise, and who are obese than in their respective counterparts. 4. Based on location of pain, greater severity was reported in the back, lower e extremities, and multiple sites than elsewhere. 5. Based on the subjective nature of pain, the 29.9%, the most frequent, of subjects described their pain as “pulling”, 26.0% “tingling”, 24.0% “heavy”, and 20.1% “throbbing”, with sexual difference. 6. The group who reported more severe pain had the higher rate of access to medical service and also had the higher rate of demand for medical service than the group who did not.