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The effect of intestinal bacterial overgrowth on brush border hydrolases and composition of mucus was studied in rats with surgically introduced jejunal self-filling blind 1oops (SFBL), Enzymes and mucus were analyzed from blind loop segments, segments above and below the blind loops in the rats with SFBL, and three corresponding segments in the nonoperated controls. Sucrase and lactase activities were significantly reduced in homogenates from the self-filling blind loop, but alkaline phosphatase was not affected. Lactase activities were significantly reduced in homogenates from the three segments (proximal, blind loop, distal) of small intestine of rats with SFBL. The carbohydrate content of purified mucin was reduced in rats with SFBL than that of normal controls. N-acetyl neuraminic acid was significantly reduced in purified mucin from the SFBL. The results indicate that bacteria enhance the destruction of intestinal surface glycoproteins including disaccharidases. Since alkaline phosphatase, a glycoprotein, is not affected, the destruction is selective and presumably involves only the most exposed membrane components. And among disaccharidases, lactase activities were depressed in segments without direct contact with bacteria, suggesting that bacterial byproducts may exert effect on lactase synthesis systematically.
To investigate the prevalance of cholelithiasis in liver cirrhosis, a retrospective study using biliary ultrasonography was performed in 222 patients with liver eirrhosis and in 177 controls. Gallstones were found more often in cirrhotic patients (13.5%) than in controls (5.6%) (p$lt;0.05). Their prevalence was the same in both sexes. The prevalence of gallstone increased in decompensated liver cirrhosis (p$lt;0.05). The prevalence was higher in HBs-Ag negative liver cirrhosis than HBs-Ag positive liver cirrhosis (p$lt;0.01). The linear trend of increasing prevalence with increasing age in non cirrhotic group was not observed in patients with liver cirrhosis. This study confirms, by means of sonography, the high prevalence of cholelithiasis in liver cirrhosis in Korean adults.
Objective: MCNS is common type of nephrotic syndrome in adult. Clinically, MCNS is characterized by a pure, often severe nephrotic syndrome and proteinuria may persistent for many years. 60-70% of them respond to corticosteroids and renal prognosis is excellent but response rate renal prognosis seem to be worse in adult. Therefore we performed this study to evaluate the clinical factors which influence the responses to treatment and result of follow-up. Methods: Between 1987 May and 1995 September, we reviewed 101 adult-onset necrotic syndrome patients with minimal change on renal biopsy, and all were treated with corticosteroids as initial therapy. Results: There are no significant difference in serum albumin, serum creationism, hypertension, microscopic hematuria, creatinine clearance, proteinuria compared with age group($lt;30 yrs, 30-50 yrs, $gt;50 yrs). After the 16 weeks course of prednisolone, 74 of the 101 patients were in complete remission. Among the patients who were in complete remission, 45 patients were relapsed and mean duration of remission was 25 weeks(range: 2-155 weeks), In multivariate analysis microscopic hematuria(p=0.007) was independent risk factor of partial and non-response to corticosteroids. Cyclophosphamide was used in 28 patients, usually in a course of 8 weeks(frequent relapse 10, steroid resistance 17, steroid dependent 1). Among the them 21 patients(75%) showed complete remission within S weeks and duration of remission after cyclophosphamide was not different from after prednisolone(39±41 vs. 26±30, p=NS). For follow-up of renal function in 44 patients(mean 46 month, 24-76 month), only 1 patient's serum creatinine level was double compared with initial serum creatinine level and only 1 case of death was observed. Conclusion: In adult MCNS, microscopic hematuria at initial presentation were independent risk factor of partial or non-response to corticosteroids therapy. Renal function deterioration and death associated with complication of nephrotic syndrome and treatment are very rare.
Polycrystalline CdS thin films were grown on ceramic substrate using a chemical bath deposition method. They were annealed at various temperature and X-ray diffraction patterns were measured by X-ray diffractometer in order to study CdS polycrystal structure. Using extrapolation method of X-ray diffraction patterns for the CdS samples annealed in N₂ gas at 5500 it was found hexagonal structure whose lattice constants a_o and c_o were 4.1364 Å and 6.7129 Å, respectively. Its grain size was about 0.35 ㎛. Hall effect on this sample was measured by Van der Pauw method and studied on carrier density and mobility depending on temperature. From Hall data, the mobility was likely to be decreased by piezo electric scattering at temperature range of 33K and 150K and by polar optical scattering at temperature range of 150K and 293K. We measured also spectral response, sensitivity (γ), maximum allowable power dissipation and response time on these samples.
Polycrystalline CdSe thin films were grown on ceramic substrate using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. They were annealed at various temperature and X-ray diffraction patterns were measured by X-ray diffractometer in order to study CdSe polycrystal structure. Using extrapolation method of X-ray diffraction patterns for the CdSe samples annealed in N₂ gas at 450℃ it was found hexagonal structure whose lattice parameters a_o and c_o were 4.302 A and 7.014 A, respectively. Its grain size was about 0.3 ㎛. Hall effect on this sample was measured by Van der Pauw method and studied on carrier density and mobility depending on temperature. From Hall data, the mobility was likely to be decreased by piezo electric scattering at temperature range of 33 K and 200 K, and by polar optical scattering at temperature range of 200 K and 293 K. We measured also spectral response, sensitivity (γ), maximum allowable power dissipation and response time on these samples.
A new type of Si diaphragm was fabricated using Si-wafer direct bonding and two-step electrochemical etch-stopping methods. Using the new diaphragm structure in mechanical sensors, more precise control of cavity depth and diaphragm thickness was achievable. Also, the propagation of the stress, which was generated near the bonding interface, to the surface can be avoided. Finally, a piezoresistive-type Si pressure sensor was fabricated utilizing the diaphragm and a digital pressure gauge, which can display units of pressure, was realized.
목적 : 자궁내막증 또는 자궁선근증을 가진 불임 환자의 치료에 있어 GnRH analogue를 사용한 LTDR의 과배란 유도시 그 효과를 알아보았다. 방법 및 재료 : 복강경과 질식 초음파를 이용하여 자궁내막증 또는 자궁선근증을 진단 받은 불임 여성 43명의 47 LTDR cycles이 연구 대상이 되었다. GnRH analogue를 3개월 이상 장기간 사용하여 down regulation 시킨 후 gonadotropin을 이용하여 과배란 유도를 시행한 경우를 LTDR로 정의하였으며 임신을 위해 자궁강 내 정자 주입술 또는 체외 수정 및 배아 이식이 시행되었다. 결과 : 환자의 평균 연령(meanSD)은 33.83.8이었고 자궁선근증이 10cycles였으며 자궁내막증은 34cycles(1기:12cycles, 2기:9cycles, 3기 :5cycles, 4기:8cycles)이었다. 체외 수정 시 이식된 배아는 평균(meanSD) 3.70.3개였다. 자궁내막증을 가진 34cycles중 17.6%(6/34), 자궁선근증을 가진 10cycles중 40.0%(4/10)의 임신율을 보였다. 결론 : 이 연구에서 LTDR은 자궁내막증과 자궁선근증에 의한 불임 환자의 치료에 효과적인 것으로 보이나 연구 대상군의 확대 조사가 필요하리라 사료된다. Objective : To assess the clinical efficacy of long term down regulation (LTDR) for in vitro fertilization (IVF) in infertile patients with endometriosis or adenomyosis. Materials and methods : Analysis were made from data collected from 45 paients who had endometriosis or adenomyosis diagnosed using pelvic laparoscopy and ultrasonography and had undergone intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization. LTDR was defined as long term, as long as three months down regulation of ovarian function followed by induction of ovulation using gonadotropins. Of these patients, 43 had undergone LTDR followed by IVF-ET, whereas 30patients in control group had undergone short or long protocol as an ovarian stimulation regimen. Results : The multiple independent parameters such as plasma basal estradiol (E2), plasma E2 level on day of hCG administration, number of oocytes retrived, number of good quality oocytes, number of embryo and number of transfered embryos were not significantly different between LTDR treated group and other control group. The clinical pregnancy rate in women treated with LTDR (17.6% in endometriosis, 40% in adenomysis, and 33.3% in endometriosis combined with adenomyosis) were comparable with those of control group (15.4% in endometriosis, 33.3% in adenomyosis and 40% in endometriosis combined with adenomyosis). Conclusions : In this study the LTDR as a ovarian stimulation regimen for IVF does not seems efficienct in infertile patients having endometriosis or adenomyosis than other protocols such as short or long, however further study with large number may be needed.
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malfmation of the lung(CCAML) is a rare abnormality of embryonic diffaentiation characterized by the replacement of narmal pulmonary tissue with cysts in variable size and number. We experienced a case of bilateral Type III CCAML in neonates of 23 years old pregnant woman, which was detected sonographically at 22weeks of gestation.
목적:정상임신에서 양수를 대상으로 임신주수에 따른 항산화능의 변화를 알아보고 양수중 항산화능을 나타낸는 성분을 규명하고자 한다. 연구방법: 양수의 항산화능에 대한 평가는 ABAP를 사용한 TRAP검사를 통하여 시행하였는데 이 검사에서는 ABAP에 의하여 일어나는 지질과산화를 억제하는 항산화능을 측정하였다. 임신 16주 이후 40주까지의 건강한 산모36명에 대하여 양수의 TRAP값을 측정하였고, 이성분을 규명하기 위해 양수를 초여과하고 HPLC로 분석하였다. 결과: 임신 16주 이후 40주까지의 건강한 산모 36명에 대하여 양수의 TRAP값은 임신주수에 따라 점차증가하여 임신40주에서는 20주��에 비하여 약 2배로 증가하였다. 양수를 초여과하여 저분자분회과 고분자분획으로 나눈다음 TRAP값을 측정한 결과 분자량 3kDa이하의 저분자분획에서 원래 양수가 가졌던 거의 모든 TRAP값이 나타났고 고분자분획에서는 항산화능이 거의 나타나지 않았다. 저분자분획을 HPLC로 분석한 결과 요산의 분획에서 가장높은 TRAP값이 나타났으며 다른 분획에서는 항산화능이 뚜렷이 나타나지 않았다. 요산의 농도와 TRAP값은 잘 일치하였다(t=0.99). 결론: 이 연구는 양수의 TRAP값은 거의 전적으로 요산의 농도에 좌우됨을 알수있었고, 임신 주수에 따라 점차 증가하였으며 요산이 양수에서 매우 중요한 항산화제로 작용할 것임이 시사되었다.
Prostaglandin E2 is capable of ripening the unfavourable cervix and thus improving the outcome of induced labor by altering the state of the cervix and myometrial fibers of the lower uterine segment. This study was performed to compare the clinical efficiency of PGE and oxytocin for the elective induction in term pregancies. A retrospective randomized study was undertaken comparing the efficacy of a 3mg prostaglandin E2 vaginal suppository (group 1, n 80), intravenous oxytocin (group 2, n=72), and prostaglandin E plus intravenous oxytocin (group 3, n 74) for the elective induction of labor. The results of above three groups were also compared with normal spontaneous labor group (control group, n 75) as a control. Gestational age of every subject was between 38 and 42 weeks with Bishops score from 1 to 6. The duration of 1st stage, cesarean section rate, Apgar score, incidence of neonatal complication, and side effect of every group were evaluated. The results were as follows; 1. In nulliparous women with Bishops score of 4 or less, the duration of the first stage of labor was significantly shortened in the group 1, 2, and 3 compared with that of control group. (P$lt;0.0001, respectively) The duration was significantly shortened in the group 3 compared with group 1 or 2 (P$lt;0.0001, respectively) while the difference was not found between group 1 and 2. (P$gt;0.05) 2. In parous women with Bishops score of 4 or less, the duration of the first stage of labor was significantly shortened in the group 1, 2, and 3 compared with that of control group. (P$lt;0.0001, respectively) No difference was found among group 1, 2, and 3. (P$gt;0.05, respectively) 3. In nulliparous women with Bishops score of 5 or more, the duration of the first stage of labor was significantly shortened in the group I, 2, and 3 compared with that of control group. (P$lt;0.0001, respectively) The duration was significantly shortened in the group 3 compared with group 1 or 2 (P$lt;0.0001, respectively) while the difference was not found between group 1 and 2. (P$gt;0.05). 4. In parous women with Bishops score of 5 or more, the duration of the first stage of labor was significantly shortened in the group 2 and 3 compared with that of control. (P$lt;0.0001, respectively) No difference was found between group 1 and control group (P$gt;0.05) and no difference were found among group 1, 2 and 3 (P$gt;0.05, respectively). 5. The Cesarean section rate were 16%, 8.7%, 12.5%, and 6.8% for control, group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively. 6. There were no significant differences in 1, 5-min Apgar score, and the incidence of neonatal complication in each group. 7. The side effects (nausea, vomiting, headache, hypertonus, and fever) developed in 9 case (3.0%) of group 1, 2, and 3. There were no significant differences in side effect in each group.