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죽음과 그 이후의 삶에 대한 관심은 수세기동안 지속되어 왔다. 예이츠는 죽음 이후의 삶에 대해 『환상록』(A Vision)에서 밝힌 자신의 관점을 후기 시에 투영하고 있다. 이 연구의 목적은 예이츠 후기 시에 나타난 죽음 이후의 삶의 변모를 탐색하는 데 있다. 예이츠는 죽음 이후의 영혼의 과정을 4개의 원리(the Husk, the Passionate Body, the Spirit, and the Celestial Body)로 규정하고 6과정의 단계를 거쳐 변모한다고 주장한다. 자신의 창의적인 시를 통해 죽음 이후의 영혼의 환생과 생존에 대한 명상은 예이츠의 삶에 대한 강렬한 갈망이 잠복되어 있는 것으로 보인다. Death and afterlife of man have intrigued mankind for thousands of years. Yeats tries to answer these questions in his writings. Yeats successfully conveys his beliefs on the principles and details of afterlife in relation to the idea in A Vision and reflects them in his later poetry. The purpose of this study is to research the theme of afterlife in Yeats's later poetry. Yeats elaborates the four principles of the soul — the Husk, the Passionate Body, the Spirit, and the Celestial Body. Yeats's insatiable thirst for life, the desire, has expressed his belief in reincarnation and the survival of the soul after death in much of his later poetry.
A direct measurement of an initiation carrier injection for a low voltage discharge is presented. A self-sustained pulsed discharge is utilized to characterize electrical responses of a glow discharge for varying amounts of injected initiation carriers. It is clearly demonstrated that the initiation carrier injection affects the ignition time and the breakdown voltage of the primary discharge. An abrupt reduction in the breakdown voltage for a 300 μm gap pin-plate discharge is observed when a threshold carrier density of 3×1011 cm−3 is injected and the breakdown voltage continues to decrease to 250 V with increasing the initiation carrier injection beyond the threshold density.
Background: The aim of this study was to clarify the topographical relationships between the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) and the dorsal scapular artery (DSA) in the interscapular region to identify safe and convenient injection points related to DSN blockade. Methods: Thirty shoulders of embalmed Korean cadavers and 50 live subjects were used for dissection and ultrasound (US) analysis. Results: The running patterns of the DSA and DSN in the interscapular region were classified into 3 types. Type I was defined as nerves that were medial to the artery and parallel without changing location (80.0% of specimens). In type II (13.3%), the nerve and artery traversed one another only one time over their entire length. In type III (6.7%), the nerve and artery traversed one another, resembling a twist. Above the level of the scapular spine, the nerve was always medial to the artery. Below the scapular spine, the number of arteries was obviously decreased. Most of the arteries were lateral to the medial border of the scapula, except at the level of the superior angle of the scapula artery (SA). The positional tendency of the DSN toward the medial or lateral sides from the medial border of the scapula was similar. In US imaging of live subjects, the DSA was most observed at the level of the SA (94.0%). Conclusions: Results of this study enhance the current knowledge regarding the pathway of the DSN and DSA and provide helpful information for selective diagnostic nerve blocks in the interscapular region.
Background/Aims: Markers of inflammation have been associated with outcomes in various cancers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether systemic inf lammatory markers and their f luctuations can predict survival and chemotherapy response in patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 502 patients who received first-line palliative chemotherapy for mGC between 2007 and 2013. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) were assessed before and after chemotherapy to evaluate their association with survival. The NLR values were categorized into two groups based on a cut-off value of 3; mGPS values were classified as high versus low. Results: High prechemotherapy NLR was significantly associated with poor overall survival on univariate analysis (p = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, high prechemotherapy NLR (hazard ratio, 1.43; p < 0.001) was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival. However, the prechemotherapy mGPS was not significantly associated with survival. Continuously high NLR or a shift to high NLR postchemotherapy was associated with poor chemotherapy response as well as survival, while NLR reduction was associated with a good response (linear by linear association, p < 0.001) and a favorable prognosis. Conclusions: Prechemotherapy NLR can be used as a prognostic factor in mGC, while the postchemotherapy NLR value may predict the chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. In contrast, mGPS has limited prognostic utility in mGC.