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In proton-conducting perovskites, oxygen ions and protons make a diffusion pair for a chemical diffusion and thus lead to the transport of H2O under its chemical potential gradient. The present manuscript develops relationships between the chemical diffusion coefficient of H2O and the diffusion coefficients of protons and oxygen vacancies with an emphasis on the thermodynamic behavior of the oxygen vacancies. Depending on the degree of hydration X, two different expressions of the chemical diffusion coefficient were obtained: as X 0, and as X 1.
( Hyun Su Kim ), ( Jong Ho Moon ), ( Yun Nah Lee ), ( Hyun Jong Choi ), ( Hyun Woo Lee ), ( Hee Kyung Kim ), ( Tae Hoon Lee ), ( Moon Han Choi ), ( Sang-woo Cha ), ( Young Deok Cho ), ( Sang-heum Park ) 대한간학회 2018 Gut and Liver Vol.12 No.4
Background/Aims: In suspected malignant biliary strictures (MBSs), the diagnostic yield of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-based tissue sampling is limited. Transpapillary forceps biopsy (TPB) under intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) guidance is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients with indeterminate biliary strictures. We evaluated the usefulness of IDUS-guided TPB in patients with suspected MBS. Methods: Consecutive patients with suspected MBS were prospectively enrolled in the study. ERCP with IDUS was performed in all patients. Both conventional TPB and IDUS-guided TPB on fluoroscopy were performed in each patient. The primary outcome was the diagnostic accuracy of conventional TPB and IDUS-guided TPB. Results: The technical success rate of IDUS-guided TPB was 97.0% (65/67 patients). Of these 65 patients, the final diagnosis was malignancy in 61 patients (93.8%). On IDUS, the most common finding of IDUS was an intraductal infiltrating lesion in 29 patients (47.5%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was significantly higher using IDUS-guided TPB than that using conventional TPB (90.8% vs 76.9%, p=0.027). According to the subgroup analysis based on the tumor morphology, IDUS-guided TPB had a significantly higher cancer detection rate than conventional TPB for intraductal infiltrating lesions (89.6% vs 65.5%, p=0.028). Conclusions: IDUS-guided TPB appears to improve the accuracy of histological diagnosis in patients with MBS. (Gut Liver 2018;12:463-470)
The Korean Society of Gastroenterology& SLDDS 2047 : Slide Session ; K-BP-37 : Pancreatobiliary ; Role of the Direct Peroral Cholangioscopy Using an Ultra-Slim Upper Endoscope After Endoscopic Extraction of Choledocholithiasis
( Hyun Jong Choi ), ( Jong Ho Moon ), ( Yun Nah Lee ), ( Hee Jae Jung ), ( Hyun Su Kim ), ( Tae Hoon Lee ), ( Sang Woo Cha ), ( Young Deok Cho ), ( Sang Heum Park ), ( Sun Joo Kim ) 대한내과학회 2014 대한내과학회 추계학술대회 Vol.2014 No.1
Background: Direct peroral cholangioscopy (POC) using an ultra-slim upper endoscope can provide high-resolutional images of the bile duct. Therefore, direct POC may detectobscure bile duct lesions in preceding imaging modalities including computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefullness of direct POC using an ultra-slim upper endoscope after endoscopic extraction of choledocholithiais. Methods: Total 207 patients have undergone direct POC to evaluate the bile duct after endoscopic extraction of choledocholithiasis. All included patients had dilated extrahepatic bile duct more than 10 mm and were undergone endoscopic sphincteroplasty before POC. Patients with defi ned bile duct lesions in preceding imaging modalities were excluded in this study. Abnormal POC fi ndings were evaluated by usingnarrow band imaging and by forceps biopsy under endoscopic guidance, if possible. Results: Direct POC was successful in 199 patients (96.1%). Abnormal bile duct lesions were detected in 31 patients (15.6%) including 1 malignant stricture, 3 villous mucosal lesions, 2 papillary mucosal lesions, 14 polypoid mucosal lesions and 11 benign strictures. POC-guided forceps biopsy was successful in 28/31 patients (90.3%) with tissue adequacy for the histologic evaluation in 24/31 (77.4%). final diagnosis by histopathologic evaluation of abnormal bile duct lesions were 4 cholangiocarcinomas, 2 intraductal papillary neoplasms in the bile duct with dysplasia, 1 bile duct adenoma with dysplasia, 10 infiammatory polyps and 7 benign biliary strictures. Cholangitis conservatively managed was occurred in one patient (0.5%) after direct POC. No other signifi cant direct POC-related adverse events were occurred. Conclusions: Bile duct evaluation with direct POC after endoscopic extraction of choledocholithiasis can be helpful to detect small bile duct lesions that were obscure or overlooking in preceding imaging modalities.
Cleisostoma scolopendrifolium is an orchid species solely pollinated by the male bee Megachile yasumatsui. Although C. scolopendrifolium is an endangered species in Korea, little is known about its pollination mechanisms or the profiles of its chemical attractants. This study provides evidence that the Cleisostoma orchid attracts male bees as pollinators by mimicking female mating signals. We found 13 hydrocarbons in the Cleisostoma orchid flower presumed to be involved in sex pheromone mimicry: five alkanes (tricosane, pentacosane, heptacosane, nonacosane, and hentriacontane), compounds of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates and species in social insects; and eight alkenes ((z)-9-tricosene, (z)-9-pentacosene, (z)-11-pentacosene, (z)-9-heptacosene, (z)-11-heptacosene, (z)-9-nonacosene, (z)-11-nonacosene, and (z)-11-hentriacontene) which serve as sex pheromones in several insects. We suggest that these hydrocarbons play a key role in the pollination mechanism between Cleisostoma orchids and Megachile bees.
Abamectin, soil-born bacterial acaricides, has been intensively used to control Tetranychus urticae. Target site insensitivity and enhanced activity of detoxification enzymes have been considered as major resistance mechanisms. Here, we identified the differentially expressed genes after feeding sublethal dose of abamectin for 36 h by RNA-seq analysis. About 4.9 million reads (± 2,630,543 reads) were assembled into T. urticae. Among a total of 75 genes showing differential transcription, 18 and 14 genes were up- and down-regulated over two fold ratio, respectively. In the validation analysis, the calculated fold change of each genes between RNA-seq and qPCR were moderately correlated (r 2 = 0.661). A cuticular protein was shown as the highest up-regulated gene (192.3-fold) and a chitinase was revealed to be the highest down-regulated (-16.4-fold). Further study would be necessary to validate their roles in T. urticae adaptation to acaricides.
This study deals with the case study on the pallet quantity determination problem for the flexible manufacturing system producing 32 different types of aircraft wing ribs which are major structures of an aircraft wings. A Korean company has constructed the WFMS (wing rib flexible manufacturing system) that is composed of several automated equipments such as the 5-axis machining centers, the RGV (rail guided vehicles)s, the AS/RS (automated storage and retrieval system), the loading/unloading stations, and so on. Pallets play a critical role in the WFMS to maintain high system utilization and continuous work flow between 5-axis machining machines and automated material handling devices. The discrete event simulation method is used to evaluate the performance of the WFMS under various pallet mix alternatives for wing rib manufacturing processes. Four performance measures including system utilization, throughput, lead-time and work in process inventory level are investigated to determine the best pallet mix alternative. The best pallet mix identified by the simulation study is adopted in setting up and operating a real Korean aircraft parts manufacturing shop. By comparing the real WFMS's performances with those of the simulation study, we discussed the cause of performance difference observed and the necessity of developing the CPS (cyber physical system).