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In this study, Flow characteristics of turbulent unsteady flows in a square-sectional 180°curved duct were experimentally investigated. Experimental studies for air flow were conducted to measure pressure distributions in the square-sectional 180°curved duct by using a magnehelic differential pressure gage. The experiment were conducted in nineteen sections from the inlet (ø=0°) to the outlet(ø=180°) of the duct at 10°intervals. The results obtained from the experimentation are summarized as follows. (1) In the turbulent oscillatory flow, the pressure distribution was the largest in the accelerating and decelerating region of the bend angle of 90°and the pressure difference of the inner and outer walls was the largest before and after the bend angle of 90°. (2) In the turbulent pulsating flow, the pressure difference was the largest near the region of bend angle of 90°in the case of the middle region, and since then the pressure difference of the inner and outer walls became smaller.
In this study limnological characteristics of Lake Juam was surveyed from June 1993 to May 1994 in order to provides important information regarding water resources. Seschi disc transparency, epilimnetic chlorophyll a(chl-a), tatal nitrogen(TN), total phosphorus(TP) concentration and primary productivity were in the range of 2.0~4.5 m, 0.9~13.6 mgChl/㎥, 0.78~2.32N/l, 11~56 mgP/㎥, 270~2,160mgCm^(-2)day^(-1), respectively. On the basis of TP, Chl-a and Secchi disc depth, the trophic state of Lake Juam can be classified as mesotrophic lake. The phosphorus inputs from non-point sources are concentrated in heavy rain episodes during the monsoon season. As a result, phosphorus concentration are higher in summer than in winter. TP loading from the watershed were estimated to be 0.9 gPm^(-2)yr(-1), which correspond to a boundary of the critical loading (1.0 gPm^(-2)yr(-1), which correspond to a boundary of the critical loading (1.0 gPm^(-2)yr(-1)) for eutrophication. From the results of the algal assay, both phosphous and nitrogen act as limiting nutrients in algal growth. The seasonal succession of phytoplankton community structure in Lake Juam was similar to that observed in other temperate lakes. Diatoms(Asterionella formosa and Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima) were dominant in spring and winter, cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa, M. sp. and M. viridis) were dominant in warm season. The organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of lake sediment were 9.5~14.0 mgC/g, 1.01~1.82 mgN/g, and 0.51~0.65 mgP/g, respectively. The allochthonous organic carbon loading from the watershed and autochthonous organic carbon loading by primary production of phytoplankton were determined to be 1,122 tC/yr and 6,718 tC/yr, respectively. To prevent eutrophication of Lake Juam, nutrient management of watershed should be focus on reduction of fertilizer application, proper treatment of manure, and conservation of topsoil as well as point source.
The limnological survey of Lake Okjong was conducted for one year from June 1993 to May 1994 on the monthly basis. The loading of phosphorus, nitrogen and organic carbon from the watershed into the lake were monitored at the main in flowing sites. Secchi disc transparency , epilimnetic chlorophyll a, total nitrogen, total phosphorus concentration and primary production were in the range of 1.3~4.H m, 2.4~ 18.7 mg Chl/m³. 1.25~2.87 mg N/l, 7~65 mg P/m³, 325~2,113 mg C/m²/day, respectively. TN/Tl atomic ratio varled from 129 to 443. N/P ratio decreased in summer because phosphorus concentration was higher than in winter, while nitrogen did not vary much. The seasonal succession of phytoplankton was distinct. In winter and spring, diatoms, Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima and Aulacoseira italica were dominant while cyanobacteria, Microcystis sp.,M. ichthyovlabe, Phormidium sp. and P.valderianum var. tenuis were dominant in warm seasons. The dominant zooplankton species were Thertmocyclops taihokuensis in warm seasons while Boosmina longirostris were dominant in cold seasons. The organic carbon, nirtogen and phosphorus content of lake sediment were 8.0~14.8, 0.59~0.71, 1.14~1.87 ng N/g, respectively. The sediment of Lake Okjong can be classified as oligohumic based on C/N ratio. The total phosphorus loading from the watershed and fishfarm were estimated to be 2.7g P/m²/yr, which far exceeded the critical loading for eutrophication. The organic carbon loading from the watershed and primary production were determined to be 998t C/yr, 6,348t C/yr, respectively. Most of organic carbon was contributed by autochthonous primary production of phytoplankton. Trophic state of Lake Okjong can be classified as eutrophic
최근 간질환에 대한 진단과 기술의 비약적인 발전에도 불구하고 치료방법론에서는 그 해결이 모호한 상태에 있다. 실험적으로 간중독을 유발시킨 동물에 약물을 투여하여 그 약화를 입증하려는 노력이 진행되고 있다. 이에 저자는 固眞飮子가 간독성의 완화효과에 미치는 영향을 관찰하기 위하여 固眞飮子추출물을 투여한 흰쥐에 galactosamine으로 간독성을 유발하고 간조직내 glutathione과 과산화지질의 함량, 혈청중의 GOT, GPT, γ-GPT, ALT, LDH의 효소활성측정 및 혈청중의 bile acid함량을 측정하여 다음과 같은 유의한 결과를 얻었다. glutathione의 함량은 固眞飮子을 전처치한 실험군에서 유의성 있게 증가하여고, 과산화지질, 혈청중 GOT, GPT, γ-GPT, ALT, LDH, bile acid는 고진음자를 전처치한 실험군에서 유의성있게 감소하였다. The purpose of this study is to observe the protective effect of Kojinyumja on serum reaction and hepatic tissue in galactosamine treated rats. In this study, the experimental rats divided four group(Normal group, Control group, Sample A group, and Sample B group): Under the same condition, normal and contro1 group were administered water, sample A, B group were administered Kojinyumja for 8days. And then, Coth control group and Sample B group were injected to abdomen with galactosamine for 1day. The rates of glutathione, lipid peroxide, GOT, GPT, γ-GTP, ALP, LDH, and contents of bile acid level were measured. The results are as follows: The glutathione rate significantly increased in sample group, the others(lipid peroxide, G0T, GPT, γ-GTP, ALP, LDH, bile acid) significantly decreased in sample group.
유상피성 육종은 매우 드문 악성 연조직 육종으로, 전형적인 경우들은 주로 젊은 남성의 수부, 전완부와 같은 신체의 원위부에 피하 혹은 심재성 피부 종괴로 발생하며, 조직학적 소견상 적은 비정형성을 나타내는 유상피성 세포와 방추형 세포의 증식에 의한 다발성 결절 형태의 배열을 보인다. 최근에 전형적인 유상피성 육종과 조직학적 유사성을 가지나 더 공격적인 형태인 proximal-type 유상피성 육종이 보고되었으며, proximal-type은 전형적인 유상피성 육종에 비하여 현저한 유상피성 세포의 발현과 매우 심한 비정형성을 나타내며, 세포가 매우 크고, 소포성 핵과 뚜렷한 핵소체를 보이며, 자주 rhabdoid 세포의 양상을 띈다. 임상적으로는 전형적인 형태에 비하여 호발 연령이 조금 늦고, 주로 체간부에, 특히 골반, 회음부, 생식기 등과 같은 심부에 발생하고, 더욱 공격적인 양상을 나타낸다. 저자들은 13세 소녀에서 원발부위를 알 수 없는, 골반내에 발생한 proximal-type 유상피성 육종 1예를 경험하여, 문헌 고찰과 함께 보고하는 바이다. Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare malignant soft-tissue sarcoma with an unknown histiogenesis, typically presenting as a subcutaneous or deep dermal mass lesion in the distal portions of the extremities of young adults. Recently, a more aggressive, so-called 'proximal-type' epithelioid sarcoma has been reported. In contrast to conventional epithelioid sarcoma, the proximal type is characterized by a predominantly large cell epithelioid cytomorphology, marked cytologic atypia, and frequent occurrence of rhabdoid features in most patients. Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma has a predilection for appearing in the genitalia, especially the vulva, penis, pelvis and buttocks. Also this lesion appears to be somewhat more aggressive or at least metastasizes earlier than the conventional epithelioid sarcoma. We report a 13-year-old girl who presented with a buge mass filling the pelvic cavity which was painful, hard and fixed on palpation, and was radiologically diagnosed as a malignant germ cell tumors on the CT scan. The mass was surgically excised and pathologically proved to be an proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma of unknown origin.
The optimum concentrations of clove oil as an anesthetic for olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and the stress response of the fish to clove oil anesthesia were determined over a range of water temperatures, and investigated in a simulated transport experiment using analysis of various water and physiological parameters. While the time for induction of anesthesia decreased significantly as both the concentration of clove oil and water temperature increased, the recovery time increased significantly (P<0.05). The plasma cortisol concentration in fish at each temperature increased significantly up to 12 h following exposure (P<0.05), then decreased to 48 h (P<0.05). The DO dissolved oxygen concentrations, pH values, and the fish respiratory frequencies decreased over 6 h following exposure to clove oil in all experimental groups (P<0.05), whereas the NH4 + and CO2concentrations in all experimental groups increased up to 6 h (P<0.05). The pH values and DO concentrations increased with increasing clove oil concentration (P<0.05) in the 6 h following exposure, and the CO2 and NH4 + concentrations and the respiratory frequencies decreased with increasing clove oil concentration (P<0.05). The results of this experiment suggest that clove oil reduced the metabolic activity of olive flounder, thus reducing NH4 + excretion and O2 consumption. In conclusion, clove oil appears to be a cost-effective and efficient anesthetic that is safe for use and non-toxic to the fish and users. Its use provides the potential for improved transportation of olive flounder.