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Background Coptisine is a natural alkaloid compound and is known to have multiple beneficial effects including antioxidant activity. However, whether it can protect lung fibroblasts from oxidative damage has not been studied yet. Objectives To investigate the potential inhibitory effect of coptisine against oxidative stress in V79-4 lung fibroblast cells. Methods V79-4 cells were treated with H2O2 (1 mM) in the presence or absence of coptisine (50 µg/ml), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 10 mM) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, 10 µM) for the indicated times. The alleviating effects of coptisine on cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage, mitochondrial dynamics, and inhibition of ATP production against H2O2 were investigated. Western blot analysis was used to analyze the expression levels of specific proteins. Results Coptisine inhibited H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage by blocking abnormal ROS generation. H2O2 treatment caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase accompanied by increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and decreased expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin A. However, these effects were attenuated in the presence of coptisine or NAC. Coptisine also prevented apoptosis by decreasing the rate of Bax/Bcl-2 expression in H2O2-stimulated cells and suppressing the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the cytosolic release of cytochrome c. In addition, the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was markedly promoted by coptisine in the presence of H2O2. However, zinc protoporphyrin IX, a potent inhibitor of HO-1, attenuated the ROS scavenging and anti-apoptotic effects of coptisine. Conclusions Based on current data, we suggest that coptisine can be used as a potential treatment for oxidative stress-related lung disease.
The process of manufacturing enterprise takes the potential injury agents (moving equipment, machines and tools, hazards, etc). The industrial accidents due to these occasion happen unexpectedly. Safety management, in the manufacturing enterprise, are a moral action for worker, and improve the production efficiency and decrease the accident cost. In this study, industrial accidents are analyzed on the actual condition for 339 manufacturing enterprise, and select the 9 sampling enterprise. We simulate the relationship between accident cost and safety management cost. So, We suggest the safety management counterplan. The actual condition of the industrial accidents were analyzed by I.L.O. statistical analysis equations, which are expressed by (1) and (2). FR=N/H×10^6 …(1) SR=S/H×10³ …(2) Logical development of the alternatives for safety management counterplan based on the structure of industrial accident. We derived characteritics of the industrial accidents, and suggested a few counterplan of industrial accidents for manafacturing enterprises in Jin-Ju area.
In 1789, King Jeongjo moved Yeong’wu-weon(永祐園), the mausoleum of his father, who was the late Crown Prince Jang’heon(“Jang’heon Seja, 莊獻世子”), from its original location which was the Baebong-san(拜峯山) Mountain of the Gyeong’gi-do province’s Yangju(楊州) area, to a new location which was the Hwa-san(花山) Mountain of Su’weon. The new mausoleum for his father was entitled “Hyeon’ryung-weon(顯隆園).” And there were two reasons for the moving: Yeong’wu-weon was damaged and had to be repaired, and a new location for the late Crown Prince was arranged out of a hope for King Jeongjo to have a child. General process for the moving of a mausoleum was established for the first time inside 『Supplemental Version to the Dynasty’s Five Rituals(“Gukjo Sok-O-Rye’eui, 國朝續五禮儀”)』, which was published in 1744. From the opening of an old mausoleum(“Gye’weon, 啓園”) to the insertion of the coffin(“Jae’gung, 梓宮”) into the new mausoleum, all steps were observed, and with the Wu’je(虞祭) memorial service, the process was completed. Jeongjo tried to find a couple of meanings from his effort to move his father’s mausoleum. It was a huge triumph for him, as he wanted to build a platform for reinstating his father’s honor for a very long time, and also reinforce the ruling authority of himself.
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본 연구는 휴대용 핵종분석기를 이용하여 부산지역의 지역별 환경방사선을 측정하여 휴개용 핵종분석기의 유용성을 평가하고자 한다. 측정 대상은 부산의 중심에 위치한 부산진구 소재 송상현 광장을 중심으로 9곳의 환경 방사선을 측정하였다. 측정결과 부산역과 부산대학교를 제외한 대부분의 지역에서 환경방사선은 비슷한 결과를 나탄내었다. 검출된 핵종은241Am, 133Ba, 54Mn등이 검출되었고 핵종분석기에 내장된 핵종정보가 부족하여 알 수 없는 핵종들도 검출되었다. 실험에 사용한 휴대용 핵종분석기는 분해능이 8% 정도로 자연방사성 핵종과 인공방사성 핵종을 핵종별로 정확하게 분석하기 위해서는 제조사의 개선이 필요한 것으로 판단된다. This research aims at measuring the environmental radioactivity at each area of Busan using a potable radio-isotope identification system, and assessing the utility of the potable radio-iosotope identification system. As for the target for measurement, the environmental radioactivities of nine areas centered around Songsanghyeon Square in Jin-gu located in the center of Busan were measured. As the measurement result, the environmental radioactivities were similar in most of the areas except in Busan station and Busan University. The nuclides, such as 241Am, 133Ba, 54Mn and so on, were detected, and some nuclides whose identity was unknown because of lack of information built in the radiation spectrum analyzer were also found. The potable radio-isotope identification system used in the experiment had about 8% of resolving power, so for more precise analysis into the nuclides of natural background radiation and artificial radiation in each type, the manufacturer needs to improve the analyzer.
In this paper, we introduce the method for developing the mobile 3D game engine based on the WIPI platform which has been proposed as the mobile standard platform. Our game engine is designed so that it supports OpenGL-ES and JSR-184 that are mobile 3D graphic APIs. Our game engine has a mobile emulator operated on PC and SDK to support mobile programming in PC environments. Mobile 3D game developers can use the APIs at various levels. Also, the game engine is developed in modular in order to support various game genres.
Background: Intratumoral injection of OK-432 produced significant antitumor effects. There are reports that OK-432 was injected directly into tumor tissue on gastrointestinal tracts and HCC tissue, producing decrease in serum alpha-fetoprotein level. We adopted this technique for treating locally advanced lung cancer. The object of this study is to evaluate the local therapeutic efficacy, side effects of injection for treating symptomatic mass. Methods: Twenty lung cancer patients (13 males and 7 females) underwent sonography guided OK-432 injection. We analyzed relationships between response of OK-432 and response of skin test, histology and age. Pain that patients feel was evaluated by VAS (Visual Analog scale). Results: A significant decrease of tumor size was observed. The mean pre-injection diameter of the lesions was 54.7±11.3mm, PR rate were 15.0% (3/20) and minimal change (50%<tumor size decreased.) patients were 35.0% (7/20). The VAS score before injecting OK-432 into the lesion was 5±3, this was decreased to 2.5±1.5 (p=0.04). Object response was significantly correlated with skin response, adenocarcinoma, and age. Conclusion: A significant decrease of tumor size and pain was observed. So OK-432 is a valuable treatment option for patients with symptomatic lesion from advanced lung cancer who are not amenable to further therapy.
이 연구는 2007년부터 2013년까지 이루어진 자폐스펙트럼 장애아동의 의사소통 기술 향상을 위한 연구들을 조사하여, 일반적인 특징과 동향을 알아보고, 단일대상연구 증거기반 실제(evidence-based practices: EBP)의 기준이 되는 Horner 등(2005)이 제안한 질적 지표를 기초로 중재방법에 대한 문헌 분석을 실시하였다. 연구 결과, 첫째, 자폐스펙트럼 장애아동의 의사소통 기술 향상을 위한 단일대상연구들의 일반적인 특징을 분석한 결과, 연구대상 측면에서는 3명 이상으로 실시된 연구들이 절반 이상이었고, 연령은 주로 초등연령에서 이루어져 왔으며, 장애정도는 경증-중간 자폐에서부터 중도 자폐에 이르기까지 고르게 이루어져 왔다. 연구환경은 여러 기타 외부 환경에서 이루어진 연구들이 절반을 차지하였고, 실험설계는 주로 중다 기초선 설계와 중다 간헐 기초선 설계를 많이 사용했다. 독립변인으로는 다양한 중재방법들이 사용되었으며, 이 중 4편 이상의 논문에서 실시된 중재로는 상황이야기 중재, 보완대체 의사소통 중재가 있었다. 다음으로 종속변인으로는 의사소통 기능 증진의 효과를 본 연구들이 절반 이상을 차지하였다. 둘째, 자폐스펙트럼 장애아동의 의사소통 기술 향상을 위한 단일 대상연구들의 증거기반 실제의 기준이 되는 질적 지표 충족 정도를 살펴본 결과, 질적 지표의 영역별 평균 충족률은 종속변인 96%, 기초선 94%, 대상자 및 환경 91%, 실험통제 및 내적 타당도 91%, 독립변인 78%, 사회적 타당도 64%, 외적 타당도 62% 순으로 나타났다. 또한 각 논문별로 질적 지표의 충족여부를 살펴본 결과 21가지 질적 지표 중 90%에 해당되는 19가지의 질적 지표를 모두 충족시키는 경우는 6편(23%)인 것으로 나타났다. In this study, we investigated literatures done through 2007 to 2013 about the improvement of communication skill in children with autism spectrum disorder. We examined general feature and trends, and performed qualitative analysis based on quality indicator which can be a standard for evidence-based practice(EBP) in single subject research suggested by Horner et al.(2005). In the view of general feature and trends, we first found that more than half studies were performed with three or more children in terms of subject of study, and mainly carried out in the age before 13. Severity of disability was identified evenly from mild and moderate to severe autism. From the side of research environment, more than half studies were performed in many different environments, mostly using multiple baseline design and multiple probe design. Various interventions were conducted as independent variable. Social stories intervention and augmentative and alternative communication intervention(AAC) were employed in more than 4 literatures. In dependent variable, it was confirmed that more that half of studies showed the significant improvement in communication skill. In the analysis of satisfaction level in quality indicator, the average level of areal satisfaction in quality indicator was respectively 96% in dependent variable, 94% in baseline, 91% in subjects and environments, 91% in experimental control/internal validity, 78% in independent variable, 64% in social validity, and 62% in external validity. Besides, among all literatures examined by satisfaction level in quality indicator, 6 literatures (23%) fulfilled the requirements of 19 out of 21 quality indicators.
Long-term alcohol consumption have significant harmful effects as fatty liver, hepatitis, and cirrhosis on the hepatic tissues. After voluntary administration of 8% alcohol(18.67㎖/kg/day) for 120 days, the hepatic tissues of ICR mice were daministered with Kunryeongtang extract(KRE;1.24g/kg/day) were observed to investigate the repaire effects of KRE for hepatic damages that caused by chronic alcohol administration. In chronic alcohol administered group, the vacuolation such as fat accumulation(steatosis) were increased in cytoplasm, the destructive configuration of liver plates were shown in necrotic lesion. These regions are aggregation of inflammatory component cell as lymphocytes, neutrophil leucocytes and Kuffer's cell. These hepatic damages were aggravated with time course. In KRE treated group, the decreased of vacuolation and normal construction of liver plates were appeared. These results indicated that the KRE work on the repair of hepatic damages induced chronic alcohol administration.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of premedication of ramosetron orally disintegrating tablet (ODT), a potent 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, for prophylaxis and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONY) undergoing breast cancer surgery using patient controlled analgesia (PCA). Material and Method: 130 women classified ASA physical status Ⅰ-Ⅱ, aged 24-60 yr, undergoing elective breast cancer surgery, were randomized. A standard general anesthetic technique and postoperative PCA using fentanyl and ketorolac were used. Patients were assigned to one of three groups; group A (no prophylactic antiemetics were administered), group B (4 mg of ondansetron ODT was administered 30 minutes before induction), and group C (0.1 mg of ramosetron ODT was administered 30 minutes before induction). Episodes of nausea and vomiting, the use of rescue antiemetics, degree of pain, adverse events, and level of satisfaction were checked during 24 hr after the operation. Results: The overall incidence of PONY during the 24 hours after the operation in group B and C were decreased. The incidence of nausea after 6 hours after the operation and the frequency of the use of rescue antiemetics were significantly lower compared with group A and B. The patients in group C were more satisfied with control of PONY than others. Conclusion: This study results suggest ramosetron ODT was an effective way to prevent PONY in breast cancer surgical patients using PCA.
The present the information sharing among the subjects was not enough in Airway Logisctics Industry, because each subject use the independent system. The Airway Logistics Network is suggestion, but the Airway Logistics Network dose not operate with efficient connection, because each subject attached to the connection among the internal system. If the RFID system which one of Auto-ID systems is introduce into Airway Logistics, an efficient management of Airway Logistics will be possible. In this Paper, we introduce the RFID system into Airway Logistics SCM system for an efficient management and an efficient information sharing. We also develop Airway Logistics SCM system with priority given to Forwarder which is occupy an important position in Airway Logistics industry.