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본 연구의 목적은 비공식 사회지원망과 노인이 인식하는 삶의 만족도 사이의 관계가 전기 노인과 후기 노인에게서 차이를 보이는지 분석하는데 있다. 본 연구는 비공식 사회지원망을 가족·혈연지원망과 친구·이웃지원망으로 구분한 후 각각의 크기가 삶의 만족과 유의미한 관계를 보이는지 전기 노인과 후기 노인으로 나누어 분석하였다. 본 연구에서는 춘천 지역 거주 65세 이상 노인 1,000명에 대한 조사 결과를 활용하여 분석을 실시하였다. 본 연구의 주요한 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 나이가 들수록 삶의 만족도는 증가하지만 후기 노년기에는 나이와 유의미한 관계를 보이지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 건강관련 요인 중 외로움, 우울이, 사회경제적 요인 중 소득은 노인의 삶의 만족도에 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 지원망 전체 크기는 노인의 삶의 만족과 유의미한 관계를 보이는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 전기 노인의 경우 가족·혈연이나 친구·이웃지원망의 크기가 삶의 만족과 유의미한 관계를 보이지 않는 반면 후기 노인의 경우 가족 지원망의 크기는 삶의 만족도와 유의미한 관계를 보이는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationship between the types of informal social support networks and level of life satisfaction perceived by the elderly. The study focused on the difference of the relationship between the young old and old-old elderly group. This study divided informal social support network into family support network and non-family support network, and analyzed the relationship of each social support network size and life satisfaction in young old and old-old groups. In this study, we analyzed the survey results of 1,000 elderly people over 65 years of age living in Chuncheon. The main results of this study were as follows. First, life satisfaction increased with age, but there was no significant relationship with age in later age. Income among socioeconomic factors and loneliness and depression among health-related factors were found to affect the life satisfaction of the elderly. Second, the overall size of the support network was found to have a significant relationship with the life satisfaction of the elderly. Third, the size of family or non-family support network showed no significant relationship with life satisfaction in the young old elderly group, while the size of family support network had a significant relationship with life satisfaction in the old-old elderly group.
Women's autobiography is a kind of autobiography. Therefore, it should comply with the rules of the autobiographical genre in general. The question remains, why should we examine the theory of Women's autobiography separately? The study of Women's autobiography. however, comprises more than that of a special sub-genre because by adding a gender element to the study of autobiography, it has the potential to question the general rules and practices of the autobiography genre. Women's autobiography is a kind of autobiography. Therefore. it should comply with the rules of autobiographical genre in general. Nevertheless. why should we examine the theory of Women's autobiography separately? The study of Women's autobiography. however. means more than that of a special sub-genre because by adding a gender element to the study of autobiography. it has a potential to correct general rules and practices of the autobiography genre. With the emergence of feminism, however, this attitude has come to be criticized. Feminist researchers pay more attention to the difference and the specificity of Women's writing than to the would-be universality which men assert. As feminism. which emphasizes specificities. is introduced into literature, literature has come to undergo fundamental changes. As a result, in this study, theories of Women s autobiography have been studied on two levels regarding some works written by Korean women writers who are known to be autobiographical. The analysis of these novels tends to question the general rules of autobiographical writing and at the same time to explore the specificities of Women's autobiography. Therefore, the two directions: the study of autobiography in general and the study of Women's autobiography related to self-representation and female identity have been handled in this study. Considering this theoretical basis, this study chose to deal with the following four women writers: Na Hae-Suk. Park Wan-Sec. Suh Young-Eun and Shin Kyung-Sook. Park Wan-Seo and Shin Kyung-Sook both wrote novels in which the narration is in the voice of the author herself. In fact, the author. the narrator and the hero or heroine are the same person. such as in The Mountain. Would It Be There? and Room in Isolation. The work of Park Wan-Seo is a sort of reminiscence about the past and a testimony of ones being. In the work of Shin Kyung-Sook, we find the author writing from the present point moving freely over the past and the present creating a shared memory where the true and the pretext are interacting with the gaze of the other. The works of Na Hae-Suk and Suh Young-Eun are narrated by a third person, thus holding some distance from the life of the author. However, the similarity of living experiences of the author as a subject to those of the protagonist reveals meaningful implications of the ontological situation of being a writer as a woman who might have taken this tertiary discourse as writing strategy. It would be more interesting when we come to analyse the intervention of imagination and fiction to the extent of which an autobiographical novel of a woman writer would have more value with its tertiary aspect. The work of Na Hae-Suk reflecting her own life has been written in the form of an essay or confession. The novel Kyung-Hee can be considered a biographical novel written in a tertiary discourse which served for the passage of enlightenment and confession producing a more delicate effect, and thus permitting, to some extent, a new concept of modern Women's writing. Her Woman. a novel by Suh Young-Eun, is particularly interesting with its tertiary point of view of the protagonist whose similarity with the author can only be sorted out by the reader through the dark nightmare.
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Um, Hye-Young. 2001. Typology of glottalized sonorants: distributional patterns and phonetic explanations, Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 7.2, 333-352. This paper examines the phonetic characteristics and the distribution of glottalized sonorants from a cross-linguistic point of view in order to provide a better phonetic explanation for their distributional patterns. In the examination of glottalized sonorants in 17 languages, it is found that glottalized sonorants are largely preglottalized, rather than postglottalized, and in some languages they are realized phonetically differently according to the context. The general tendencies of the relationship between the distribution and phonetic realizations of glottalized sonorants found in this survey are: I. Syllable-initially glottalized sonorants are mostly preglottalized, and never postglottalized; 2. Syllable-finally glottalization is variably realized on any part of the sonorant. I claim that these tendencies are due to both articulatory and perceptual reasons. (Myongji University)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sodium hypochlorite and steam autoclaving on the cyclic fatigue of nickel-titanium endodontic files. Two types of files with a .06 taper and #30 were used, K3^(ⓡ) (SybronEndo, Glendora, California, USA) and Hero642^(ⓡ)(Micro-Mega, Besancon, France). The files were divided into 6 experimental groups containing 10 files each group depending the soaking time in 6% sodium hypochlorite solution and number of cycles of steam autoclave. After sterilization, a cyclic fatigue test was performed on each file, and the fracture time was recorded in seconds. The control group underwent the cyclic fatigue test only. After the test, the surface characteristics of the files were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All groups containing the Hero 642^(ⓡ) files showed a similar cyclic fatigue fracture time. However, the cyclic fatigue fracture time with the K3^(ⓡ) files was significantly shorter in groups which were treated with sodium hypochlorite than in the control group (P < 0.05). SEM revealed both Hero642^(ⓡ) and K3^(ⓡ) files to have significant corrosion on the file surface in groups treated with sodium hypochlorite, compared with the sharp and regular blades of the control group. K3^(ⓡ) files showed more corrosion than the Hero642^(ⓡ) files. Bluntness of the blades of the K3^(ⓡ) file was observed in groups treated with steam autoclave. Although there was no obvious destruction on the surface of steam autoclaved Hero642^(ⓡ) files, slight bluntness was observed. Sterilizing with a steam autoclave is much less destructive to K3^(ⓡ) files than sodium hypochlorite. The longer time exposed to sodium hypochlohte, the more destructive pattern was shown on the blades of the files. Therefore, when using sodium hypochlorite solution, the exposure time should be as short as possible in order to prevent corrosion and increase the cyclic fatigue fracture time. 본 연구에서는 차아염소산나트륨 용액 및 고압증기멸균이 근관 치료용 Ni-Ti 파일의 주기적 피로 파절에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 하였다. 파일 첨단 크기가 #30이고 .06 taper를 가지는 Hero 642^(ⓡ)와 K3^(ⓡ)파일 70개를 10개씩 7개의 군으로 나누었으며, 6% 차아염소산나트륨 용액에 15분 (N15군), 30분 (N30군),고압증기멸균은 121 ℃의 온도, 0.12 ㎫의 압력에서 20 분간 시행하는 것을 일 회로 하여 5회 (H5군), 10회 (H10), 고압증기멸균 5회 후 차아염소산나트륨 용액 15분 (H5N15),고압증기멸균 10회 후 차아염소산나트륨 용액 30분 (H10N30) 처리 후 주기적 피로 파절 실험을 수행하여 파일이 파절될 때까지의 시간을 초 단위로 측정하였다. 대조군은 전처리를 하지 않고 주기적 피로 파절을 시행하였다. 95%의 신뢰도로 one-way analysis of variance를 이용하여 통계 처리하였으며 , 다중 비교는 Tukey방법으로 분석하였다. 파일의 표면을 주사전자현미경으로 관찰하였다. 주기적 피로 파절에 소요된 시간은 Hero 642^(ⓡ)는 각 군별로 유의할 만한 차이가 없었으며, K3^(ⓡ)는 N15, N30, H5N15군에서 대조군에 비해 짧은 시간이 소요된 것으로 나타났다 (p < 0.05). 주사전자 현미경에서 관찰했을 때 Hero 642^(ⓡ)와 K3^(ⓡ) 모두 N15, N30 군에서 파일의 표면과 날이 부식이 되어 대조군에서 관찰된 일정방향으로 배열된 정형화된 예리한 빗살무늬가 부분적으로 파괴된 형태가 관찰되었으며 ,N15군에 비해 N30군에서 파일의 형태가 파괴된 양상이 뚜렷했으며 ,Hero 642^(ⓡ)보다 K3^(ⓡ)가 심하게 부식된 양상이었다. H5군과 H10군에서는 K3^(ⓡ)파일은 날 부분이 무디어진 양상을 보였고, Hero 642^(ⓡ)는 형태 파괴가 뚜렷하지 않았으나 H10군에서 표면의 빗살무늬가 약간 무디어진 양상을 보였다. H5N15군과 H10N30군에서는 그다지 뚜렷한 형태변화는 없었다. 본 연구 결과 K3^(ⓡ)파일을 사용 시에는 가능한 한 차아염소산나트륨에 적은 시간 노출 시키는 것이 파일의 부식으로 인한 형태의 손상을 방지 할 수 있고, 주기적 피로 파절에 걸리는 시간도 감소시킬 수 있을 것이다.
This study was designed to exam the aged's needs for spiritual nursing care. The purpose was to serve as a basis for the development of spiritual nursing practice. The major findings are as follows : 1. The degree of needs for spiritual nursing care as area was that needs of love and relationship mean 22.0, needs of meaning and object mean 28.2, needs of forgiving mean 13.5. Total needs for spiritual nursing care mean 63.7, which was on the upper middle level. The needs of meaning and object was rated highest. 2. Among the general characteristics of the subjects, needs of love and relatiohship wasn't significanlty different. 3. Among the general characteristics of the subjects, needs of meaning and object was significantly different according to two factors : age(F=7.260, p=0.001), religion(F=5.275, p=0.001). Higher needs of meaning and object was possessed by the older than the younger, by the one who have religion than the other. 4. Among the general characteristics of the subjects, four factors made a significantly difference to needs of forgiving : sex(t=-2.851, p=0.006), age(F=8.201, p=0.001), religion(F=6.928, p=0.000), disease(t=2.327, p=0.024). Higher needs of forgiving was possessed by man than woman, by the older than the younger, by the one who have religion than the other, by the one who have disease than the other.
항진균 세균의 특성 및 기능변화 가능성을 조사하기 위하여 버섯폐배지, 온천수, 해조류 및 삼림토양으로부터 식물병원성 진균에 대한 8 종의 항진균 활성 균주를 분리하였고 감마선(^60Co)을 이용하여 LD_95 에 돌연변이체를 유도하였다. Bactllus circulans K1, Burkholderia gladioli K4와 Bacillussubtilis YSl은 12 종의 식물병원성 진균에 대go 항진균 활성을 보였다. 이들 균주의 방사선감수성 조사결과 B. gladioliK4는 감마선에 대한 높은 감수성을 보였으며, D_10 값은 0.11kGy 였다. 감마선에 의해 유도된 Kl-1004와 YSl-1009는Botryosphaeria dothidea에 대해 항진균 활성이 증가되었다. B.subtilis YS1의 돌연변이체인 YSl-1006과 YS1-1009는 tebuconazol과 copper hydroxide에 대해 농약 저항성을 나타냈다. SAR535, SAR5108 과 SAR5l18 돌연변이체는 야생형 균주인 Streptomyces sp. SAR01에 비해 5 종의 식물병원성 진균에 대해 항진균 활성이 없었다. 연구결과, 방사선을 이용하여 다양한 기능의 돌연변이체 유도가 가능하였다. 이를 이용하여 항진균 활성 관련 유전자 연구 및 균주개량이 가능할 것으로 사료된다. In order to evaluate the antifungal activity of bacteria against plant pathogenic fungi, 8 bacteria were isolated from mushroom compost, hot spring, seaweed, and forest soil and mutants from them were induced by LD_(95) gamma radiadon(^(60)Co). Bacillus circuluns K1, Burkholderia gladioli K4 and Bacillus subtilis YS1 showed wide antifungal spectrum against 12 kinds of plant pathogenic fungi. From the radiation sensitivity test, R gladioli K4 was very sensitive to gamma radiation and its D_(10) value was 0.11 kGy. Antifungal activities of B. circulans K1-1004 and B. subtilis YS1-1009, which were induced by the radiation of ^(60)Co increased against Botryosphaeria dothidea. The mutant strains, B. subtilis YS1-1006 and B. subtilis YS1-1009 were resistant to tebuconazole and copper hydroxide. SAR535, SAR5108, and SAR5118 mutated from Streptomyces sp. SAR01 were antifungal activity deficient mutants against 5 kinds of plant pathogenic fungi compared to wild strain, so that they could be supposed to be model strains for studying antifungal mechanism. It is suggested that various functional types of mutants could be induced by gamma radiation and applied usefully.