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      • 홧병 경험군과 홧병 비경험군간의 홧병의 질병개념에 대한 비교연구

        홍진표,김창윤,이창화,김성윤,박인호,이철,한오수 울산대학교 의과대학 1995 울산의대학술지 Vol.4 No.2

        Objective The concept of Hwa-byung in terms of illness entity remains vague. In order to clarify such illness entity, this study was conducted to find out differences and similarities in subjects who experienced Hwa-byung and those who did not experienced Hwa-byung from a wide distribution within the general population. Method (1) Test Material The questionnaires were made up with reference to previously published articles on Hwa-byung, to SCL-90-R and to diagnostic criteria of DSM-Ⅲ-R. The questionnaires included the subject's demographic variables, their awareness of Hwa-byung, their experience of Hwa-byung, and also their opinions about its possible causes, precipitating factors, symptomatology, effective treatment modalities, course and prognosis of Hwa-byung. Such questionnaires were given to 50 subjects, all of whom are psychiatric out-patients at Asan Medical Center, for determining its validity and reliability before selecting 27 questionnaires. (2) Subject Subjects were recruited from among patients and their family members who visited the out-patient clinics of seven different departments at Asan Medical Center in Seoul a large metropolis (N=334), the out-patient clinics of seven different departments of Hae Sung General Hospital in the industrial city of Ulsan, Korea (N=299) and the seven branches of the public health center of Yeonchun county, Korea (N=262), a rural area. From these 895 subjects, 67 subjects who don't know about Hwa-byung and 34 subjects who didn't answered to the question on experience were eliminated from study subjects. The final number of study subjects was 794. (3) Methods of analysis The subjects were divided into the Hwa-byung experienced group and the Hwa-byung inexperienced group. The demographic data and the concepts of Hwa-byung were statistically analyzed by the student t-test or the chi-sq test. Results and Discussion The mean age of the Hwa-byung experienced group is significantly higher than that of the Hwa-byung inexperienced group. MOre women experienced Hwa-byung than men and lesser educated subjects experienced significantly more Hwa-byung. The place of residence, the place of upbringing and socioeconomic status have no significant difference statistically between the two groups. Both groups considered the primary cause of Hwa-byung as being psychological origin. However in the Hwa-byung experienced group, more subjects considered that the supernatural factor was the primary cause of Hwa-byung. One of the primary precipitating events causing Hwa-byung in both groups is conflict in interpersonal relationships ; however, the Hwa-byung inexperienced group exhibited more experiences in the realm of economical losses such as "failure of business" or "loss of capital" as precipitating factors causing Hwa-byung. Both groups consider that the symptoms of Hwa-byung are a combination of multiple physical and mental symptoms. With particular respect to in mental symptoms, such as depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and hostility are thought to be prominent features. As effective treatment modalities, subjects in both groups consider that both himself and his family members should make effort to resolve intrafamilial conflicts. But in contrast with the Hwa-byung inexperienced group, the Hwa-byung experienced group requires more concrete and more attention-giving modalities as important treatment strategies. The Hwa-byung experienced group considers its prognosis more grave than the Hwa-byung inexperienced group.

      • KCI등재

        민족어, 민족문학, 리얼리즘

        배개화(Gae Hwa Bae) 한국현대소설학회 2008 현대소설연구 Vol.- No.37

        이 연구는 1930년대 중·후반기의 임화의 ``민족어`` 및 ``민족문학``에 대한 논의를 검토하고, 리얼리즘 문학을 통한 민족어 및 민족문학의 완성이라는 임화의 구상, 및 이러한 논의들과 해방공간에서 전개된 임화의 민족문학론과의 연속성을 해명하고 있다. 임화는 ``민족``이란 프롤레 타리아트와 부르주아라는 두 계급으로 구성된 자본주의 사회의 공동체이며, 이 단계에서 민족문학은 프롤레타리아적 민족문학과 부르주아 민족문학이라는 두 개의 민족문학을 가진다고 본다. 이중 카프 작가는 프롤레타리아적 민족문학을 추구해야 하며, 이는 ``민족적 형식과 국제적(사회주의적) 내용``으로 된 문학으로 정의된다. 둘째, 임화는 언문일치(근대적 민족어) 운동을 언어상의 민주주의 운동이라고 규정하고, 1920년대 후반 이래로 프롤레타리아 문학이 그 역사적인 임무를 맡게 되었다고 주장한다. 그리고 그 실현방법으로 전형성을 획득한 리얼리즘 문학의 창작을 제시한다. 셋째, 해방 이후 임화는 프롤레타리아 계급의 주도 하에 진보적, 민주주의적 민족문학을 건설할 것을 주장하고 이를 ``민족적 형식과 민주주의적 내용``의 문학이라고 정의한다. 이러한 민족문학 개념은 해방 전의 민족문학 개념을 계승하고 있음을 알 수 있다. 마지막으로 1930년대에 전개된 임화의 논의는 1918년 이후 민족담론의 새로운 패러다임이 되었던 레닌의 ``민족자결``이라는 사상에 바탕을 두고 있음에 틀림없으며, 그가 주장하는 민족어 및 민족문학의 완성이란 결국 ``국민국가``의 형성과 분리되어서 생각할 수 없다는 점에서 그의 논의가 가진 탈식민주의적 논점은 분명하다. Korean modern language was based on the idea of the national language, and formed through linguistic standardization with the need of nation-state. During the colonial period (1909-1945), however, Korea lost the position of nation-state, which delayed the formation of ``national language`` as well as ``national literature.`` Yim Hwa asserted that national literature must contained international(socialistic) content and national form. He believed that the ``nation`` is the community of the capital society, which formed the two classes of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. At this stage, nation literature has two types of national literature, that is to say, the proletarian and the bourgeoisie literature. He argued that ``Korea Artista Proleta Federatio``(KAPF) writers must pursue proletarian literature, made of international content and national form. Yim Hwa, and also, well understood political function of the written language, and defined the vernacularization as the democracy in language, and as a goal of the proletarian literature. Since the latter of 1920`s, he believed, KAPF writers have in charge of completing historical mission, vernacularization. Yim Hwa proclaimed that this mission should be accomplished by producing realistic literature such as Yi Giyeong` Gohyang[hometown], to whose language he gave the highest applause as the summit of the Korean language. He thought that modern national language can be completed not by just printing dialects or public language (volk-sprache) but by the normatively reformed language, which is based on the aesthetic principle of the (social) realism. Finally, He seems to well understand the political function of letter language. Considering these facts, it concluded that national language and literature proclaimed by Lim Hwa can not separate from establishment of the Nation-State. In this point, his post-colonial consciousness is very clear.

      • KCI등재

        華夷觀과 조선조 사대부의 對外認識

        조명화(Cho Myung-Hwa) 한국중어중문학회 2012 中語中文學 Vol.51 No.-

        “The sense of Hwa- Yi”(華夷觀) - The distinction of China Civilization vs Outer Civilization - is not only the ideology needed to govern China domestically, but the principle of the international relationship which China demanded to surrounding nations, It had a far-reaching influence on the internal systems of many East -Asian countries as well as China. Therefore, we can find that “The sense of Hwa-Yi”(華夷觀) is the major topics of many realms related to East-Asian nations, not to mention China-related realms. This study aims to examine how “Sadaebu(士大夫)” - the ruling class of Chosun dynasty - accepted “The sense of Hwa-Yi”(華夷觀) which originated in China, how they applied it in governing the nation and formulating the diplomatic relation with China, and especially how it affected the perception on foreign nations among Chosun Sadaebu. “Sadaebu” of the later Chosun dynasty advocated Chosun-Sinocentrism, belief that since the Ming dynasty was perished the Sinocentric civilization remained only In Chosun, It was intended in part as a means to exalt the national self-respect. Contrary to some criticism that to judge the latter part of the Chosun dynasty from this point of view is a sort of nationalism, Chosun-Sinocentrism among the ruling class of the later Chosun dynasty is Quite different from the aggressive nationalism which was prevalent in Europe and Japan, It served mainly as a means to enhance the cultural self-respect. We can point out the mistakes of Chosun-Sinocentrism that it degraded to the empty idealism by placing lOa much emphasis on self-identity, and that it was recognized as a general principle, though the true nature and intention of Chosun-Sinocentrism was only a means to encourage the self-respect. Due to revulsion against the fact that other race than the Han occupied the home of the Sinocentric Civilization, the ruling class of the later Chosun dynasty rejected the Qing dynasty firmly and continuously, The sentiment of revulsion lasted too long, and it resulted in the distorted foreign relations of the Chosun dynasty. Owing to the perverted perception, Korean people spent nearly 100 years without understanding China exactly. It is very important for Korean people to understand China exactly in the first place, in order to get the correct perception on the foreign countries, It is possible by exactly understanding the perception on China in the past. Therefore, we need to comprehend the cause and effect of the distorted recognition on China among Chosun Sadaebu.

      • KCI등재

        박화성 소설의 탈식민적 페미니즘 연구 : 『벼랑에 피는 꽃』을 중심으로

        이미화(Lee Mi-hwa) 우리문학회 2014 우리文學硏究 Vol.0 No.42

        박화성의 소설『벼랑에 피는 꽃』은 페미니스트 현석란이 가부장제 사회 속에서 일본 제국주의에 대한 저항을 일생의 목표로 하여 살아온 이야기를 수미상관의 기법으로 전개한 작품이다. 17세부터 36년 동안에 현석란은 ‘우리만의 힘으로 대한의 딸들을 기르리라'는 목표를 실현하기 위해 고군분투하였다. 이런 현석란의 삶은 독립을 목표로 싸운 조선의 36년과 같았다. 즉 근대 초기 여류작가로만 인식되고 있는 박화성은 해방 이후에도 계속적으로 항일저항의식을 간직하는 작품을 집필한 현대적 작가였던 것이다. 본고는 『벼랑에 피는 꽃』에 나타난 언어제국주의 비판과 민족주의적 여성정체성, 이중 억압에 대한 저항으로서의 자매애와 형제애, 식민지 여성의 양면적 섹슈얼리티를 통해 이를 밝히고자 한다. Park Hwa-sung the『Flowers blooming on a cliff』 is a feminist in a patriarchal society hyeonseokran is the resistance to Japanese imperialism, and lived the life story of Sumi aims to do the work of development of the technique. 36 years from 53 years old to 17 years old during the Hyeonseokran is "the power of our own will bring up the daughters" were struggling to achieve the goal. Hyeonseokran goal of this struggle is fought independence of Korea and the like may be 36 years. That is recognized as the only female writer in the early modern Park Hwa-sung anti-Japanese resistance continued even after the liberation thus keeping the ceremony was the work will be written by a modern writer. This paper is a 『Flowers blooming on a cliff』 appears in the language of nationalist criticism and female identity, imperialism, dual sisterhood and brotherhood as the resistance to oppression, colonial ambivalent sexuality of women who were saying it over.

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        기후요인에 의한 철원지역 두루미류 월동개체수 변화 -MODIS 위성영상을 이용한 눈덮임 범위와 지속기간의 영향-

        유승화 ( Seung Hwa Yoo ), 이기섭 ( Ki Sup Lee ), 정화영 ( Hwa Young Jung ), 김화정 ( Hwa Jung Kim ), 허위행 ( Wee Haeng Hur ), 김진한 ( Jin Han Kim ), 박종화 ( Chong Hwa Park ) 한국하천호수학회(구 한국육수학회) 2015 생태와 환경 Vol.48 No.3

        In this study, we hypothesized that the size of wintering crane population would change due to the climate factors. We assumed that wintering population size would differ by climate values in January, which is the coldest period in year. Especially, White-naped cranes were able to choose wintering site between Cheorwon and other alternative place where snow coverage had low influence, differing from Red crowned cranes. For this reason, we predicted the population size of White-naped cranes would fluctuate according to the extent of snow coverage in Cheorwon. Therefore we used snow coverage data based on MODIS and climate data from KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) that are generally used. We analyzed the crane``s population size in Cheorwon in January from 2002 to 2014. The temperature in the Cheorwon increased from 2002 to wintering period in 2007~ 2008 and went down, showing the lowest temperature in 2011~ 2012. With this phenomenon, warmth index showed the similar pattern with temperature. Amount of newly accumulated snow (the amount of snow that fallen from 0:01 am to 11:29 pm in a day) was low after 2002, but rapidly increased in 2010~ 2011 and 2011~ 2012. The area of snow coverage rapidly declined from 2002 to 2005~ 2006 but suddenly expanded in wintering period in 2009~ 2010 and 2010~ 2011. Wintering population size of the White-naped cranes decreased as snow coverage area increased in January and the highest correlation was found between them, compared to the other climatic factors. However, the number of individuals of Red crowned cranes had little relationship with general climate factors including snow cover range. Therefore it seems that population size of the Red crowned crane varied by factors related with habitat selection such as secure roosting site and area of foraging place, not by climatic factors. In multiple regression analysis, wintering population of White-naped cranes showed significant relationship with logarithmic value of snow cover range and its period. Therefore, it suggests that the population size of the White-naped crane was affected by snow cover range n wintering period and this was because it was hard for them to find out rice grains which are their main food items, buried in snow cover. The population size variation in White-naped cranes was caused by some individuals which left Cheorwon for Izumi where snow cover had little influence on them. The wintering population in Izumi and Cheorwon had negative correlation, implying they were mutually related.

      • KCI등재

        양격산화탕(凉膈散火湯)의 항염증(抗炎症) 효과에 대한 연구

        탁미진,탁명림,강경화,고우신,윤화정,Tak,,Mi-Jin,Tark,,Myoung-Rim,Kang,,Kyoung-Hwa,Ko,,Woo-Shin,Yoon,,Hwa-Jung 대한한방안이비인후피부과학회 2010 한방안이비인후피부과학회지 Vol.23 No.1

        Objective: Yang Geouk San Hwa - Tang (YGSHT) has been widely used in Sasang Constitutional Medicine of Korea for treatment of acute inflammatory symptom, such as palatine tonsillitis, polydipsia, headache, papule, pimple however, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity has not been clarified. In this study, therefore, we investigated the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of YGSHT on LPS-induced inflammation. Materials and methods: The effect of YGSHT was analyzed by ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blotting in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Results: We found that YGSHT suppressed not only the production of pre-inflammatory cytokines (IL-$1{\beta}$ and TNF-$\alpha$), the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (PGE)2, but also the mRNA expression of pre-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Furthermore, YGSHT was shown to inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and the activation and translocation of NF-kB from cytosol to nuclear in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Conclusions: These results suggest that YGSHT exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through the regulation of the ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 pathway and NF-kB pathway, thereby decreasing production of pre-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and PGE2.

      • KCI등재

        화병(火病)을 동반한 갱년기 환자 치험 5례

        송유림 ( Yu-rim Song ), 박경미 ( Kyung-mi Park ), 양승정 ( Seung-jeong Yang ), 이은규 ( Eun-kyu Lee ), 김혜화 ( Hye-hwa Kim ), 조성희 ( Seong-hee Cho ) 대한한방부인과학회 2016 大韓韓方婦人科學會誌 Vol.29 No.4

        Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Korean traditional treatments for Climacteric Syndrome Patients with Hwa-Byung. Methods: From February 2015 to May 2015, We treated 5 Cases Patients with Korean traditional treatments for a month. We measured treatment effects by Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), Beck`s Depression Inventory (BDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging (DITI). Results: After treatment, First, the scores of MRS, BDI were decreased. Second, the symptoms such as hot flush, pantalgia, palpitation, insomnia, fatigue were significantly improved. Also, the difference of ?中 (CV17, Danjung) and 關元 (CV4, Guanyuan) temperatures were significantly decreased after treatment. Conclusions: This study suggests that Korean traditional treatments such as Gamicheonglijagam-hwan, acupuncture, moxibustion are effective on Climacteric Syndrome Patients with Hwa-Byung.

      • KCI등재

        안종화(安鍾和)의 <수학절요(數學節要)>에 대한 고찰

        이상구 ( Sang Gu Lee ), 이재화 ( Jae Hwa Lee ), 변형우 ( Hyung Woo Byun ) 한국수학교육학회 2011 수학교육논문집 Vol.25 No.4

        In 2007, a Taiwanese mathematics historian Wann-Sheng HORNG made a visit to Kyujanggak(the royal library of Joseon Dynasty) in Seoul, Korea. During this visit, he found the Korean math book An abridged version of the Joseon Mathematics (<數學節要>, Su-Hak-Jeol-Yo), which was written by Jong-Hwa AN(9 Nov 1860-24 Nov 1924) in 1882. Then he mentioned the possible importance of AN`s book in his article in the Journal Kyujanggak(vol. 32, June 2008). Jong-Hwa AN is a Korean scholar, activist of patriotism and enlightenment in the latter era of Joseon Dynasty. He passed the last examination of Joseon Dynasty to become a high government officer in 1894. The father of the modern mathematics education in Korea, Sang-Seol LEE(1870-1917) also passed the same examination with him. It is interesting that government high officer AN and LEE both wrote mathematics books in 19th century. In this talk, we now analyze this mathematics book of Joseon written in 1882.

      • KCI등재

        틱(Tic) 장애의 한의변증유형 설문지에 대한 신뢰도 및 요인분석 연구

        위영만 ( Young Man Wei ), 이고은 ( Go Eun Lee ), 정송화 ( Song Hwa Jung ), 이희경 ( Hee Kyung Lee ), 유영수 ( Yeoung Su Lyu ), 강형원 ( Hyung Won Kang ) 대한한방신경정신과학회 2012 동의신경정신과학회지 Vol.23 No.1

        Objectives : We purposed to objectify the pattern diagnosis of Tic disorders through factor and reliability analysis regarding a pattern identification questionnaire concerning Tic disorders in children. Methods : We chose and studied 144 children who were pattern-diagnosed out of 200 tic disordered children who visited H hospital in Seoul from January 2006 to April 2011. Results : 1. TTD (50%) was the most common type and the occurrence rate in male children was higher(4.76:1). Also, the rate of hospital visits was highest at the age 8(23.6%). 2. In results concering pattern diagnosis, Gan-poong-nae-dong was most frequently diagnosed in 53 patients (36.8%), and Dam-hwa-yo-sin (42 patients), Gan-sin-um-her (30 patients), and Bee-her-gan-wang (6 patients) . 3. In an attempt to verify the reliability of the questionnaire, the coefficient regarding the whole questions (Cronbach α) came to 0.909. Moreover, the reliability coefficient foreach sub factor was 0.687 in Gan- poong-nae-dong, 0.817 in Dam-hwa-yo-sin, 0.851 in Bee-her-gan-wang, and 0.726 in Gan-sin-um-her, respectively. Thus, their consistency was ensured. 4. In exploratory factor analysis concerning the most common five questions in the questionnaire, the questions of Dam-hwa-yo-sin and Gan-poong-nae-dong appeared to be part of different factors. While, Gan-sin-um-her and Bee-her-gan-wang questions showed that they belong to the same factors. 5. In factor analysis excluding both Gan-sin-um-her and Bee-her-gan-wang questions, both showed significant results; however, the one excluding Gan-sin-um-her showed improved results. Conclusions : From the above results concerning the Pattern Identification Questionnaire for Tic Disordered children, three separated patterns of Bee-her-gan-wang, Dam-hwa-yo-sin, Gan-poong-nae-dong are thought to be available for clinical use. However, further validity studies are needed.

      • KCI등재

        An Increased Intracellular Calcium Ion Concentration in Response to Dimethyl Sulfoxide Correlates with Enhanced Expression of Recombinant Human Cyclooxygenase 1 in Stably Transfected Drosophila melanogaster S2 Cells

        Kyung Hwa Chang(장경화), Jong-Hwa Park(박종화), Do Hyung Kim(김도형), Ha Young Chung(정하영), Jeon Hwang-Bo(황보전), Hyun Ho Lee(이현호), Hee-Young Lee(이희영), Dong-Hwa Shon(손동화), Wonyong Kim(김원용), In Sik Chung(정인식) 한국생물공학회 2012 KSBB Journal Vol.27 No.5

        Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) increased the intracellular calcium ion concentration in stably transfected Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells expressing recombinant cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1). DMSO did not increase the Drosophila NOS (dNOS) transcript level in calcium chelatortreated cells. Expression of recombinant COX-1 due to DMSO was diminished in cells treated with calcium chelators or channel blockers. Our results indicate that an increased intracellular calcium ion concentration due to DMSO is associated with up-regulation of the dNOS gene, leading to enhanced expression of COX-1.

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