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Demand elasticities are the best available indicators of how households may respond to policies which change relative prices and the level and distribution of income. In this study, income and price elasticities for eight commodity groups are estimated for Turkey based on the LES by using household level data compiled from the 1994 Household Income and Consumption Expenditures Survey conducted by the State Institute of Statistics. All estimates obtained as a result of the estimation procedure are consistent with a priori expectations and satisfy the underlying utility theory requirements.
Antrochoanal polyps (ACPs) are benign polypoid lesions arising from the maxillary antrum and they extend into the choana. They occur more commonly in children and young adults, and they are almost always unilateral. The etiopathogenesis of ACPs is not clear. Nasal obstruction and nasal drainage are the most common presenting symptoms. The differential diagnosis should include the causes of unilateral nasal obstruction. Nasal endoscopy and computed tomography scans are the main diagnostic techniques, and the treatment of ACPs is always surgical. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and powered instrumentation during FESS for complete removal of ACPs are extremely safe and effective procedures. Physicians should focus on detecting the exact origin and extent of the polyp to prevent recurrence.
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Modafinil is generally known as a drug with low addiction potential. There are few case reports in the literature demonstrating that Modafinil, stated being capable of diminishing symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), causes addiction. In the present article a Modafinil addicted ADHD case, consuming usurious doses (5,000 mg/per day) of Modafinil is presented. The case presented to our psychiatry outpatient clinic due to: requirement of in taking high dose Modafinil in order to achieve the initial effects, difficulty in obtaining the drug, irritability, anxiousness, sleep irregularities, fatigue and unpleasant vivid dreams when he did not use the drug. It was realized that the patient, himself increased doses of Modafinil incrementally, in order to keep its effects on attention symptoms at the same level. It has to be kept in mind that ADHD patients can develop Modafinil addiction. It is necessary to carry out systemic studies on this subject.
Background: Shielding properties of compound or mixture is presented in terms of mass attenuation coefficients using Monte Carlo simulation. Mass attenuation coefficients of cement, gypsum and the mixture of gypsum and PbCO3 has been investigated using monte carlo MCNPX. Materials and Methods: The mass attenuation coefficients of cement, gypsum and the mixture of gypsum and PbCO3 were calculated for photon energies 365.5, 661.6, 1,173.2, and 1,332.5 keV energies. Results and Discussion: The simulated values of mass attenuation coefficients were compared avaialable experimental results, theoretical values by XCOM and found good comparability of the results. Conclusion: Standard simulation geometry used in the present investigation would be very useful for various types of sample for shielding and dosimetry applications.
The production of antileukemic enzyme methionine γ-lyase (MGL) in distinctly related bacteria, Citrobacter freundii and in their recombinants expressing the Vitresocilla hemoglobin (VHb) has been studied. This study concerns the potential of Citrobacter freundii expressing the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene (vgb) for the methionine γ-liyase production. Methionine γ-liyase production by Citrobacter freundii and its vgb? and vgb+ bearing recombinant strain was studied in shake-flasks under 200 rpm agitation, culture medium and 30oC in a time-course manner. The vgb+ and especially the carbon type had a dramatic effect on methionine γ-liyase production. The vgb+ strain of C. freundii had about 2-fold and 3.1-fold higher levels of MGL than the host and vgb? strain, respectively. [BMB reports 2011; 44(9): 590-594]
In this study, electroencephalography signals recorded while participants were doing verbal and quantitative tasks, are classified. A dataset containing 1044 records obtained from 18 participants are used for subject-dependent classifications. Features are derived from phase locking values calculated between all channel pairs. Features are reduced before the classification process by using both analysis of variance and correlation based feature selection methods. Instances in the dataset are classified by using the nearest neighbor algorithm. An average classification accuracy of 92.35% is achieved over 18 participants. It is shown that phase locking value is distinctive especially when it is calculated on delta and gamma frequency bands measured between frontal and occipital regions.
Background: Family dynamics are increasingly recognized as affecting factor of management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM): however, little research has been done until recently.The aim of this study is to compare the marital satisfaction levels of couples with Diabetes and those without the disease in Eastern Turkey. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among couples during June 2014 at a major tertiary hospital in Van, Turkey. Couples previously diagnosed as Diabetes Mellitus consisted the Diabetic Group and couples without Diabetes Mellitus and any other chronical disease consisted the Non Diabetic Group. Randomly selected 326 respondents were interviewed using the Turkish version of the Marital Satisfaction Scale to assess the satisfaction levels. Data was analyzed using SPSS computer software version 21 and the independent sample t-tests were the key statistical test. Results: The mean age was 53.7 years among Diabetic Group (N=109) and 40.8 among Non-Diabetic group (N=217) (p=0001). The mean Body Mass Index was 31.6 among Diabetic Group and 28.5 among Non-Diabetic group (p=0001). The mean Diastolic Blood Pressure was 84.7 mm Hg among Diabetic Group and 77.3 mm Hg among Non-Diabetic group (p=0.0001). The mean number of children was 5.3 among Diabetic Group and 4.1 among Non-Diabetic group (p=0.0001). The mean Marital Satisfaction Score was 107.3 (male=112.2, female=102.8) among Diabetic Group and 99.2 (male=109.4, female=93.5) among Non-Diabetic group (p=0.004). Conclusions: Diabetes is of growing public health concern in developing countries like Turkey. Marital stasifaction levels of Diabetic couples should be tested in order to identify and implement appropriate interventions. As Marital Satisfaction levels of Non-Diabetic women are lower more care should be given by the physicians to support Non-Diabetic women.
This paper examines business cycle characteristics of Turkish economy in the liberalization pe- riod (post-1980 period) using a Markov-switching Autoregressive (MSAR) model framework. The importance of model selection process is emphasized in an extensive search for the appropriate MS model. The business cycle properties are found to be very sensitive to the state dimension, the choice of the MS model (classi¯ed according to regime-dependent parameters) and the autoregres- sive lag order. The chosen two-regime MS model suggests four recessionary and ¯ve expansionary phases in the post-1980 period. Business cycle phases are found to be asymmetric with probability of switching from a recession to expansion exceeding the probability of switching from expansion to recession. The paper also provides evidence on the usefulness of a non-linear model as compared to linear alternative in the context of business cycle research in an emerging economy using various parametric and nonparametric tests. Nonlinear and linear models are compared and evaluated using kernel density and conditional expectation estimates by simulating data from respective models. This paper examines business cycle characteristics of Turkish economy in the liberalization pe- riod (post-1980 period) using a Markov-switching Autoregressive (MSAR) model framework. The importance of model selection process is emphasized in an extensive search for the appropriate MS model. The business cycle properties are found to be very sensitive to the state dimension, the choice of the MS model (classi¯ed according to regime-dependent parameters) and the autoregres- sive lag order. The chosen two-regime MS model suggests four recessionary and ¯ve expansionary phases in the post-1980 period. Business cycle phases are found to be asymmetric with probability of switching from a recession to expansion exceeding the probability of switching from expansion to recession. The paper also provides evidence on the usefulness of a non-linear model as compared to linear alternative in the context of business cycle research in an emerging economy using various parametric and nonparametric tests. Nonlinear and linear models are compared and evaluated using kernel density and conditional expectation estimates by simulating data from respective models.
In this study, bio-chars were evaluated as a potential adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of some important parameters including initial pH (1.5–7), adsorbent dose (0.2–5 g/L), contact time (5–900 min) and initial Cr (VI) ion concentration (5–75 mg/L) were tested on the removal of Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solution in batch experiments. Maximum adsorption capacities of the tested bio-chars under the certain experimental conditions determined as optimal were 3.53 mg/g for NCBC, 3.97 mg/g for NZCBC and 6.08 mg/g for ACBC, respectively. Results of the kinetic and isotherm modeling studies revealed that the adsorption data fitted well with a pseudo-second order and Langmuir model. In among the tested bio-chars, the bio-char (ACBC) was largely equivalent to activated carbon: AC (9.97 mg/g) in terms of adsorption capacity. All results indicated that the bio-chars had higher adsorption capacity than some chars and activated carbons reported previously, and also that these bio-chars could be used successfully as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of chromium ions from aqueous solutions under the tested experimental conditions.
Wear and biological performances of a thermally oxidized Ti6Al7Nb alloy were investigated. Thermal oxidation (TO) performed at 600 °C for 60 h in air formed a 0.6 μm thick and relatively rough (having an average surface roughness of 1.1 μm) oxide layer (OL) on the surface. The OL was identified as the rutile form of TiO_2 and there was an oxygen diffusion zone (ODZ) with an average thickness of 5 μm just beneath it. The applied TO process resulted in more than ten-fold increase in wear resistance in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Additionally, the biological performance was also enhanced as revealed by SBF immersion and cell culture tests.