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黃宗羲從“人各自私自利”的新人性論出發, 視萬民之利爲“公利”, 爲萬民自有權利和權益辯護;從是否“切於民用”的角度, 重新判分“本末之辨”, 主張“工商皆本”, 重整了四民價値秩序。黃宗羲的經濟倫理思想是“新民本”型的經濟倫理思想, ?包涵的“以民生起見”的民生觀, 是“崇公”的價値理想在新的經濟形態下的運用, 涵藏著近代性的根芽, 代表著中國哲學從古典形態向近代形態的轉向, 對於我們今天的稅費制改革、減輕農民負擔、構建和諧社會等諸多方面和多個領域, 都有著重要的啓示意義。 Based on the new premise of human nature that “every person is self-interested,” Huang Zongxi viewed “profit of ten thousand men” as the “common good” or “public interest.” Moreover, by adopting a utilitarian perspective, he renewed the “means and ends,” thereby re-arranging the traditional social stratum that engineers and merchants go on top of officials and farmers. Huang`s ethical theories on economics can be regarded as the “new citizen-centered type” advocating “arising from the grassroots” doctrine. Emphasis on the public interest contains in itself the seed of modernization, propelling the transition from the ancient to modern political and economic frameworks. Huang`s economic ethics may throw some light on today`s urgent issues, such as tax reform, relieving farmer`s economic burdens, and social polarization.
《明儒學案》是深具中國特質的學案體斷代哲學史,在“中國哲學史學”的歷史上有着重要的里程碑意義。其中“道非一家之私”、“聖賢血脈散諸百家”、“殊途百慮”等精彩的哲學史觀,已經吐露出了近代學術平等與學術民主的思想霞光。整部著作以儒學爲大本,以心學爲主線,淸晳地勾勒了有明一代儒家哲學發展的脈絡,體現了“功夫著到”與“竭其心之万殊”的知性認識與理性闡發的過程。對此的揭示,不僅有着哲學史學的意義,更可由此上探黃宗羲的學統重建的努力及其具有經世品格的政治倫理思考。 Ming-ru Xue-an is the philosophical history for the Ming Dynasty, which embodies Chinese nature and has great contribution to the history of Chinese history`s study. In this book, “Tao is not owned by one school or somebody”, “Sage`s spirit is scattered into schools”, “thinking through many ways” etc. such splendid viewpoints bring forth academic equality and democracy of modern times. By the famous work, HUANG Zong-xi created the Ming-philosophical-history development process, which poached in a way that Confucius is the main-stone, ideology is the main-steam. Such framework shows scholars reason spirit in their efforts, so-called “to take on”, “to disclose the different aspects of minds”. All these purchase, not only means much to the philosophical history study, but shows us another way to analyze HUANG Zong-xi`s political-ethical thoughts about reconstruction of the Scholar-orthodoxy etc.
身處“壁立万?, 止爭一線”的明淸鼎革之際, 黃宗羲力圖從亡國之由的追問出發, 批評士人階層中彌漫的“市井之氣”、“鄕愿”之學, 及晩明以來士人不自振拔、逃?等“風節委地”之士風, 從而進行士節之重建的倫理學考量。尤其對于作爲遺民的士人, 爲故國盡死節幷非唯一選擇, 其應然的應世方式是“持子陵之風節”, 傲活人世, 竭力著述, “抱道不仕”新朝, 在維系“淸氣”、“扶植善類”方面做出應有貢獻。 At the turn-point of Qing Dynasty destroyed Ming Dynasty, which named as the time “just like 10000 miles mountains are shaking to the ground when they are supported only by a thread”. From questions of the reasons the Ming-dynasty`s perish, Huang Tsung-hsi criticized that the intellectual sprits had fallen, the politics had rotted and people had despaired. He thought that a pre-dynasty intellectual should not take the death for pre-Ming dynasty as the only road to show their respects, they should take Yan Zi-ling as their moral model, live proudly, and write foreseeing works to educate good moral courage and such kinds of intellectuals.
Hilbert-Huang transform is powerful method of nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis. Two approaches, mirror periodic and extrema extending method, have been developed for handling the end effects of Hilbert-Huang transform. The mirror periodic method is based on the data distribution at ends. Two mirrors are placed at the extrema of both ends. The data within the mirrors are extended with mirror reflection to obtain a periodic sequence. With this method, the end effects of empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform are solved once forever. The mirror periodic method can get best results by placed the mirrors at the extrema, which have symmetric property of the data. Extrema extending method is implemented by adding two maxima and minima at the ends, which are defined by the two consecutive extrema of the data at ends. It is easy to perform and has equally well behalf as mirror periodic method. The extrema method is superior to the mirror periodic method when the data has strong asymmetric waveform.
Nostalgia refers to the sentimental longing for the valued past (Sedikides, Wildschut, & Baden, 2004). It is considered a bittersweet emotion, involving both wistful joy and sadness (Sedikides et al., 2004). Nostalgia is also a social emotion. Nostalgic memories typically center on social activities involving the self and close others (Wildschut et al., 2010). Prior research has mainly focused on the social and emotional nature of nostalgic narratives, and researchers have only recently started to investigate the motivations triggered by the process of recalling nostalgic narratives. For example, recalling a nostalgic event can heighten people's motivation to savor such an experience and prolong it (Huang, Huang, & Wyer, 2016). In the current research, we posit that thinking about nostalgic events can trigger another motivation, namely, a desire to revive the past. Whenever people experience nostalgic feelings, they are likely to perceive differences between the present and their memorable past and desire to go back in time (Hepper et al., 2012; Sedikides et al., 2004). This motivation, once activated, can lead people to take actions to change their current state in the hope of reviving the past (Koole & Jostmann, 2004; Kuhl, 1985). This tendency of taking actions to make changes may generalize to subsequent unrelated situations (Kruglanski et al., 2002), and consequently increase consumer switching behavior (Jiang, Zhan, & Rucker, 2014). These predictions were tested across five studies in various consumption contexts. Our findings contribute to consumer research in two important ways, (a) by demonstrating a novel motivational impact of nostalgia on consumer behavior, and (b) by delineating a systematic influence of an unexplored but pervasive emotional factor— nostalgia—on consumer switching behavior. This research also offers practical implications. Conventional wisdom suggests that nostalgia can make consumers prefer products reminiscent of the “old days”. Our findings show that nostalgia can have broader implications for consumer choices and marketers may use it to manage consumer switching behavior.
Tien-Wei highway garden is the biggest cultivated land area for flowers (30.27%, in 2007) in Taiwan, which provided both public goods and positive externalities, such as the amenity value of the landscape, biological diversity, cultural heritage, rural lifestyle and economic activity contributing social welfares to rural economy. The amenity of flower industry attracts many tourists and generates recreational benefits, which cannot be assessed by market price directly. This research adopts the nonmarket goods valuation method, travel cost method (TCM), to measure the benefits from tourists` demand function. In addition, the environmental quality will influence the tourist`s decision to choose the recreation site, which is also an important determinant of demand function and will be introduced into demand model. The empirical results of this research demonstrate that the average consumer surplus (CS) for demand model containing quality variables is NT$7,770. The average consumer surplus without containing quality variables in the demand model is NT$7,741, and the average benefits of environmental quality for tourist is NT29.
In the process of ventricular premature beat (PVC) and normal sinus rhythm (NSR) identification base on electrocardiogram (ECG), there exists problems like negative effect from ECG rhythm and low recognition rate. This paper proposes the electrocardiogram PVC classification algorithm based on support vector machine (SVM) and wavelet algorithm. The algorithm uses the wavelet transform to analyze ECG beating model, which is not influenced by the change of ECG waveform. The two feature sets respectively compose of statistical parameters of the wavelet coefficients and the selected wavelet coefficients. PVC and NSR are analyzed by using SVM. The experimental results show that this method improves the recognition rate of ECG.
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Tien-Wei highway garden is the biggest cultivated land area for flower agriculture (30.27%, in 2007) in Taiwan, which provided public goods and positive externalities, such as the amenity value of the landscape, biological diversity, cultural heritage rural lifestyle and economic activity contribute social welfares to rural economy. The amenity from cultural heritage of flower industry attracts many tourists that generate recreational benefits and cannot be assessed by market price directly. This research adopts the nonmarket goods valuation method, travel cost method (TCM), to measure the benefits from tourists' demand function. In addition, the environmental quality will influence the tourist‘s decision to choice the recreation site, which also to be an important determinant of demand function and will be introduced into demand model. The empirical results of this research demonstrate that the average consumer surplus (CS) for demand model contains quality variables is NT$7,770. The average consumer surplus without containing quality variables in the demand model is NT$7,741, and the average benefits of environmental quality for tourist are NT29.