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Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation.
This paper proposes a novel planar electromagnetic-actuated positioning stage. The stage is suspended by the monolithic parallel flexure mechanism, which motion comes from the deformation of the flexure. A linear electromagnetic actuator which consists of a near-uniform magnetic field and four coils is designed and implementation to provide the propelling force for 3-DOF motions. In order to suppress the vibration of the flexure suspension mechanism, an eddy current damper is designed and integrated with the electromagnetic actuator. The non-contact damper is more advanced than the contact damper used in our previous researches. The design traveling range is 3mm × 3mm in planar motion. The experimental results show the vibration of the flexure mechanism could be suppressed by the designed eddy current damper. The results also show the regulation and tracking performance by a well-designed robust adaptive sliding mode controller, which can overcome the disturbance and modeling uncertainty and guarantee a satisfactory performance.
The effects of an addition of 0–2 wt% Nd on thermal stability of 0–3 wt% Ca-containing modified AZ71 magnesium alloyswas investigated. The ignition temperature was found to increase from that of AZ71, 574, to 825 °C with the addition of0.5 wt% Ca and 1 wt% Nd. The ignition temperature was further increased to 1114 °C when 3 wt% Ca was added. The CaandNd-added AZ71 was isothermally maintained at a temperature of 500 °C in air for 12 h. The MgO–CaO–Nd2O3 formedon the surface to improve the thermal stability of the AZ71–xCa–yNd alloys. While both the tensile strength and ductilitydecreased with the Ca concentration in the alloy, an addition of 1 wt% Nd was found able to alleviate the degradation effectsof Ca on the tensile strength and ductility at 170 °C. Both solid solution formation and precipitation strengthening contributedto the increase in toughness. AZ71 containing 0.5–2 wt% Ca and 1 wt% Nd provides the optimum combination of ignitionresistance and mechanical properties.