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Background : In recent years, gonorrhea has been panedemic and remains one of the most commom STDs in the world, especially in developing countries. Objective & Methods: For the detection of a more effective therapeutic regimen and assessing the prevalence of PPNG, we have been trying to study the patients who have visited the VD Clinic of Choong-Ku Public Health Center in Seoul since 1980 by means of the chromogenic cephalosporin method. Results: In 1996, 139 strains of N. gonorrhoeae were isolated, among which 53(39.0%) were PPNG. Conclusion: Our results suggests that after a peak of 74.3% in 1993, the prevalence of PPNG in Seoul is gradually declining.
Yoon-Keun Chun¹,Joohun Ha□Hong-Jung Woo□, Soo Myung Oh□,Sung Soo Kim□ ¹Department of Molecular Biology, College of Medicine,²Department of Surgery, college of Medicine,³Department of Internal Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine,and ⁴East-Weat Medical Reserch Institute,Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. The HBV DNA Amounts in Serum Have No relationship with ALT level and Hetergeneous Population Coexits in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Proceedings of International Symposium on East-West Medicine, Seoul. 212-230, 1999. -Hepatitis B is caused by hepadnavirus. Hepatitis B virus replicates through 3.5kb pregenomic RNA intermediate which is regulated by core promoter. Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus has been bilieved the result of host immune response. But recently many studies have reported that high level of viral replication caused by mutation in core promoter might result in severs hepatitis. But these studies were performed in vitro, not in vivo. So there is yet debate about which factor, viral of host factor, is more important in pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus. So we measured real viral replication level in 204 chronic hepatitis B patients by quantifying HBV DNA from sera by our novel PCR-based more sensitive method, and compared these results with ALT level measured from same sera, which indicates liver cell damage. Surprisingly there are no significant correlation between HBV DNA quantity and ALT level. Then we cloned core promoter region. In SSCP, we found that many viral mutants coexist in one patient. Base on SSCP result, we chose main viral core promoter type in each patients, which is thought to determine overall viral replication level in this patient. Main type of core promoter region of each 41 patients were directly sequenced. And with these we measured promoter activity by luciferase assay system and compared promoter activity with on another. We found tha there were some differences in promoter activity according to core promoter sequences. And we constructed replication-competent viral constructs with core promoter from 41 patients and Transfected these into HepG2 cell and measured HBV DNA by southern blot. There were also differences in HBV DNA quantity according to core promoter sequences. On these all results we investigated correlation between the effect of HBV core promoter on viral replication in vitro and HBN DNA quantity, ALT level from sera of each patients. We found there is no significant correlation among them. As a result, we concluded that in determining severity chronic hepatitis B patients, host factors of each patient is more important rather than replicative activity of virus itself.
In the case of rental apartment. the special Quality continuously preservation administration business consist and saves up Long-term Maintenance expense voluntarily. Because business surrounding that this can control preservation administration business whole is possible. administration of repair work is easy. Do system development that introduce technique for long-term strategy establishment in CAFM by purpose. Estimation of system to develop is as following: Can reduce time that take in LCC calculation because approach automatically to information of necessary facility in LCC calculation and know repair time as is easy. It is possible that execute selection of item that is examined in long-term maintenance plan as efficient and correct. Priority injection of budget by facility deteriorated degree is consisted preferentially using FCI.
In order to seek optimum conditions for ZSM-5 formation in the absence of organic template,the effects of both starting composition and water glass as silica source were examined. Water glass was most inexpensive among silica sources, but this was difficulty in reactant control because of contained much alkali ingredient, Considering environmental problem and economic performance,chose alkali drawing-out method to use methanol newly to remove alkali ingredient of waterglass. Characterization of ZSM-5 was carried out by means of XRD, SEM.
Vitamin K₁ is frequently used in the treatmet of the hypoprothrombinemia found in diseases of the liver, biliary tract and small intestine. We observed allergic cutaneous reaction to vitamin K₁injection in two patients who developed pruritic erythematous indurated plaques at the sites of injection 8 to 14 days after subcutanceous injection of vitamin K₁preparation.
To evaluate the effects of Injinsaryungsan on cell viability, cell cycle progression, and Fas-mediated apotosis, MTT assay, cell cycle analysis, PCNA expression analysis and tryphan blue exclusion assay, flow cytometry, Cpp32 protease assay, DNA fragmemtation assay were performed. And for quantitative evaluation of gene expression, we performed RT-PCR. The results were as followed. 1. In MTT assay, Injinsaryungsan treatment increases cellular viability of the cells and this increase showed strong correlation with the treatment doses of Injinsaryungsan. 2. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant reduction of G₁phase, and PCNA analysis showed that cell cycle progression of the HepG2 cells is positively regulated by Injinsaryungsan. And a dosage-and time-dependent induction of PCNA expression was recognized. 3. Using tryphan blue exclusion, flow cytometric analysis of sub G₁phase, a significant and dosage-dependent reduction of apoptosis were observed in Injinsaryungsan-treated cells compared to untreated control cells. 4. DNA fragmentation assay showed significantly reduction of DNA fragmentation in Injinsaryungsan-treated cells, decreases of CPP32 protease activities were observed in CPP32 protease assay. Which indicates that Injinsaryungsan carry inhibitory effects on apoptosis. 5. A quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that Fas and CPP32 mRNA expression were dramatically reduced and Bcl-2, Bcl-X?? mRNA expression were induced by the treatment of Injinsaryungsan while expression of Fadd, Fap-1, and ICE were not affected by Injinsaryungsan. These results implies that Injinsaryungsan increase hepatocyte viability, cell cycle progression and protect hepatocyte from damage by regulating the expression of genes associated with Fas-mediated apoptosis, which explains the mechanism of the clinical effect of Injinsaryungsan on liver diseases.
This paper is aimed to design a computer-based information system which is able to evaluate alternatives of strategic plan. In the point of view of corporate organization, strategic plans must be analyzed in terms of revenue, cost, and profit. So this paper is concentrated with the role of financial/accounting models. Based upon the planning information system designed in this paper, internal and external data are systemetically stored in data base system which is a subsystem of this system, retrieved and processed with the aid of model base which is also a subsystem, and displayed in terminal to assist decision-maker for planning analysis. Every alternative of strategic plans is analyzed to be evaluated and selected for implementation. For this purpose organization models are conceptualized and modeled, and then considerations of, and approaches to system design are discussed with analysis of planning process, modelling, and designing models. Based on this analysis mentioned above, an overall information system for planning analysis is designed and then three subsystems, that is, data base system, model base system, and interface system, are designed in detail. Data base subsystem consists historical data file, planning unit data file, goals/constraints data file, administrative data file, and environment data file. Model base system contains following models as subsystems; econometric model, optimization model, risk analysis model, and financial/accounting model. Interface system makes interaction between decision-maker and information system, and between data base system and model base system through main program in computer active. Finaly implementation problems are discussed.
E-Commerce is one of the most competitive industries internationally. From the perspectives of the industrial policies, it is necessary to prepare taxation policies to activate E-Commerce in our country since it is high value-added industry in the future. This study reviews the international discussion, and taxation system that lead to economic and social changes and suggests future directions to prepare rational taxation after reviewing taxation problems based on value-added tax which has influence on international tax revenue allocation.
The daily price limits system is representative of price stabilization mechanism in the Korean Stock Market.This study examines to what extent firm specific characteristics affect earnings response coefficient(ERC) of Korean firms.Identified variables are price limits, leverage, size, growth, and firms' membership to conglomerate. The sample consists of 356 companies, listed in Korea Stock Exchange, over the period of 1995 to 1998. The result shows as follows. Price limits(0.149) and growth(0.013) have significant effect on ERC with positive sign.And the relation between ERC and leverage(-0.219) shows negative sign significantly.Therefore, ERC are larger for stock prices hitting the upper or the lower limit firms. Therefore, it is necessary to controlling for the effects of price limits in the research of accounting earnings information contents.