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본 연구에서는 Mg₂SiO₄에 활성화 물질로 La, Ho를 첨가하여 열형광체를 제작하였고 불순물의 농도를 1wt.% ∼5 wt.%까지 변화시키면서 열평광강도의 glow curve를 측정하였다. 도한 열형광체의 glow curve를 peak shape법으로 분석해서 TL특성에 대한 포획 매개변수와 활성화 에너지, 발광차수, 선량의존성등을 조사하였으며, 그 물리적 특성을 조사하고 선량계로서 타당성과 실용성을 확인하였다. The Mg₂SiO₄: La, Ho thermoluminescent phospher has been prepared by sintring Mg₂SiO₄after doping the transition elements La and Ho. The heating rate is 10℃/sec at this thermoluminescent phospher are heated. The maximum peaks are found in the measured Mg₂SiO₄: La and Ho. TL glow curve at 229℃ and 345 C when the 1 wt.%-5 wt.%. The glow curve of TLD increased TL intensity and temperature of peak appears to the high temperature when the heating rate is l0℃/sec-25℃/sec. The activation energy of the main peak has been estimated by the peak shape method. The estimated activation energies are 1.77 eV. 1.52 eV respectively. The thermoluminescence process in Mg₂SiO₄: La and Ho are found to the 2nd order when the main peak of the glow curve is analyzed by peak shape method. The dose responses of Mg₂SiO₄: La and Ho TLD are linear up to intensity of X-ray.
일상생활에서 모발염색은 흔히 접할 수 있는 미용의 한 종류로 특히 젊은층을 중심으로 폭발적으로 유행하고 있다. 염색을 위항 사용하는 약제는 표백제와 발색제 등 각종 화학약품이 사용되고 있으나 이로 인한 건강장해에 대한 연구는 그리 많지 않다. 저자들은 염색이 인체의 모발건강에 미치는 영향을 파악하기 위하여 염색과 관련된 주관적 증상과 모발의 변화에 대한 실험적 연구를 시행하였다. 동국대학교 경주 캠퍼스 재학생 80명을 대상으로 설문조사를 시행하여 염색 유 ·무 및 염색 후에 경험한 증상에 대해 설문 조사하였고, 의과대학 재학생 46명을 대상으로 피부 반응 테스트를 실시하였다. 또한 염색 전후의 모발 탄성도를 측정하였고 모발의 상태를 파악하기 위해 전자 현미경검사를 실시하였다. 설문조사 결과 염색 전에 비하여 염색 후 안구혼탁, 안구건조, 시력저하, 발진 및 접촉성 피부염, 모발손상, 모근손상 등의 증상을 더 많이 경험한다고 호소하였다(p<0.05). 모발손상과 모근손상은 헤어드라이어 사용 빈도에 따라 증가하는 것으로 조사되었다(p<0.05). 피부반응검사에서 가려움증이 가장 많은 증상이었으며 이는 여성보다는 남성에서 높은 것으로 조사되었다. 염색 전후의 모발장력은 염색 전 134.5±10.37g, 염색 128.0±30.69g, 염색 이틀 후 112.5±19.69g으로 나타났다. 염색 전후의 모발의 전자현미경 케라틴 층이 현저히 감소하고 모발이 가늘어지는 차이를 보였다. 염색은 모발손상, 모발 케라틴 손상 및 모근 손상, 발진 및 접촉성 피부반응, 안구혼탁, 안구건조, 시력 저하를 유발한다. 따라서 염색약으로 인한 손상에 대한 주의와 예방이 필요하다고 생각한다. 예방대책으로 염색 전 피부테스트를 통한 적합성 여부를 판단하는 것이 필요하며 가급적 염색을 피하는 것이 좋을 것이다. 염색약에 발암물질이 포함되어있다는 보고도 있어 염색 제조사의 철저한 실험과 염색 물질의 선별이 염색으로 인한 부작용을 최소화하는데 중요한 역할을 할 것이다. Hair coloring has became one of the most popular cosmetic activities to younger generations during last decade. However, there are few studies on the health effect of widespread use of chemical dyes. This study was conducted to study the effects of hair coloring dye on hair and other systems. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 80 persons in Kyongju campus, Dongguk University. We have done open patch skin test on 46 medical students. We also conducted scanning electron microscopy to examine the hair strength and structure before and after hair coloring process. Injury of hair and hair bulb, contact dermatitis, turbid eyes, xerophthalmia, and poor visual acuity were the main symptoms complained after hair coloring (p<0.05). Injury of hair and hair bulb were increased by frequency of hair-dryer use(p<0.05). In open patch test, pruritus was complanined by more than half of the subjects. Mean strength of hairs before and after hair coloring was as follows; 134.5 (SD 10.37)g before hair coloring, 128.0 (SD 30.69)g immediately after hair coloring, and 112.5 (SD 19.69)g after two days. The scanning electron microscopic findings of hair surface before and after hair coloring showed decreased keratin layer and thinning of the hair. Hair coloring induces injury to hair, its keratin layer, and hair bulb as well as contact dermatitis, turbid eyes, xerophthalmia, and poor visual acuity. Therefore, we think that precaution is needed in use of hair coloring dye. To prevent complications induced by hair coloring dye, it is necessary, especially to those with allergy or skin disorders, to perform skin test before action and avoid hair coloring whenever possible. Longterm health effects of hairdye should be studied and manufacturing companies should try to minimize complications induced by hair coloring dye.
The synthesis and photophysical study of efficient phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes having two different (CˆN) ligands are reported. In order to improve the luminescence efficiency by avoiding triplettriplet (T-T) annihilation, the iridium complex, Ir(ppy)_(2)(dpq), is designed and prepared where ppy and dpq represent 2-phenylpyridine and 2,4-diphenylquinoline, respectively. Two ppy ligands and a dpq ligand act as a source of energy supply. Since Ir(ppy)_(3) and Ir(dpq)_(3)can be placed in the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, they absorb light effectively. When Ir(ppy)_(2)(dpq) is placed in excited state, the excitation energy is not quenched or deactivated but quickly intramolecular transferred from two ppy ligands to one luminescent dpq ligand. This is because the triplet energy level of ppy is higher than that of dpq and light is emitted from dpq ligand in the end. Thus, Ir(ppy)_(2)(dpq) shows strong photoluminescence from dpq ligand. To analyze luminescent mechanism, we calculated these complexes having two different ligand sets theoretically by using computational method.
Choi, Eun Sik,Lee, Yun Jung,Seo, Chang Seob,Yoon, Jung Joo,Han, Byung Hyuk,Park, Min Cheol,Kang, Dae Gill,Lee, Ho Sub Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2016 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medic Vol.2016 No.-
<P>Samul-Tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT), composed of four medicinal herbs, is a well-known herbal formula treating hematological disorder or gynecologic disease. However, vascular protective effects of SMT and its molecular mechanisms on the vascular endothelium, known as the central spot of vascular inflammatory process, are not reported. The aim of this study was to investigate vascular protective effects of SMT water extract in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Water extract of SMT was prepared and identified by HPLC-PDA analysis. Expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-<I>κ</I>B) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined by western blot. Nuclear localization of NF-<I>κ</I>B and Nrf2 was visualized by immunofluorescence and DNA binding activity of NF-<I>κ</I>B was measured. ROS production, HL-60 monocyte adhesion, and intracellular nitric oxide (NO) were also measured using a fluorescent indicator. SMT suppressed NF-<I>κ</I>B translocation and activation as well as expression of CAMs, monocyte adhesion, and ROS production induced by TNF-<I>α</I> in HUVECs. SMT treated HUVECs showed upregulation of HO-1 and NO which are responsible for vascular protective action. Our study suggests that SMT, a traditionally used herbal formula, protects the vascular endothelium from inflammation and might be used as a promising vascular protective drug.</P>
The Mg_(2)SiO_(4) thermoluminescent phospher has been prepared by sintring Mg_(2)SiO_(4) after doping the transition elements Dy. Nd. Ho. La and Tb. The beating rate of this thermoluminescent phosper is 10℃/sec. The maximum peaks are found in the measured Mg_(2)SiO_(4) TL glow curve at 220℃, 252℃, 345℃, 229℃ and 289℃ when the \transition elements Dy, Nd, Ho, La and Tb are 1 ~5 wt. %. The thermoluminescence process in Mg_(2)SiO_(4) : Dy, Nd, Ho, La and Tb are found to the 2nd order when the main peak of the glow curve is analyzed by peak shape method. The Mg_(2)SiO_(4) thermoluminescent phosphor is the most sensitive to the X-rays. The dose responses of Mg_(2)SiO_(4) : Du, Nd, Ho, La, and Tb TLDs are linear up to intensity of X-ray.
The interests in emotional marketing have been recently increasing to win the hearts of the consumers. Hereupon, this study recognized the need to carry out typology of the emotional vocabulary of exhibition-convention attendees. Based on the research outcomes of Yeo Ho-geun and Kim Jae-won (2015), who have already researched the attendees of exhibitions using the standard of the emotional vocabulary, this study came up with 37 measurement items. The survey was conducted on the attendees of the exhibition and convention of 2015 Busan International Motor Show held in Bexco from June 3 to 12 in 2016 and 215 completed questionnaires were used for the final analysis. The study used the SPSS and AMOS 22.0 statistical software package for statistical analysis and conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using SPSS, which applied 33 measurement items. Given the goodness fit index (GFI) and subsidiary goodness-of-fit values using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), it can be interpreted that the emotional vocabulary in exhibitions and conventions may be categorized into `dignity, visual, stability, feminine, tidy/modern, affluent, refreshing and aesthetic` elements.
Tilting train has been developed to increase the operational speed of the trains on conventional lines which have many curves. This train are tilted at curves to compensate for unbalanced carbody centrifugal acceleration to a greater extent than compensation produced by the track cant, so that passengers do not feel centrifugal acceleration and thus trains can run at higher speed at curves. This paper developed tilting train to evaluate train performance of TTX(korean tilting train express) with maximum operation speed 160 ㎞/h on Ho_nam Conventional Rail.
To develope the thermoluminescent radiation sensors and low energy X-ray of dosimetry. The TL phosphors of MgB₄O7 are prepared and their physical characteristics are investigated. MgB₄O7 : Tb. Tm. Dy. La. Ho. and Nd phosphors have been prepared by sintering around 580℃ for 2 hours followed by flowing Ar gas. Ar gas. Activation energy and kinetic order of main peak of glow curve were studied by two methods peak shape method and initial rise method. By these methods, the estimated activation energies were 0.76±0.02eV(Tb doped). 0.94±0.03(Tm doped). 0.72±0.02 (Dy doped). respectively. The activation energy frequency factor and kinetic order of thermoluminescent process for each TL phosphors are measured by analyzing the glow curve by initial rise. peak shape. different heating rate. isothermal decay method. And The emission spectra of TL phosphors are also measured. The TL phosphors prepared in this work may be utilized to radiation sensor elements becaue of their high sensitivity to low energy X-ray.
Background/Aims: CYP2C19 has an important role in the catabolism of several proton pump inhibitors. However, the relative contribution of CYP2C19-mediated metabolism varies among the different proton pump inhibitors. We investigate to determine the effect of CYP2C19 genotype status on intragastric pH during dosing with omeprazole. Methods: The subjects were 16 healthy volunteers. Their CYP2C19 genotype status was determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Twenty-four-hour monitoring of intragastric acidity were performed on the day without medication and day 4 after omeprazole administration. Results: A single dose of omeprazole significantly decreased 24 hour intragastric acidity (1.7±0.3 vs. 5.1±0.4). Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their CYP2C19 genotype status: homozygous extensive metabolizers (Ho-EMs, n=5), heterozygous extensive metabolizers (Ht-EMs, n=6), and poor metabolizers (PMs, n=5). Median 24 hour intragastric pH in the HoM group was 3.1 compared with 5.5 in Ht-EM group and 5.9 in PM group(P$lt;0.05). The median pH during omeprazole administration was influenced by CYP2C19 genotype. On the other hand, the Helicobacter pylori infection did not influence the median intragastric pH during omeprazole administration (p= NS). Conclusions: The effects of omeprazole on intragastric acidity is influenced by the CYP2C19 polymorphism.
Background: Urinalysis is a useful laboratory test in the diagnosis of various diseases. In sampling for the urinalysis, there is much concern about contamination that can lead to misdiagnosis in the mid-stream urine sampling method. We conducted this study to determine, in terms of concordance of results and contamination in culture, whether there was any superiority in nod-stream sampling methods with or without disinfection measures compared to the catheterization method. Materials and Methods: We used three kinds of urine sampling methods sequentially, mid-stream non-clean catch, mid-stream clean catch, and catheterization, for ambulatory, non-pregnant, non-men-struating female patients who visited NHIC Ilsan Hospital emergency department during a one-week period in September 2001. Each sample was electrophotometrically analyzed for leukocyte esterase, nitrite, and blood by using a reagent strip and was cultured immediately or after overnight refrigeration. Results: Of the 41 patients, 9 had culture-proven urinary tract infections. The concordance rates(kappa) for nitrite, blood, and leukocyte esterase were 0.875, 0.403, and 0.406 between non-clean catch and catheterized samples and 0.875, 0.481, and 0.560 between clean catch and catheterized samples, respectively. The contamination rate of the non-clean catch, the clean catch, and the catheterized samples were statistically different: 51.2%, 29.3% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: We found that cleaning with disinfectant was effective for reducing the contamination rate, even though the best urine sampling method for zero contamination was catheterization. We recommend considering cost, patients' comfort, an acceptable threshold for contamination, and the necessity for a culture before choosing a urine sampling method for women who visit the emergency department.