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      • KCI등재

        耳溪 洪良浩의 書論 小考

        황병호(Hwang, Byeong-ho) 동양한문학회(구 부산한문학회) 2010 동양한문학연구 Vol.31 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        이 논문은 조선후기 국내외에서 학문적인 역량이 탁월했을 뿐만 아니라 서예가로 높은 평가를 받았던 홍양호의 서화론에 관하여 고찰한 것이다. 그의 서화론은 크게 두 가지로 대별되는데, 하나는 홍양호의 서론 중 정신적으로 추구하고 있는 지향점이 무엇인가를 파악하는 ‘書論의 指向'이고, 다른 하나는 서예의 실천적이고 기법적인 면을 다룬 ‘書論의 實際'이다. 前者는 다시 象의 중요성을 밝힌 ‘象의 重視'와 글씨의 자연스러움을 추구한 ‘自然追求'로 나누었다. 후자는 개인의 성정을 드러낼 수 있는가를 다룬 ‘性情表出'과 감평의 기준을 다룬 ‘鑑評技法'으로 나누어 파악하였다. ‘象의 重視'에서 홍양호는 文字學과 『周易』의 象數學을 통해 ‘象'을 중요시 여긴 점이다. 홍양호보다 앞서 周易을 書論에 적용한 대표적인 인물로 玉洞李漵를 들 수 있는데, 그의 『筆訣』은 易理에만 너무 치우쳤다는 평가를 받고 있다. 다음으로 ‘自然追求'에서는 서화가 자연에서의 멋을 구해야 함을 인식하고 인위적인 기교를 배격하여 억지로 잘 쓰려고 했던 당대 서풍을 비판하였다. 이는 후대 서화가로 이름난 李三晩의 ‘順自然觀'에서 더욱 정치한 이론을 낳게 한다. ‘性情表出'에서는 부단한 노력과 바른 자세와 정신을 갖추지 않고는 도달할 수 없음을 밝혔다. 마지막으로 ‘鑑評技法'에서는 그는 한때 유행했던 ‘時體'를 부정하고 정통 서학의 맥이라 할 수 있는 북해 이옹의 서체를 익혀야 할 것을 역설하였고, 종국에는 왕희지를 추구할 것을 설파하고 있다. 대다수의 서예가들은 왕희지를 높이평가하고 있으나 홍양호는 서예감평의 기준을 ‘古意' 유무에 따라 판단하기에 이른다. 요컨대 그의 書論은 象→自然→硏鑽→古意로 요약된다. 홍양호는 ‘筆訣'이 있었으나 현존하지 않으므로 본 논고에서는 그의 문집에 남아있는 서론적인 부분만을 발췌 정리하여 사라진 필결의 내용도 추정해 보고자 했다. 뿐만 아니라 그는 당대 최고의 문장가라는 사실, 중국을 자주 사행한 일, 왕실과의 긴밀한 관계, 선대로부터 내려온 수장이 홍양호 후대까지 수장 정리되어온 일련의 관계에서 입증하기에 부족함이 없다. 또한 그의 서화에 대한 논의는 후대 서화 이론가에게 끼친 영향을 통해서도 재평가할 여지가 있음이 확인 되었다. 본고에서는 이론적인 면만을 다룬 한계점이 있으나, 이 연구를 통해 서화 비평과 서화수장 연구에 바탕으로 삼고자 한다. This study examined the calligraphic theory of Hong Yang-ho, who won fame at home and overseas in the late Chosun Dynasty not only for his outstanding academic competence but also as a calligrapher. His calligraphic theory can be discussed largely in two directions. One is ‘the goal of his calligraphic theory,' which is to find what Hong Yang-ho's calligraphic theory aims at, and the other is ‘the reality of calligraphic theory,' which deals with the practical and technical aspects of calligraphy. In this study, the former was again sub-divided into ‘emphasis on image,' which explains the importance of image, and ‘pursuit of nature', which pursued the being natural of characters. The latter was also subdivided into ‘expression of disposition,` which dealt with whether to be able to expression individuals' disposition, and ‘appreciation and evaluation technique,'which dealt with criteria for appreciation and evaluation. In ‘emphasis on image,' Hong Yang-ho attaches importance to ‘image' through graphonomy and Hsiang-shu-hsueh in I-Ching. In Korea, a representative person who applied I-Ching to calligraphic theory is Okdong Lee Seo, and it is believed that Hong Yang-ho might be influenced by him, and Lee Seo's Pilgyeol was criticized for its excessive inclination to the theory of I-Ching. Next, with regard to ‘pursuit of nature,' Hong Yang-ho maintainedthat calligraphy and art should find beauty in nature and artificial techniques should be excluded, and criticized the calligraphic style in his days, which sought invented beauty. Later, this position led to the birth of a further refined theory in Lee Sam-man's ‘view of pure nature.' With regard to ‘expression of disposition,' he suggested that one cannot attain the expression of disposition without unceasing efforts as well as right attitude and mind. Lastly in ‘appreciation and evaluation techniques,' he denied ‘temporary styles' that were popular for some time, and asserted learning Bukhae Li Yong's calligraphic style and ultimately pursuing Hui-Chih Wang. Most of calligraphers appreciated Hui-Chih Wanghigh, but Hong Yang-ho came to judge based on whether to have `intention' as a criterion for appreciation and evaluation. In short, his calligraphic theory is summarized into image, nature, hard pursuit, and intention. Among the four, intention was what Hong Yang-ho mentioned most frequently and attached the highest importance to. Hong Yang-ho wrote ‘Pilgyeol' but is not extant, so this studytried to estimate the contents of Pilgyeol by extracting parts related to calligraphic theory from his writings. Furthermore, the discussion of this study is supported by the fact that Hong Yang-ho was the supreme writer in his days, his frequent diplomatic missions to China, his close relationship with theroyal family, and materials transmitted from hisancestors and handed down to his descendents. Furthermore, it was confirmed that discussion on his calligraphy and art needs to be reevaluated through his influence on other calligraphic theorists. This study had a limitation as it coveredonly the theoretical aspect, but its results may provide a base for further research on calligraphy and art criticism and collection.

      • KCI등재SCIE

        PGA2-induced expression of HO-1 is mediated by transcriptional upregulation of Nrf2

        Sang-sun,Lee,Yun-Jeong,Choe,Hyein,Lee,Sun-Young,Lee,Ho-Shik,Kim 대한독성 유전단백체 학회 2019 Molecular & cellular toxicology Vol.15 No.2

        Backgrounds: Prostaglandin (PG) A2 reportedly stimulated expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 at the level of transcription via the activation of p38MAPK. Details of the mechanism, however, have not been provided, and this includes identification of the transcription factors responsible for PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Herein is described an analysis of the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and how PGA2 increases the activity of Nrf2 during PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Methods: Expressions of HO-1 and Nrf2 were analyzed at the levels of both mRNA and protein. Nrf2 siRNA, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38MAPK, and scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used to identify the effects of Nrf2, p38MAPK and ROS on PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. Results: Although SB203580 suppressed PGA2-induced HO-1 expression, genetic activation of p38MAPK could not stimulate the transcription of HO-1. Cycloheximide (CHX), an inhibitor of protein translation, almost completely prevented PGA2-induced increase of HO-1 transcription, but it did not prevent the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, which suggests that both de novo protein synthesis and p38MAPK activity are required to induce the transcription of HO-1 in response to PGA2 treatment. In addition, PGA2 increased the level of both Nrf2 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Nrf2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed PGA2-induced HO-1 expression. The PGA2-induced transcription of Nrf2 was prevented by ROS scavengers such as n-acetyl-l-cysteine and tempol but not CHX. Furthermore, siRNA against p38MAPK did not change the level of nuclear Nrf2 protein. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PGA2 induces HO-1 transcription via an increase in Nrf2 protein, the transcription of which is initiated by an accumulation of ROS that is independent of the p38MAPK activation pathway.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재SCIE

        PGA2 induces the expression of HO-1 by activating p53 in HCT116 cells

        Hyein,Lee,Sang-Sun,Lee,Ji-Young,Park,Yun-Jeong,Choe,이선영,Ho-Shik,Kim,H.-S.,Kim 대한독성 유전단백체 학회 2017 Molecular & cellular toxicology Vol.13 No.2

        Prostaglandin (PG) A2 which is a cytotoxic PG, was reported to induce the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 via activation of p38MAPK to keep U2OS cells from cell cycle arrest in G2M phase. The expression of HO-1 is primarily regulated at the level of transcription. But the transcription factors that are responsible for PGA2-induced HO-1 expression were not clarified yet. Here, we report that PGA2-induced transcription of HO-1 is mediated by p53, a tumor suppressive transcription factor. In HCT116 cells, PGA2 treatment led to the phosphorylation of p53 and an increase of p21WAF1 transcription as well as the activation of HO-1 transcription. Knocking p53 down via RNA interference or inhibiting the p53's transcriptional activity by pifithrin-α treatment led to suppression of the increase in the level of both HO-1 expression and activity of HO-1 promoter. Pretreatment of NU- 7441, a chemical inhibitor of DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK), prevented both the PGA2-induced phosphorylation of p53 and an increase of HO-1 transcription. In addition, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), also mimicked the effect of NU-7441 on the PGA2-induced activation of p53 and HO-1 transcription. Collectively, these results suggest that PGA2 induces the expression of HO-1 via activation of p53, which is mediated by the ROSDNA- PK pathway.

      • KCI등재

        일상에 억압된 소시민들에 대한 풍자 : 1960년대 이호철의 단편소설을 중심으로

        김택호 한중인문학회 2005 한중인문학연구 Vol.14 No.-

        1960년대 이호철의 많은 소설들은 일상의 무게에 완전히 억압당하고 있는 소시민들에 대한 풍자의 성격을 가지고 있다. 이러한 풍자는 당대 한국사회의 일면을 효과적으로 비판하고 있는데, 그것이 가능했던 것은 작가 이호철이 당대의 한국사회를 객관화할 수 있는 자리에 위치하고 있었기 때문이었다. 이호철이 분단의 문제로 대표되는 정치와 권력의 문제에 대한 일상인들의 태도를 적나라하게, 그러나 품위를 잃지 않고 그려낼 수 있었던 것 역시 그의 시선이 출발하는 그 객관적인 자리에서 비롯된 것이었다. 이 유효한 거리의 확보를 통해서, 이호철은 현실을 지배하고 있으며, 전염성이 강한 '소시민 근성'에 길들여진 인물들의 현실 상황을 명확하게 바라보고 있다. 그리고 이호철에 의해서 드러난 소시민성이란 '무관심', '순응', '변화에 대한 두려움'이라는 내용을 지니고 있는 것이었다. 이호철의 소설에서 그려지고 있는 이와 같은 소시민적 일상의 모습은, 그의 소설이 그만큼 성숙한 것이었다는 판단을 가능하게 한다. 물론 일상에의 천착이 소설의 지향점이 될 수는 없다. 간혹 우리는 그와 같은 태도가 소설의 생명력과 역동성을 오히려 잠식하는 모습을 목격하기도 했다. 그러나 이호철의 소설은 당대의 일상이 어디에서 오는지를 알고 있는 작품들이었다. Many Lee, Ho Chul's novels in 1960's were the satire about petit bourgeois. Such satire is criticize Korea society of that time efficiently. Possible for it was because Lee, Ho Chul was making an objective observation at Korea society of that time. Lee, Ho Chul presented the attitude of petit bourgeois about the problem of the power and politics. It were possible because Lee, Ho Chul was making an objective observation at Korea society of that time too. The object which the Lee, Ho Chul's criticizes is the petit bourgeois. But Lee, Ho Chul presented the attitude of petit bourgeois means political apathy, adaptability and the reality conservatism. It is the opinion which this is worthy of trusting considerably. The object of this research is to show reality criticism which Lee, Ho Chul is saying accurately.

      • KCI등재

        FK506이 T 림프구 사멸에서 활성산소 생성에 미치는 영향

        이호균(Ho Kyun Lee), 정상영(Sang Young Chung), 최수진나(Soo Jin Na Choi) 대한외과학회 2009 Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research Vol.77 No.5

        Purpose: Tacrolimus (FK506) has been widely used as an immunosuppressant in organ transplanted recipients to suppress organ rejection phenomenon. We investigated the role of oxidative stress and heme oxygense-1 by FK506 on human Jurkat T cells. Methods: The cells viability was examined by DAPI stain, enzyme activity of caspase family proteins, and western blotting for Baks, PUMA, iNOS, HO-1. Cells were cultured in the absence or presence of CoPPIX or ZnPPIX and the fluorescence intensity was analyzed using a flow cytometry. Results: Treatment with FK506 increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, and NO in Jurkat cells in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis data revealed the hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) was induced by the addition of FK506 in Jurkat cells. Induction of CoPP, HO-1 inducer, resulted in decreased intracellular H₂O₂ and NO concentrations. Instead ZnPP, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor did it reversely. In addition, ZnPP regulates iNOS protein synthesis by inhibition of HO-1. Conclusion: Increase of HO-1 expression would induce to decrease the intracellular H₂O₂ and NO concentrations. Also, HO-1 would regulate iNOS protein synthesis. Consequently, we can expect the regulation of HO-1 expression with concomitants use of FK506 to suppress organ rejection phenomenon by enhancing apoptosis.

      • KCI등재

        Growth Characteristics and Productivity of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) New Variety, 'Green Call 2ho'

        Ji,,Hee,Chung,Whang,,Tae,Young,Lee,,Ki-Won,Kim,,Won,Ho,Woo,,Jae,Hoon,Hong,,Ki,Hung,Choe,,Kuh,Wann The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science 2019 한국초지조사료학회지 Vol.39 No.3

        This experiment was conducted to breed a very early maturing variety of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in Grassland and Forage Crops Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan 2015-2017. The new variety of Italian ryegrass, 'Green call 2ho' is a diploid variety with green in leaf color and has semi-erect growth habit in late autumn and erect growth habit in early spring, 'Green call 2ho' was in heading date as a early-maturing variety April 24. Also 'Green call 2ho' was narrower by 2 mm in flag leaf width, longer by 2.5 cm in flag leaf length and shorter by 3 cm in plant height than those of the control variety, 'Florida 80', respectively. 'Green call 2ho' was also thicker by 0.33 mm in stem thickness and strong in winter hardness. Dry matter (DM) yield (11,688 kg/ha) of 'Green call 2ho' was 7% higher than that of 'Florida 80'. Total digestible nutrient (TDN), crude protein (CP) and relative feed value (RFV) of 'Green call 2ho' were 61.3 %, 9.8 % and 98.2, respectively which are 2.6, 0.6, and 8.4 % higher, respectively than those of 'Florida 80', respectively. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of 'Green call 2ho' were 34.9 and 58.5 % which are 3.3 and 2.7 % lower than those of 'Florida 80', respectively.

      • KCI등재

        우리나라와 동아시아 항만간의 수출 컨테이너 물동량 추이 분석

        이충배(Lee, Choong-Bae), 노진호(Noh, Jin-Ho) 한국항만경제학회 2018 韓國港灣經濟學會誌 Vol.34 No.2

        우리나라 수출입의 중요한 비중을 차지하는 동아시아 지역은 지리적, 정치적, 경제적, 사회·문화적 상호보완성으로 인해 더욱 증대될 것으로 예상된다. 최근 수출입 증대와 더불어 우리나라 항만과 대동아시아 국가간의 항만 물동량 역시 증가세를 유지하고 있다. 그러나 이들 국가의 경제 규모 및 성장율의 차이, 항만인프라 수준, 지리적 위치 등과 같은 다양한 요인으로 인해 이들 항만과의 물동량은 변동성을 보이고 있다. 항만 물동량의 변동성과 항만 네트워크의 변화에 대한 많은 연구에도 불구하고 우리나라 항만과 동아시아 항만과의 보다 세밀한 연구는 제한적이기 때문에 본 연구가 이러한 갭을 보충하고자 한다. 본 연구는 우리나라의 대동아시아 지역항만간 수출 컨테이너 화물의 유통경로의 추이를 분석하고, 이를 통해 우리나라 무역업체, 선사, 물류업체, 항만당국의 정책적·실무적 시사점을 제시하는데 목적이 있다. 2007∼2015년간 우리나라의 주요항만과 대동아시아 개별항만간의 물동량의 변동성을 변이할당기법을 사용하여 분석을 진행한다. 분석결과 우리나라 항만 전체적으로 Shanghai, Ningbo, Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong 등이 규모와 물동량 증가면에서 가장 중요한 항으로 나타났다. 항만단위로 볼 때 부산항에서는 중국항의 경우 Yantai, Weihai, Hakata, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong, 인천항은 Lianyungang, Tianjin, Osaka, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong, 광양항은 Tianjinxingang, Weihai, Yokohama, Ho Chi Mihn, Tanjong, 울산항은 Yantai, Lianyungang, Nagoya, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, Portkelang항과의 항만네트워크가 중요한 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 우리나라의 정부, 항만당국, 해운·물류업체들은 이들 항만과의 물류네트워크 협력을 강화하는 한편 이들 항만에 대한 투자를 적극적으로 추진해 나갈 필요가 있다. The East Asian region, an important part of Korea"s imports and exports, is expected to grow further driven by the geographical, political, economic, social, and cultural complementarity. With the recent increase in imports and exports, the port trade volume between Korea and East Asian countries is also growing. However, due to various factors, such as economic size, growth rate, port infrastructure level, and geographical location of these countries, the volume of traffic with these ports is fluctuating. Despite much research on the volatility of port trade volume and changes in port network, this study tries to supplement the gap in a more detailed study of ports in Korea and East Asia since these kinds of studies are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze the trend of distribution routes of export container cargo among ports in Korea and to present policy and practical implications of Korean trading companies, shipping companies, logistics companies, and port authorities. This study analyzes the variability of the trade volume between Korea "s major ports and Daedong. Results show that Shanghai, Ningbo, Ho Chi Minh, and Haiphong were the most important factors in terms of size and volume increase. In terms of ports, the Busan port is the port responsible for trades with Yantai, Weihai, Hakata, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, and Haiphong; Incheon port deals with Lianyungang, Tianjin, Osaka, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong; Gwangyang port trades with Tianjinxingang, Weihai, Yokohama, Mihn and Tanjong, and Ulsan port is strategically important for the Yantai, Lianyungang, Nagoya, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh and Portkelang ports . Therefore, the Korean government, port authorities, and shipping and logistics companies need to strengthen logistic network cooperation with these ports and actively promote investments in them.

      • KCI등재

        우리나라와 동아시아 항만간의 수출 컨테이너 물동량 추이 분석

        이충배,노진호,Lee,,Choong-Bae,Noh,,Jin-Ho 한국항만경제학회 2018 韓國港灣經濟學會誌 Vol.34 No.2

        우리나라 수출입의 중요한 비중을 차지하는 동아시아 지역은 지리적, 정치적, 경제적, 사회 문화적 상호보완성으로 인해 더욱 증대될 것으로 예상된다. 최근 수출입 증대와 더불어 우리나라 항만과 대동아시아 국가간의 항만 물동량 역시 증가세를 유지하고 있다. 그러나 이들 국가의 경제 규모 및 성장율의 차이, 항만인프라 수준, 지리적 위치 등과 같은 다양한 요인으로 인해 이들 항만과의 물동량은 변동성을 보이고 있다. 항만 물동량의 변동성과 항만 네트워크의 변화에 대한 많은 연구에도 불구하고 우리나라 항만과 동아시아 항만과의 보다 세밀한 연구는 제한적이기 때문에 본 연구가 이러한 갭을 보충하고자 한다. 본 연구는 우리나라의 대동아시아 지역항만간 수출 컨테이너 화물의 유통경로의 추이를 분석하고, 이를 통해 우리나라 무역업체, 선사, 물류업체, 항만당국의 정책적 실무적 시사점을 제시하는데 목적이 있다. 2007~2015년간 우리나라의 주요항만과 대동아시아 개별항만간의 물동량의 변동성을 변이할당기법을 사용하여 분석을 진행한다. 분석결과 우리나라 항만 전체적으로 Shanghai, Ningbo, Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong 등이 규모와 물동량 증가면에서 가장 중요한 항으로 나타났다. 항만단위로 볼 때 부산항에서는 중국항의 경우 Yantai, Weihai, Hakata, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong, 인천항은 Lianyungang, Tianjin, Osaka, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong, 광양항은 Tianjinxingang, Weihai, Yokohama, Ho Chi Mihn, Tanjong, 울산항은 Yantai, Lianyungang, Nagoya, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, Portkelang항과의 항만네트워크가 중요한 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 우리나라의 정부, 항만당국, 해운 물류업체들은 이들 항만과의 물류네트워크 협력을 강화하는 한편 이들 항만에 대한 투자를 적극적으로 추진해 나갈 필요가 있다. The East Asian region, an important part of Korea's imports and exports, is expected to grow further driven by the geographical, political, economic, social, and cultural complementarity. With the recent increase in imports and exports, the port trade volume between Korea and East Asian countries is also growing. However, due to various factors, such as economic size, growth rate, port infrastructure level, and geographical location of these countries, the volume of traffic with these ports is fluctuating. Despite much research on the volatility of port trade volume and changes in port network, this study tries to supplement the gap in a more detailed study of ports in Korea and East Asia since these kinds of studies are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze the trend of distribution routes of export container cargo among ports in Korea and to present policy and practical implications of Korean trading companies, shipping companies, logistics companies, and port authorities. This study analyzes the variability of the trade volume between Korea's major ports and Daedong. Results show that Shanghai, Ningbo, Ho Chi Minh, and Haiphong were the most important factors in terms of size and volume increase. In terms of ports, the Busan port is the port responsible for trades with Yantai, Weihai, Hakata, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, and Haiphong; Incheon port deals with Lianyungang, Tianjin, Osaka, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong; Gwangyang port trades with Tianjinxingang, Weihai, Yokohama, Mihn and Tanjong, and Ulsan port is strategically important for the Yantai, Lianyungang, Nagoya, Kobe, Ho Chi Minh and Portkelang ports. Therefore, the Korean government, port authorities, and shipping and logistics companies need to strengthen logistic network cooperation with these ports and actively promote investments in them.

      • KCI등재

        랫드에서 STB-HO-BM에 대한 13주 반복투여 독성연구

        송시환(Si Whan Song), 정연권(Winston Jung), 홍동호(Dong Ho Hong) 한국독성학회 2006 Toxicological Research Vol.22 No.2

        This study was performed to evaluate repeated-dose toxicities of STB-HO-BM in Sprague-Dawley rats. STB-HO-BM was administered orally to rats at dose levels of 0, 100, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. In recent study, there were no dose related changes in mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, opthalmoscopy, organ weights, urine analysis, hematological findings, and biochemical examination of all animals treated with STB-HO-BM. Gross and histopathological findings revealed no evidence of specific toxicity related to STB-HO-BM. These results suggest that the oral no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of STB-HO-BM may be over 1,000 mg/kg in rats.

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