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In this paper, in order to realize the image enlargement with high performance, we propose a new enlargement method, which restores high-frequency components lost in the interpolation-based methods, by using high-frequency esti-mation. The estimation is based on the eigenspace method proposed by Amano et al..The proposed enlargement method can generate lost high-frequency components by using pairs of low-and high-frequency components of the original image, and is referred as back projection for lost high-frequency components (BPLHF). Experimental results show the proposed method can achieve promising enlargement.
In the previous research, we proposed an oculomotor system which expanded the limits of velocity measurement using spatiotemporal differentiation method. It was proved that the accurate optical flow was estimated at large object velocity by using this system. In this paper, we propose optical flow estimation method using oculomotor system where multiple objects on image move independently at large velocity. We suggest applying oculomotor system separately to regions of the same object motion. Using this approach, high accuracy of optical flow estimation can be obtained in case of multiple objects on image moving independently at a large velocity.
To investigate the dielectric properties of water solutions, we fabricated a liquid-sample holder for THz-TDS and developed a software program to analyze the complex dielectric constant of a liquid. Transmission spectra were measured for a water solution of ethanol, and the complex dielectric constant was analyzed by using a Debye model of three terms. Turning points in the relaxation times at concentrations of 8, 20, and 40 mol% were observed.
The teleost fish has been widely used in creating neurodegenerative models. Here we describe the teleost medaka fish Parkinson's disease (PD) models we developed using toxin treatment and genetic engineering. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4–tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), proteasome inhibitors, lysosome inhibitors and tunicamycin treatment in our model fish replicated some salient features of PD: selective dopamine cell loss and reduced spontaneous movement with the last three toxins producing inclusion bodies ubiquitously in the brain. Despite the ubiquitous distribution of the inclusion bodies, the middle diencephalic dopaminergic neurons were particularly vulnerable to these toxins, supporting the idea that this dopamine cluster is similar to the human substantia nigra. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) homozygous mutants also showed reduced spontaneous swimming movements. These data indicate that medaka fish can serve as a new model animal of PD. In this review we summarize our previous data and discuss future prospects
We previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body weight and average daily gain in a common region between ADL0198 (chr 1: 171.7 Mb) and ABR0287 (chr 1: 173.4 Mb) on chicken chromosome 1 in an F2 resource population produced by crossing low- and high-growth lines of the Hinai-dori breed. Motilin receptor (MLNR) is a candidate gene affecting growth traits in the region. In this study, we genotyped polymorphisms of the MLNR gene and investigated its association with growth traits in a Hinai-dori F2 intercross population. All the exons of the MLNR gene in the parental population were subjected to PCR amplification, nucleotide sequenced and haplotypes identified. To distinguish resultant diplotype individuals in the F2 population, a mismatch amplification mutation assay was performed. Three haplotypes (Haplotypes 1-3) were accordingly identified. Six genotypes produced by the combination of three haplotypes (Haplotype 1, 2, and 3) were examined in order to identify associations between MLNR haplotypes and growth traits. The data showed that Haplotype 1 was superior to Haplotype 2 and 3 in body weight at 10 and 14 weeks of age, average daily gain between 4 and 10 weeks, 10 and 14 weeks, and 0 and 14 weeks of age in female in F2 females. It was concluded that MLNR is a useful marker of growth traits and could be used to develop strategies for improving growth traits in the Hinai-dori breed.
Currently many different color LEDs (light emitting diode) are commercially available. By attaching these LEDs to a board and controlling the light intensity of each LED, we can realize a so-called spectral tunable light source. Compared with a conventional tunable light source using a white lamp such as xenon lamp and grating, LED-based tunable light source is cost effective. We built a prototype of spectrally tunable LED light source (STLED) and are looking for its application to the medical field. In such a field, visual diagnosis is one of the most important ways for evaluation. Observing tissue structure is effective for improving precision of surgery. We focused on an emphatic illuminant which brought a fine view of micro blood vessel structures. In this paper, we simulated the illuminant and evaluated it by subjective evaluation. In an evaluation experiment, to compare two illuminant conditions, a conventional and the emphatic illuminant, 14 LEDs fixed to the light unit were spectrally adjusted to demonstrate the two illuminants. We set a rat cecum as a target to observe the structure of micro blood vessels. The effectiveness of the emphatic illuminant was confirmed by ratio of detected blood vessel region to the ground truth.
Objective: Watershed algorithm is image segmentation algorithm divides the image into numerous small regions. This paper proposes a new approach to extract the lung region from the three dimensional color image of Frozen Human Body (Visible Human Male) based on watershed algorithm. Methods: After applying this algorithm to input image and getting the small regions, we merge these small regions into one region with three measures based on color, edge marker, and SURFACE respectively. Results: We can say that the smaller number of FALSE-POSITIVE and TRUE NEGATIVE voxels and the larger number of FALSE POSITIVE voxels are better result. Graph shows change in the number of voxel in above groups of the left lung detection when τ color change with τ em is 0.7. We think that the result at the range of τ color from 110 to 180 are better than the other results in Graph. Conclusion: Comparing with our previous work, we newly use Canny edge filter for edge marker and define SURFACE-based dissimilarity to relax the problem of its step. The users must select a point within the lung region and some thresholds (τcolor, τem, τhigh, τlow, σ) to detect the target region. (Journal of Korean Society of Medical Informatics 13-2, 171-176, 2007)
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There is little or no information about the distribution of elastic fibers in the human fetal head. We examined this issue in 15 late-stage fetuses (crown-rump length, 220–320 mm) using aldehyde-fuchsin and elastica-Masson staining, and we used the arterial wall elastic laminae and external ear cartilages as positive staining controls. The posterior pharyngeal wall, as well as the ligaments connecting the laryngeal cartilages, contained abundant elastic fibers. In contrast with the sphenomandibular ligament and the temporomandibular joint disk, in which elastic fibers were partly present, the discomalleolar ligament and the fascial structures around the pterygoid muscles did not have any elastic fibers. In addition, the posterior marginal fascia of the prestyloid space did contain such fibers. Notably, in the middle ear, elastic fibers accumulated along the tendons of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and in the joint capsules of the ear ossicle articulations. Elastic fibers were not seen in any other muscle tendons or vertebral facet capsules in the head and neck. Despite being composed of smooth muscle, the orbitalis muscle did not contain any elastic fibers. The elastic fibers in the sphenomandibular ligament seemed to correspond to an intermediate step of development between Meckel's cartilage and the final ligament. Overall, there seemed to be a mini-version of elastic fiber distribution compared to that in adults and a different specific developmental pattern of connective tissues. The latter morphology might be a result of an adaptation to hypoxic conditions during development.