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This study is to analyze site layout traditional government office building focused on Chonui-hyon(全義縣) in Chungchong province with Chungchong-do regional maps(忠淸道地方地圖) and Eupjis(邑誌, topography) being compiled in the late Chosun dynasty. The conclusion of analysis can be summarized as follows; 1. Chonui-hyon(全義縣) in Chosun dynasty is gone with a planning principle of the capital city(Han-Seong, 漢城) with disposing Sa-Ji-Dan(社稷壇) and Gaek-Sa(客舍), which are placed to the left and right of Eupchi(邑治), and it is followed in the wake of the spatial structure of Chosun dynasty palace with disposing Dong-Heon(東軒) in front, Nae-A(內衙) at the back of it, or from side to side, also by the Dong-Heon of the center, with organizing each facility around it. 2. Dong-Heon and Gaek-Sa of Chonui-hyon is passed through three step gate, Mun-Ru(門樓), Woi-Sammun(外三門), Nae-Sammun(內三門), from Hong-Salmon(紅門), and are shown hierarchy by haying been placed at the end of approach axis. 3. Dong-Heon can be disposed by Feng-Shui(風水) which have influence on the southeast direction with Jin-San(鎭山) and An-Dae(案對), on the other hand, Gaek-Sa can be disposed by symbolic of the authority of a king. 4. Site layout by function of provincial government office is provided into four ferrite, Dong-Heon, Gaek-Sa, Nae-A, practical business territory, and eve territory is organized by official institution on a social position to radiation, by the compositive axis to be made Woi-Sammun Nae-Sammun Dong-Heon Nae-A 5. Approach process of Chnui-hyon government office is three door system similar to Kam-Young(監營) in a different way two door system in most provincial government office, also approach axis is formed by bending.
The appeal, 〈Cheong Kwon-seol Min-bo Zeung-su Kang-bang So(請勸設民堡增修江防疏)〉 was written by Kang Wi, a well-known reformer and early proponent of enlightenment thought. However, despite its obvious importance, academic circles have so far largely ignored this document. Moreover, the period in which this document was written has been wrongly assumed as being after the foreign disturbance of 1866. This paper undertakes a study of the 〈Kang-bang So〉 with the objectives of uncovering the actual time period in which it was formulated and of identifying the reasons why Kang Wi became a member of the progressives. A statement found in the 〈Bon-jeon(本傳)〉 written by Lee Joong-Ha, which states that, this foreign disturbance occurred in the capital region in 1866, has so far been the main reason why scholars believe that the 〈Kang-bang So〉 was actually written after the foreign disturbance of 1866. While this statement is clearly in reference to what has come to be known as the first foreign disturbance, in which a French fleet attacked Chosun in 1866, the fact that the 〈Kang-bang So〉 was clearly written after this incident is evidenced by the following: First, an identical appeal was recorded in the 《Sin Heon Collections(申櫶全集)》, where it was given the name of 〈Non Byeong-sa So(論兵事疎)>. The following statement is included at the end of this document, disturbance at the end of August 1866. Second, there are no references to the French attack of 1866 within the 〈Kang-bang So〉 itself. On the other hand, the 〈Kang-bang So〉 makes reference to China's experiences with foreign disturbances when laying out his plan for a proper defense, thus implying that Chosun had yet to encounter any real foreign threat. This paper argues that the 〈Kang-bang So〉 was actually prepared in response to an incursion by two Western fleets into the Yanghwajin area of the Han River on August 18th, 1866: an incursion which led King Kojong to order that defense measures be established immediately. As a result Kang Wi was asked by military commander Shin Heon to analyze the condition of the rivers flowing from Kang-hwa Island to Yang-hwa Jin: which in turn led to Kang"s submission of the 〈Kang-bang So〉, a document that listed the defensive measures that should be taken in order to fend off a Western invasion. The 〈Kang-bang So〉 is a defensive strategy that combines the strategies found in the 〈Ju-hae(籌海)〉 section of the book 《Hae-kuk-do-ji(海國圖志)》, which was written by Wi Won, with the national defense theory introduced by Chong Yak-Yong in the 《Min-bo-eui(民堡議)》. Chong Yak-Yong s national defense strategy, which was still relevant in the middle of the 19th century, first emerged as a means of countering the weaknesses of the defense forces caused by the rampant corruption of the Army Administrative System. However, Chong Yak-Yong"s defense strategy was not effective against Western invasions, or against attacks by Japanese marauders. As such, Kang Wi"s strategy was to mobilize the common people to assure national defense, thus protecting the kingdom and solving the nation's acute shortage of soldiers in one stroke. As mentioned above, Kang Wi adopted a detailed defense strategy that was largely based on the 〈Ju-hae〉 section of the 《Hae-kuk-do-ji》. Kang introduced a defense strategy to protect the rivers against Western invasions that was based on the Sa-nae-ha(守內河) concept found in the euisu(議守) chapter of the 〈Ju-hae〉. The main difference between the strategies adopted by Kang Wi and Wi Won was that while the latter emphasized using local militaries, Kang Wi advocated the use of national defense forces composed of commoners. As such, given the reality of Chosun"s situation, Kang Wi intended to complete the Su-nae-ha strategy found in the〈Ju-hae〉 by combining it with the national defense theory created by Chong Yak-Yong.Two other individuals, Yun Seop and Park Ju-Woon, also formulated strategies to fend off Western invasions. Their strategies were based on the tradit
이 글은 한민족의 정체성을 한반도가 겪은 역사적 경험을 바탕으로 규명하고자 하는 시론(試論)적 성격을 띤다. 한민족의 정체성 문제는 한민족의 자기(自己)를 파악하는 일인데, 이 ``자기``는 한민족이 외부 세력(주변 강대국)과 관계하는 데에서 취한 태도와 깊이 관련되어 있다. 그래서 ``민족``은 초역사적인 실체가 아니라 역사 안에서 형성되는 유동체라는 주장이 힘을 얻는다. 외부 세력과 관계하는 데에서 생겨난 한민족의 ``민족``에 대한 의식은 여기서 향내(向內)적 경향과 향외(向外)적 경향이라는 양가적인 양상을 드러낸다. 전자에는 구한말의 위정척사운동과 일제강점기의 신간회운동이 속하며, 후자에는 조선조의 실학사상과 구한말의 개화사상이 속한다. 그런데 실제 역사에서 볼 때 민족의식이 민족의 안으로 향한다고 해서 모두 민족적인 것은 아니며 민족의 밖으로 향한다고 해서 모두 반민족적인 것이라고 할 수 없다. 또한 그 반대도 성립한다. 그 결과 민족친화적인 외향성과 민족배타적인 외향성이 있으며, 민족친화적인 내향성과 민족 배타적인 내향성이 있게 된다. 향내적 민족주의와 향외적 민족주의의 충돌이 낳는 이율배반은 궁극적으로 민족의 자기(自己)를 둘러싸고 벌어지는 사태이다. 한민족의 자기는 안으로 향하는 자기와 밖으로 향하는 자기로 분열되어 있다. 분열된 각자는 다시 대립하는 두 경우로 나뉜다. 이 구분의 기준은 보수와 진보이다. 향내주의자 가운데 우리 것을 보존하려는 수구세력이 있는가 하면, 혁신의 토대를 우리 것에서 찾으려는 진보세력이 있다. 전자는 위정척 사론자나 증산교/대종교 신봉자가 속할 수 있고, 후자는 동학교도와 신채호, 김구 류의 민족주의자를 들 수 있다. 마찬가지로 향외주의자 가운데 민족 근대화를 추진하는 데에서 지배층의 이익을 정당화하는 세력이 있는가 하면 피지배층의 이익을 대변하고자 하는 세력이 있다. 전자에는 구한말의 개화파나 일제 강점기의 친일파 그리고 근대화 과정에서 박정희를 대표로 하는 자본주의적 민족주의자가 속할 수 있고, 후자에는 근대국가 수립 이후의 박헌영, 여운형 류의 사회주의적 민족주의자와 문익환, 함석헌 류의 기독교적 민족주의자를 들 수 있다. 이렇게 볼 때 안으로 향한다고 해서 모두 보수가 아니며 밖으로 향한다고 해서 모두 진보가 아니라는 사실이다. 말을 바꾸면 우리 것 안에도 진보가 있으며 그들 것 안에도 보수가 있다는 것이다. 이렇게 서로 엇갈리는 힘들의 역학관계 또는 자장(磁場) 속에 ``한민족의 자기``가 자리 잡고 있다. 그런데 한민족은 다양한 방식으로 민족을 앞세웠지만 그 결과는 파국적이었다. 민족은 허울일 뿐이었고 실제에서 남과 북의 위정자들은 자신들의 이해관계에 따라 분열되어 민족을 이용해 왔다. 자기분열의 표면적인 원인은 정치적 주도 세력 간의 이권다툼이지만 그 심층적인 원인은 ``아래로부터의 의지``를 반영하지 못한 채 서로가 ``민족의 대표``이기를 노림으로써 공(公)을 표방하면서도 사(私)에 집착한 데 있다. 그리하여 민족 성원 또는 인민대중의 인간적 권리를 실현하기보다는 지배층 또는 개혁 주도 세력의 사적인 이익 추구 행위가 선행함으로써 민족이 실질적으로 하나로 설 수 있는 토대를 마련하지 못하였다. 여기서 ``민족``이라는 어휘는 사용자에 의해 임의로 만들어지고 또 사라졌다. 민족은 한민족에게 ``텅 빈 시니피앙``에 지나지 않게 되었다.부단한 외세의 침입과 그에 따른 혼란 속에서 한민족은 나름의 생존전략을 체득하였다. 어느 하나의 강자(중심)에 귀속되지 않으면서 또한 자신의 이익에 따라 모두에게 귀속되기도 하는 주변부의 생존논리를 터득하였다. ``주변부 경계인``은 한민족의 현실적인 정체성이다. 자신의 생존을 위해 큰 중심들 ``사이``와 ``경계``에 서서, 그 중심에 속하는 듯하면서도 이를 부정하면서 작은 중심을 보존하고 유지하는 삶을 한민족은 살아왔다. 현재 세계는 지구화와 세계화가 급물살을 타고 진행되면서 ``민족``이 더 이상 화두로 등장하지 않는 분위기이지만, 한민족은 과거에 슬픔과 기쁨을 함께 나누었던 공통의 경험을 가진 공동체로서 ``민족``은 여전히 상징적인 지향점으로 자리 잡고 있다. 한반도가 역사에서 얻은 깊은 상처를 치유해야 할 과제 앞에서 한민족 정체성의 현실적인 의미와 상징적인 의미를 어떻게 조화시킬 것인가 하는 문제로 고민해야 할 것이다. The purpose of this essay is to reveal identity of the Korean nation based on historical experience of the Korean Peninsula. The issue involved in the identity of the Korean nation is to actually understand selfness of the Korean nation itself, and the term ``selfness`` specified in this essay is closely related to the attitude of the Korean nation toward outside forces(surrounding powerful nations) at the time. Accordingly, a statement emphasizing that ``nation`` is rather a fluid developed within history than a supra-historical substance has been encouraged. Consciousness of the Korean nation on ``nation`` developed while relating to outside forces reveals an ambivalent aspect consisting of introverted tendency and extroverted tendency. The former includes the Wijeongcheoksa(衛正斥邪) Movement performed during the latter era of the Joseon Dynasty as well as the Singanhoi(新幹會) Movement performed during the Japanese colonial period, and the latter includes the Silhak(實學) Thought during the Joseon Dynasty as well as the Enlightenment (開化) Thought during the latter era of the Joseon Dynasty. However, in the view of actual history, the attitude of national consciousness leaning toward its own nation is not always national and the attitude of national consciousness leaning toward other nation is not always anti-national, and viceversa. As a result, there are nation-friendly extroversion, nation-exclusive extroversion, nation-friendly introversion and nation-exclusive introversion. The antinomy created due to a conflict between introverted nationalism and extroverted nationalism is ultimately a situation occurring based on selfness of the nation. Selfness of the Korean nation is separated into selfness leaning toward its own nation and selfness leaning toward other nation. Each of these separated selfness is then again divided into two conflicting cases. The standards for such division are conservatism and progressivism. Among introversionists, there are extremely conservative forces desiring to preserve our things and there are also progressive forces desiring to search for the basis of innovation from our things. The former includes supporters of the Wijeongcheoksa Movement as well as believers of Chungsangyo(甑山 敎)/Daejonggyo(大倧敎), and the latter includes believers of Donghakgyo(東學 敎) as well as nationalists such as Shin, Chae-Ho(申采浩) and Kim, Gu(金九). In a similar sense, among extroversionists, there are forces desiring to justify the profit of the ruling class in promoting a national modernization and there are also forces desiring to speak for the profit of the subjugated class. The former includes the enlightenment group during the latter era of the Joseon Dynasty, the pro-Japanese group during the Japanese colonial period and capitalistic nationalists such as Park, Jeong Hee during the course of modernization, and the latter includes socialistic nationalists such as Park, Heon-Young(朴憲永) and Yeo, Woon-Hyung(呂運亨) after establishment of the modern nation as well as christian nationalists such as Moon, Ik-Hwan(文益煥) and Ham, Seok-Heon(咸錫憲). This proves that those leaning toward inside are not always conservative and those leaning toward outside are not always progressive. In other words, our things are both progressive and conservative. ``Selfness of the Korean nation`` lies within dynamics or magnetic field created among such conflicting forces. However, although the Korean nation used diverse methods to place its nation ahead, the result was catastrophic. Its nation was nothing but the gloss. Actually, the politicians from the South Korea and the North Korea were split according to their own interests and only used such nation as a tool. The superficial reason for such self-split was struggle of interests among leading political forces, but the in-depth reason was that such political forces were obsessed with fulfilling their private interests while claiming to stand for the public by attempting to become the ``representative of the nation`` without reflecting the ``will from the bottom``. Accordingly, instead of responding to the nation``s support or realizing humane rights of the people, the ruling class or the reformation-leading force pursued their private interests and eventually failed to establish basis for the nation to practically stand as one. At this point, the term ``nation`` was temporarily created and removed by the users. To the Korean nation, such nation was nothing but an ``empty signifiant``. Throughout the constant invasions by outside forces and the chaos created due to such invasions, the Korean nation acquired its own survival strategy. It acquired a logic to survive as a marginal nation by not belonging to just one certain strong nation(center) and also by belonging to all strong nations depending on its profit. The realistic identity of the Korean nation is ``marginal man``. In order to survive, the Korean nation stood in ``between`` and on ``border`` of the main centers, and it preserved and maintained its small center by almost belonging to those main centers but denying such belonging. Currently, the world is going through a rapid globalization and the term ``nation`` no longer serves as the main topic. However, the Korean nation is a community with a common experience in sharing grief and happiness in the past, and the term ``nation`` still serves as a symbolic directing point. With regards to the task on how the Korean Peninsula would cure its deep wound gained from its history, the problem of how to integrate realistic meaning and symbolic meaning of identify of the Korean nation must be considered. The main purpose of this paper is to elucidate the concept of perception and thing by Hegel and Locke. In the chapter on perception in the Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel examines the modern theory of physics, in which thing is determined by property and matter. Here we discover a theory of Locke, which grasps a thing in respect to property. Accepting the theory of Boyle in which thing is understood as property and corpuscular, Locke proceeds his empirical theory of perception. Hegel also takes over this concept of thing in his theory of perception and further develops it as an essential moment in the dialectical system of spirit. Of course Hegel insists that the power of understanding that conceives of a totality of things in terms of a relation of power is prior to the perception that only grasps thing in terms of property and corpuscular. Here in order to elucidate thing, Hegel puts a more emphasis on dynamics than the corpuscular hypothesis. For this reason, Hegel``s theory of perception has been overlooked. However, in order to understand the philosophy of Hegel, it is important to grasp the theory of perception. And we can discover this importance in the chapter of perception in Phenomenology of Spirit. According to Hegel, perception unveils the dialectics of thing which forms the basis for the force, the movement of organism and eventually the movement of spirit. Also in perception and thing, we can discover a clue to understand the relation of unity and manifolds or the relation of identity and difference, which is an essential structure in Hegel``s concept of dialectics. And Hegel``s theory of perception presupposes Locke``s theory. Hence to understand Hegel``s theory of perception, it is necessary to investigate the empirical theory of perception by Locke.
Background: Acute variceal bleeding is a serious complication of liver cirrhosis, which has an attendant mortality of approximately 60% over two years, and a variety of treatments, such as balloon tamponade, endoscopic varix ligation, sclerotherapy, histo
[연구목적] 본 연구는 성장을 추구하는 창업자들을 대상으로 기업가지향성 및 학습지향성과 재무적 성과 간의 관계에서 조직몰입의 매개효과에 대해 실증 연구하는 것이 목적이다. [연구방법] 기업가지향성, 학습지향성, 조직 몰입과 재무적 성과에 대한 선행연구를 살펴보고 연구가설을 설정하였다. 설문지를 예비창업자 및 창업기업 설립 7년 미만의 창업자들을 대상으로 배부하여 실증연구를 진행하였다. 탐색적 요인분석을 통해 요인을 추출하고 타당성 및 신뢰성을 검증하였다. 3단계 매개회귀분석 과정과 구조방정식을 통해 연구가설을 검증하였다. 간접효과의 유의성을 체계적으로 검증하기 위해 Bootstrapping을 이용하여 분석하였다. [연구결과] 기업가지향성은 탐색적 요인분석을 통해 혁신진취성과 위험감수성으로 분리되었다. 혁신진취성은 조직 몰입에 유의한 정(+)의 영향이 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 하지만, 위험감수성은 조직 몰입에 유의한 영향을 주지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 학습지향성은 조직 몰입에만 유의한 정(+)의 영향을 주는 반면 재무적 성과에는 유의한 영향을 주지 않는 것으로 분석되었다. 혁신진취성과 재무적 성과 간의 관계에 있어서 조직몰입은 완전매개효과가 있는 것으로 밝혀졌다. [연구의 시사점] 성장을 추구하고 있는 창업자들을 대상으로 한 연구는 아직 많지 않은 편이다. 창업자들의 조직 몰입을 향상시키기 위해 혁신진취성과 학습지향성을 향상시켜야 한다. 하지만, 재무적 성과를 높이기 위해 창업자의 조직 몰입의 향상이 중요하다. [Purpose] Our study focused on studying the mediating effect of organizational commitment between entrepreneurial orientation and financial performance. [Methodology] After reviewing relevant literature, we developed 7 hypotheses. Our survey samples are 174 nascent and entrepreneurs who look for business consultants or angel investors. After extracting five factors, we conducted the reliability and validity tests. Then, by using 3 step mediation regression analysis processes and structural equation modeling, 7 hypotheses were examined. In order to examine indirect effect, bootstrapping was also used. [Findings] From the exploratory factor analysis, entrepreneurial orientation was divided into innovative-proactiveness and risk-taking propensity. Innovative-proactiveness and learning orientation have significant effects on organizational commitment. However, risk-taking propensity does not have any effect on organizational commitment. It is found that organization commitment has a full mediation effect between innovative-proactiveness and financial performance. [Implications] In order to increase financial performance, entrepreneurs should focus on increasing organizational commitment. To increase organizational commitment, entrepreneurs should increase innovative-proactiveness and learning orientation.
This study examined the effects of environmental conditions and the presence of refractory organic matter on oxidation rates of total organic carbon (TOC) measurements based on high temperature combustion and ultraviolet-sulfate methods. Spectroscopic indices for prediction of oxidation rates were also explored using the UV spectra and fluorescence excitationemission matrix (EEM) of humic acids. Furthermore, optimum TOC instrument conditions were suggested by comparing oxidation rates of a standard TOC material under various conditions. Environmental conditions included salts, reduced ions, and suspended solids. Salts had the greatest influence on oxidation rates in the UV-sulfate method. However, no effect was detected in the high temperature combustion method. The UV-sulfate method showed lower humic substance oxidation rates, refractory natural organic matter, compared to the other methods. TOC oxidation rates for the UV-sulfate method were negatively correlated with higher specific-UV absorbance, humification index, and humic-like EEM peak intensities, suggesting that these spectroscopic indices could be used to predict TOC oxidation rates. TOC signals from instruments using the UV-sulfate method increased with increasing chamber temperature and increasing UV exposure durations. Signals were more sensitive to the former condition, suggesting that chamber temperature is important for improving the TOC oxidation rates of refractory organic matter.
The lack of consideration for statistical properties in Taguchi's threelevel linear graphs is rectified. We propose a new set of linear graphs for the threelevel orthogonal arrays according to the maximum resolution criterion. In the presence of twofactor interactions however, the serious bias of all the estimated effects as well as the estimated variance shows that these designs should not be employed. The various alternative designs are discussed.
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목적: 본 논문에서는 CT 검사 시 Tin-Filter 적용에 따라 metal artifact를 감소시킬 수 있는지에 초점을 맞추고 연구를 진행하였다. 대상 및 방법: CT장비는 SIEMENS사의 Somatom Force를 사용하였다. IM Nail을 이용하여 자체 제작한 팬텀과 AAPM 팬텀을 CTDIvol 10 mGy을 기준으로 80 kV부터 150 kV까지 10 kV단위로 스캔하여 Noise와 SNR을 구하였으며 Tin-Filter는 150 kV에 적용되었다. 정밀도를 측정하기 위한 척도로 RMSE 기법이 사용되었고, PH5 팬텀의 Liver nodule, Portal vein 두 부분을 이용하여 리커트 척도로 정성적 평가를 실시하였다. 결과 값들은 통계프로그램 SPSS를 사용하여 분산분석(ANOVA)을 진행하였다. 결과: 자체제작 팬텀 및 AAPM 팬텀을 이용한 Noise 및 SNR 평가에서 kV가 올라감에 따라 Noise가 감소하는 경향을 보였으며 특히 Tin-Filter를 적용했을 때 52.3~79.9%까지 대폭 감소하였다(P<0.01). RMSE값은 140 kV에서 최댓값인 34.27, Tin-Filter가 적용된 Tin150 kV에서 최솟값인 5.95의 값을 보였다. 리커트 척도를 이용한 정성적 평가에서도 kV 그룹 간에는 통계적으로 차이가 없어 영상의 시각적 평가에서는 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다(p=0.792). 결론: Tin-Filter를 적용하여 검사를 진행하였을 때 선량의 증가 없이 영상의 전체적인 질은 유지하면서 metal artifact를 감소시킬 수 있는 것으로 사료된다. Purpose: In this study, we focused on whether we can reduce the metal artifact by using Tin-Filter in CT scan Somatom Force(SIEMENS,Germany) was used for the CT equipment. Materials & Method: Noise and SNR were obtained by scanning the self-produced phantom using IM Nail and AAPM phantom in units of 10 kV from 80 kV to 150 kV based on CTDIvol 10 (mGy). Tin-Filter was applied to 150 kV.RMSE was used to measure the precision, and qualitative assessment was performed by using the Likert scale on liver noduleand portal vein of PH5 phantom. Result values were analyzed by ANOVA Test using statistical program SPSS. Noise and SNR evaluation using self-produced phantom and AAPM phantom showed a tendency of noise reduction with increasing kV. Result: Especially, when Tin-Filter was applied, it decreased 52.3%~79.9% (P<0.01). The maximum value of RMSE was 34.27 at 140 kV, and the minimum value of RMSE was 5.95 at the Tin150 kV with the Tin-Filter. In the case of qualitative assessment, there was no statistically significant difference in image evaluation (p=0.792). Conclusion: As a result, it is considered that the metal artifact can be reduced without degrading the overall quality of the image and increasing the Dose, if the scan is performed using the Tin-filter.
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목적: 눈꺼풀에 국한하여 발생하는 신경집종은 매우 드문 질환이다. 저자들은 콩다래끼와 유사한 형태로 발생한 증례가 있어 이를 보고하는 바이다. 증례요약: 54세 남자가 재발된 우안 윗눈꺼풀의 종괴를 주소로 내원하였다. 과거력상 환자는 2년 전 개인 안과에서 콩다래끼로 진단받고 절개술을 시행 받은 병력이 있으며, 종괴는 절개 후 재발하여 2년 동안 통증 없이 크기가 천천히 커지는 양상을 보였다. 내원 당시 우안 윗눈꺼풀 가운데에 4 × 3 mm의 단단한 비색소성 눈꺼풀 종괴가 관찰되었으며, 신경섬유종증과 같은 전신질환은 없었다. 진단을 위해 국소마취하에 종괴를 절제 생검하였으며, 종괴는 경계가 분명하였고 주변과 잘 박리되었다. 절제된 종괴는 조직병리검사상 방추세포들이 울타리 배열의 베로케이 소체를 구성하는 모습을 보였고, 면역조직화학염색상 S-100 단백질에 대하여 미만성의 강한 양성 소견을 보였다. 이러한 소견으로 눈꺼풀에 발생한 신경집종으로 진단하였다. 결론: 눈꺼풀에 발생하는 신경집종은 매우 드물지만 콩다래끼와 유사한 양상을 보이는 경우가 있어 간과하기 쉽다. 따라서 본 증례와 같이 불완전한 절제 후 다시 느리게 자라나거나 악성 변형이 의심되는 종괴는 감별진단 시 신경집종도 고려할 필요가 있다. Purpose: To report a rare case of upper eyelid schwannoma presenting as a chalazion. Case summary: A 54-year-old male presented to our clinic with a slowly growing, painless recurred mass located in the middle area of the right upper eyelid margin. Surgical incision had been performed on a similar mass two year previous, although no histological analysis had been performed. On examination, a 4 × 3-mm-sized, firm, nonpigmented mass was palpable in the right upper eyelid, and no signs of neurofibromatosis were present elsewhere. The lesion was initially thought to be an eyelid mass, so we performed an excisional biopsy under local anesthesia. The lesion was easily isolated from the surrounding tissue and was excised completely. Histopathologically, the excised mass showed a compact arrangement of spindle cells forming palisades with Verocay bodies (Antoni A patterns). Immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse and strong S-100 protein positivity. These findings resulted in the diagnosis of eyelid schwannoma. Conclusions: Because of its rarity and solitary feature, eyelid schwannoma can be confused with chalazion. Thus, ophthalmologists should consider schwannoma in the differential diagnosis of a slowly growing, painless recurred mass or a lesion with malignant transformation after incomplete excision.
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The reliability of the thickness measurement of the lumbar multifidus (LM) using real-time ultrasonography (US) was determined in only the superficial fiber of the lumbar multifidus (SM). However, previous studies have not examined the reliability of the deep fiber of the LM (DM). The purpose of this study was to determine the intrarater and the interrater reliability of the thickness measurements of DM using US. Eleven healthy males participated in the study. The thickness of the DM was measured with an US in the prone position. Reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of the measurement (SEM), and the Bland and Altman plot. ICC(3,1) was used to calculate the interarater reliability of the thickness measurement of DM using the values from both the first and second test sessions. Additionally, ICC(3,1) was used to calculate the intrarater reliability of the measurements over two days using the measurements obtained in test session 1 and test session 2. The results of this study were as follows: 1) the ICC(3,1) value for interarater reliability was .94 in the first test session, and .93 in the second test session. 2) the ICC(3,1) values for intrarater reliability of the measurements over two days was .90 in both the first examiner and the second examiner The intrarater reliability and interrater reliability of the DM measurements, obtained via the US protocol used in this research was excellent. Therefore, we conclude that the thickness measurement of the DM obtaioned from the US protocol used in this research would be useful for clinician assessment of the thickness of the DM